Skip to main content

Full text of "Life And Correspondence Of Richard Whately Late Archbishop Of Dublin Volume II"

See other formats


, ~*Bokg will be issued only on presen- 
tation of proper library cards. 

' Unless labeled otherwise, books may 
be retained for two- weeks, subject to 
renewal for a like period, Borrowers 
finding book marked, defaced or mutilat- 
ed are expected to report same at .library 
desk; otherwise the last borrower will be 
held responsible for all imperfections 

The card holder U responftOW 
all books drawn or this cura. 

^ l Xost cards and change of residence 
must be reported promptly, 


I* J * * * 



PLACE BOOK of B, WHATELY, D.D., late Ajckbiahop of 
Dublin. Edited by E. JANH WHATSIT. Second Edition. 
Post 8vo. 7*. 6A 

The JUDGMENT of CONSCIENCE, and other 

SERMONS. Grown 8vo, 4*. Orf. - ' 


8vo. 8*. 


8vo. 7*. Orf. 


The Same Work re-edited by R. BAEOLAT and 

8. HIKES, D.D. 18mo, Of?. 


PAUL. 8vo. 8s. 


8vo. 7. 0< 

HATTERS of RELIGION (Bampfon Lectures), 870. 10. 6* 

CHARGES and other TRACTS. 8va 

a FUTURE STATE, ISmo. 8*. 


LECTURES on the ""CHARACTERS of the 

APOSTLES. 12mo.8s.Qd. 

The PARISH PASTOR 12mo. 5*. 
LECTUEES on some of the PARABLES. 12mo. 4,s\ 
LECTURES on PRAYER. 12mo. 3*. M. 

BOOK. 12mo. 2s. 


the SACRAMENTS. 12mo. 2. till. 



TATIONS. 8vo.7a.flA 

ELEMENTS of LOGIC. 8vo. 10*. Gd. ; crown 

Svo. 4s. 6d. 

ELEMENTS of RHETORIC. Svo. 10. Qtl ; crown 

8ro. 4s. Qd, 


10*. Qd. 


. ls.6d. 




Is. 6d. 





REVERSES;, or, the Fairfax Family. (By Mrs. 
WHATELY.) Fcp. Svo. 8*. 

London : LONGMANS, GUBEN, and CO. PttlornoKtor How. 




rn i xt ran nv ai'OTTtMvonnw ASH 

NMV-STIltiKT H<it'AllU 






Atirnon ot> ' ENGLISH SYNONYMS.' 




/* rwervcfl. 





Letter to Mr. Senior on Irish Affairs Death of Dr, Arnold and Dr. Diclun- 
son Publication of Dr, Arnold's Sermons, &c. Loiter to Archdeacon 
"Uusscll Letter to Bishop of Norwich on Attack on tho Queen's Life 
Letter to Bishop of Salisbury Letters to Mrs. Arnold Mr. Stanley on 
Memoir of Dr. Arnold Chan go of Adminislration-r-Letter on National 
Education Letter on Church Government Appointment of Dr, Hinds 
to Living of Castlelmock Visits Dr. A.'s Family Anecdotes of the 
Archbishop Letter to Mrs. Arnold Letter on Epitaph for Dr. Arnold 
Letter to Bishop of Norwich Letter on the Doctrine of ' Reserve ' ' Life 
of Blanco White ' Attends the Parliamentary Session Letters to Mr. 
Stanley and Mrs. Arnold relating to Dr. Arnold's Works Notes and 
Letter on Mr. W. Palmer's Pamphlet Letter on Irish Education Board 
Letters to Lady Osborne PAGE 1 


Triennial Visitations of tho Archbishop Conversation with his Clergy on 
tho importance of studying the Irish Language Letter to Miss Grabtreo 

on Mathematical Puzzle Letter to Dr. Ilaxupdun Illness of his Son 

Letter to Lady (Xsborno on e Fasting ' Loiter to NTS. Arnold Letter to 
Mr. Mooro on progress of Tractarinnism Letter to Viee-Chancollor of 
Oxford on tho nme subject Ftpirituolism Letter on Animal Magnetism 
Death of his Sister-in-law Letter to Mrs. Arnold on hisclitteronce from 
Dr. Arnold - Letter on proposed meeting of Bishops of Province of Omi- 
terbury . 40 


Letter to Mr. fVnior on Irish Poor-laws Letter on Proceedings agwin&t 
ftev. Mr, Ward Tribute to Bishop CVplcfcluu Letters to enme Lady 


Osborne's Question : Why Protestantism seems inoro easily uprooted tluin 
Itonianism ? Letter in ruply Anecdote of Mrs. Whatoly : tho poor wick 
woman and her cleanliness Letter to Mr. Senior on Irish uilUirs 
Change of Ministry: Lord John liuaaell Frinus Minister letter to 
Bishop Copleston on Theological subjccta Letter to Bishop of 
Norwich .......... IUUM 70 


Letter to Mrs. Arnold respecting tho 'Model Farm ' Anocdofo of tlus Arch- 
bishop: tries the eitect of Magnetism in curing Toothache Opinion of Mr. 
Gladstone Letter to Mrs. Arnold Disapproves tho ' Kvtuigolical Alli- 
ance' Letter to Rev. K. Kyle on tho subject Lctte to Dr. JliiuU on 
new Penal Colony in Western Australia Memorandum on Bill for legis- 
lating forms of Prayer The tour to Switzerland ittmrinlsconeos of thu 
visit by Mr. Arnold Anecdotes of tho Archbishop Translation into 
German of the * Lessons on Evidence' Letter to Mine Crabtrw on tho 
subject Letter to Mr. Senior Letter to Mr. Duncan Linus on 
Australia ........... W> 


Distress in Ireland The Archbishop's munificence Ilia juoasuroa for 

Attends the Session of 1847 Letter to Mr. Senior on tho 
Bill for Outdoor Belief in Ireland Letters to Mrs. Arnold J 
tendency of the Memoir of Blanco White Takoa an aetivo part in tho 
debates of the Session ^Letter to Mr. Senior Loiter on translation of tho 
Works of George Sand Formation of tho Statistical Rocloty4ntomt 
taken by the Archbishop in tho Society Letter to tho l^iahop of Norwich 

^-Humour of his Appointment to tho Soo of York f f 111 


The Pamphlet/ Search after Infallibility 'Letter to Lady (Xsborno Lotfr 
to Dr. Hincls on Consecration of Dr. Ilampden JjotU^r to Mr. Komor t>n 
Irish State Prosecutions Letters to Dr. Ilinda and Mr 8onior *m Irlnh 
Affairs, &c, Marriage of his third Daughter -Letter to Mr. 
Letter 'to Mr. Senior on Irish Poor-law Paper on Public 
Letter to Lady Osborae Letter to Dr. Hinds on Koligious 
Opposes the feate-in-Aid Bill Papor to Dr. Hinds on Irish 
Letter to Bishop of Norwich on the Jew Bill Death of Bishop Htimlty 
Letter to Mr. Senior ftogors's 'Heason and Faith' Luttur to Mr*. 
Arnold Letter to Dr* Hinds on hie Appointment to tho Soo of 
Norwich ........... |*4) 



Family Anxieties of tho Archbishop Illness of Ms Son Accompanies his 
Family on their journey to Nice, but leaves them at Paris Letter to Mr. 
Senior Letter to Lady Osborne on Epicureanism Letters to Mrs. Hill 
on Literary matters Letters to Bishop Hinds on tho Baptismal question 
Letter to Mr. Senior on his Review of ' Lewis 011 Authority in Matters of 
Opinion Spends part of the Summer with his Family at Oromer Misa 
Anna Gurney His friendship for Mrs. Hill Letter to Mrs. Arnold 
Letter to Mrs. Hill Letter to a Friend Letter to Bishop Hinds on his 
Address to his Clergy PAGE 158 


The Papal Aggression Publishes the i Cautions for the Times ' Corre- 
spondence with the Archbishop of Canterbury on the Papal Aggression 
Letter to Mrs. Hill Letter to Miss Crabtree Letter to Dr. Hinds on the 
Marriage Laws Letter to Lady Osborne Letter to Mr. Senior on the 
late French Revolution Letter to Lady Osborne on Good and Evil 
Angels Letter to Mr. Senior on the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill His Sug- 
gestions for a Universal Coinage Father Ignatius His Interview witli 
the Archbishop Letter to Mrs. Arnold on the State of Ireland Letter to 
Mrs. Arnold on her proposal to answer the ' Creeds of Christendom ' 
Attends the Session Harassed by Family Anxieties Letter to Mrs. Hill 
on the Spread of Mormoniani Letter to tho Archbishop of Canterbury on 
the Gorham Controversy Letter to his Son-in-Law . . 177 


Visits EnglandThe Family Circle at Kedosdale Letter to C. "Wale Letter 
to Lady Osbomo on the * Sisterhoods ' at Plymouth and Devonport Letter 
to Dr. Hinds on Oxford University Commission Report Letter to Miss 
Crabtree Opening of the Cork Exhibition Letters to Mrs. Hill on va* 
rious subjects His interest in Protestant Missions to Ireland Letter to 
Mr. Senior on the Conversions from Romanism Memorandum on Mr, de 
Vere's Pamphlet Mr. Senior visits tho Archbishop His Journal 
Letter to Dr. Hinds Letter to Miss C. Extract of a Letter to a Young 
Writer Letters to Mr, SeniorNotes on the Persecution of theMadiai 
Letter to Dr* Hinds Letters to Mr, Senior . 216 

VOL. n, a 



Letter to Mr. Senior on Transportation Publication of thei ' LuawmH on 
tlie British. Constitution' Letter to Mr. Senior on Thackeray's Novels 
Withdraws from the National Education Board Letters to the Lord- 
Lieutenant relative to the Board Lot tor of Condolence to ])r. HhuLs 
Letter to Mr. Senior Letter to Mr. Duncan Letter to Mrs. Hill Visits 
his Daughter in Cambridgeshire Letter to Mrs. Arnold Loiter to Mis 
G-urney on the Jewish Emancipation Bill Letter to Mr, Senior on llio 
Bill of Tests Return to Dublin Letter to Dr. Daubony on Botanical 
Subjects Letter to Miss Orabtree Publishes the 1 1 Fopeftil Tracts ' 
Letter to Mr. Senior Letters to Mrs. Hill His Inner Lifo 
of Protestant Converts in "Workhouses Letters to Mr. Senior J 
to Mrs. Arnold Letter to Dr. Daubeny Letter to Mr. Sonior Loiter 
to Mrs, Arnold Takes a prominent part in the Petition for 
and Inspection of Nunneries 


Letters to Mr. Senior on Thackeray's Works, &c. Publisher the f 
of Bishop Copleston Letter to Mrs. Arnold Letter to Mrs. Hill Letter 
lo Eev. C. Wale Letters to Mrs, 1 1 ill Lei lew to Mr. Senior on liKs 
' Sorrento 7 Journal Letter to Mrs. IJill I jailor to Air, Senior on hm 
Review of * Uncle Tom's Cabin 'Extract of a Letter on ' Slavery* 5ttH> 


Publishes the ( Lessons on Morals 'Letter to Mrs. Hill Loiter to Mr. 
Senior Publishes his Edition of bacon's Essays with Annotatioiw* 
Jitters to Mrs. Hill His Illness Attacked by Pnral VMS Letter tu I)r, 
Hinds Letter to Mrs. Hill .,.,,', iJ^O 


Appointment of Dr, Fitzgerald to the Soo of Cork Letter to Mr, Senior 
Letter to Mrs. Hill Letter to Mr, Duncan Lottor to Mr. Senior on 
opening places of Public Recreation on Sundays Death of tho Uev, 


Henry Bishop Letter to Miss Crabtrce Letter to Mrs. Hill Letter to 
Mr. Senior Mooting of the British Association at Dublin Interested in 
Dr. Livingstone's plans Accident to the Archbishop Ilia great Interest 
in Missions Letter to Mr. Senior Letter to Mrs. Hill Dangerous Ill- 
ness of his eldest Grandchild Letter to Dr. Hinds relative to his own 
Paralytic attack Letters to Mrs. Hill Visit of Mr. Senior Extract* 
from his Journal PAGE 337 


Letter to Mr, Senior on c Book Grants ' from the Education Board Letter 
to Lord Ebury on Liturgical Revision Letter to a Clergyman on tlu 
same Subject Letter to Miss Crabtreo on the Revival movement His 
Family bereavements Death of his younger Daughter Death of Mrs, 
"\Vhatcly Letters to Miss Cniblroo and Dr. Hinds Breaking up of his 
Family circle Spends the Summer with Mr, Senior Letter to Mrs. 
Arnold 373 


Suffers from neuralgic gout Attends the Session of the Statistical Society, 
and contributes a Paper on Secondary Punishments Letter to Rev, 
0. Wale Visit of Mr. Senior Mr. Senior's Journal Experiments on 
Charring Conversation on our Penal Code Remarks on the falsehood 
of commonly received Maxims Visit of Dr. do Ricci, and interesting 
conversation on religious endowments 387 


(tmdual decline of the Archbishop Visit of his Sister-in-law Journal of 
the Rev. H, Dickinson His last Charge Presides at the monthly Dinner 
to Ma Clergy Increase of his bodily sufferings Interesting conversation 
with Mr, Dickinson Apprehensions respecting Ms state of health Con- 
tinued inter CHi in Literary pursuitsTender attentions of his Family in his 
Imi momenta II i patient resignation His delight in the Eighth of 
Romans Receives the Lord's Supper with Ms Family Progress of the 
disease and great physical suffering Parting interview with his favourite 
Grandchild Visited by Mrs, Senior Ilis anxious desiro to die His Death 
--Lines on his Death .***** 40U 



Miscellaneous Recollections: rAGE 

By Rev. Hercules H. Dickinson, M.A., Vicar of St, Aim's, Dublin 423 

From a Friend 438 

A few of the Editor's Reminiscences 441 

Reminiscences by the late Edward Senior, Esq., P.L.C, . . 444 

Table Talk 44G 

List of Dr. Whately's Writings '. 4GO 





Letter to Mr. Senior on Irish Affairs Deaths of Dr. Arnold and 
Dr. Dickinson Publication of Dr. Arnold's Sermons, &c. Letter 
to Archdeacon Russell Letter to Bishop of Norwich on Attack on 
the Queen's Life Letter to Bishop of Salisbury Letters to Mrs. 
Arnold Mr. Stanley on Memoir of Dr. Arnold Change of Ad- 
ministration Letter on National Education Letter on Church 
Government Appointment of Dr. Hinds to Living 1 of Castleknock 
"Visits Dr. A.'s Family Anecdotes of the Archbishop Letter to 
Mrs. Arnold Letter on Epitaph for Dr. Arnold Letter to Bishop 
of Norwich Letter on the Doctrine of ( JReserv&* ' Life of Blanco 
"White' Attends the Parliamentary Session Letters to Mr. 
Stanley and Mrs. Arnold relating to Dr. Arnold's Works Notes 
and Letter on Mr. W. Palmer's Pamphlet Letter on Irish 
Education Board Letters to Lady Osborne. 

THE year 1842 opens on fresh efforts of the Archbishop 
to explain mis-statements, and help his English friends to 
take clearer views of Irish affairs. It is with this object 
that he writes to Mr. Senior, March 10. 

'Dublin: March 10, 1842. 

c My clear Senior It is a matter of great patience to 
find people so readily giving credence to any falsehood, 
however extravagant, relative to Ireland, even such as 



are the most easy of detection. And the worst of it is, 
that those who don't think it worth while to ascertain 
facts are always quite ready to suggest measures. To 
feel the patient's pulse and examine his tongue is too 
much trouble, but they are quite prepared to prescribe. 

4 One most valuable stock-falsehood of the opponents of 
the Education Board, devised by the wickedness of a few, 
encouraged in circulation by many, and carelessly assented 
to by most of the rest (ut pessimum. facinus auderent pauci, 
plures vellent, ornnes paterentur), is that which Sir J. G. 
seems to have swallowed so readily, that " the plan has 
failed as a scheme of united education, and has succeeded 
only as an education for Roman Catholics." This (which 
is most emphatically the reverse of the truth) was most 
artfully devised, and has been most steadily adhered to. 
For there is nothing so well calculated to sow dissension 
among the members of the Board (if these could be per- 
suaded either to believe it true, or to be convinced that it 
is generally admitted), and to set the 'Roman Catholics 
against it. M'Hale and his Trepl are continually striving 
to excite jealousy of Protestants having anything to do 
with the education of Roman Catholics as such and ex- 
clusively, they will then claim, with very good reason, 
the exclusive control of it. It is only as a bond fide united 
system that I can have anything to do with it, When, 
therefore, (as the Duke of W. did formerly), Sir J. G. says 
that the scheme has " succeeded for Catholic education, 
and that Government are resolved to support it," I under- 
stand him to mean by "support" to abolish it in reality, 
retaining the name. For of course as soon as Ministers 
understand that it is as a Roman Catholic system they 
believe and design it to exist, I and the (unpaid) Pro- 
testant Commissioners shall not wait to be called on by 
the Roman Catholics to withdraw, but shall give it up at 
once. We shall not even wait, I conceive, for a grant to 


be made to the Church Education Society, which is 
earnestly petitioned for e. g. by Lord De Grey's nephew, 
and will be justly demanded by Protestants as soon as the 
national system (though it may retain the name) becomes 
in reality one for the education of Eoman Catholics alone. 

4 1 very much wish they could let me know at once 
whether it really be their wish to get rid of me as a 
Commissioner, that I might be saved further trouble, by 
having this notified to me direct, instead of measures 
resorted to which they must know will, indirectly, produce 
that result. I laid my views and intentions before them 
half a year ago, as you know ; and up to this day I have 
had no answer, except that they have not yet had time 
to make sufficient inquiry and to deliberate. 

* Tet they have had time, it seems, to make up their 
minds as to the truth of a representation which has been 
uniformly contradicted by us, and disproved over and 
over. In no one instance, as far as, on the most diligent 
examination, I have been able to ascertain, has the system 
failed as a united system, where a fair trial has been 
allowed to it, as in many cases has been allowed ; and in 
very many instances it has succeeded even in spite of 

every endeavour to prevent it. Mr. and Mrs. ," who are 

bringing out a book in numbers, with plates, descriptions 
and stories of Ireland (SeSaiSaX/^eVoi ^euSecri Troi/aXois 
ILvdoi), represent the "mixed system" as having failed, 
on the ground of their having visited several schools in the 
south of Ireland in such and such places, where there were 
only four or five Protestant children and about a hundred 
Eoman Catholics these being places in which it appears 
by the population-returns the Protestants are not above 
five per cent., or less ! 

; If you know of any one who really wishes to know the 
truth, and to know how misrepresentations of it are got 

B 2 


up, you may refer him, among other things, to the speech 
of the Bishop of Exeter in that session where the Com- 
missioners were appointed, and my answer. The strongest 
ease he could put forward to prove the failure of the 
system as one of united education was that of the model 
schools in Dublin; for there, if anywhere, he said, it 
might be expected that different denominations would be 
found mixed, and yet there were very few but Eoman 
Catholics. I replied, that Dublin was just the place where 
it was least to be expected ; because (as no doubt he very 
well knew) there was in almost every parish a long- 
established Protestant school. 

c And yet what is really surprising, considering there 
is a proportion of Protestants in our model school nearly, 
if not quite, as great as the proportion in the population of 
the labouring classes I But in every place where there is 
a national school without any other near it (and in many 
where there is another), and where as in many instances 
the Protestant clergyman or the squire are friendly to it, 
or are merely not opposed (in some, even where they are 
unfriendly), the children of the mixed population attend 
in proportionate numbers. And the number of such 
places is daily increasing; even in a little more than a year 
since Bishop Dickinson's appointment, most of the oppo- 
sition in his diocese has died away, and several former 
opponents have applied to the Board, or otherwise sent 
in their adhesion. And it would be the same almost 
throughout Ireland if ministers would but boldly declare 
their intention of supporting the system; I mean the 
system of united education as brought forward by Lord 

'But if they will not do this, I wish they would speak 
out boldly on the other side, and no longer "halt between 
two opinions." 


6 The cause which operates against your continuing a 
Whig is one of those which have always prevented nie 
from becoming either that, or Tory, or partisan- of any 

c All parties, as far as I can observe, are guilty of great 
misrepresentation and other injustice ; and to say nothing 
of any danger of contamination from " strange bed-fellows " 
one is in danger of being considered more or less 
responsible for the unjustifiable or absurd things put forth 
by his party, unless he is always on the watch to put in 
his own protest and disown them. 

c Any government, you say, is likely to be wiser than 
the people. According to a dissertation just put forth by 
me (in an additional note to the second edition of my last 
volume), a government is likely to be in its acts wiser 
than the greater part of the people of all parties, and less 
wise than the wisest part. 

4 Many thanks for your kind reception of . 

is nearly recovered, 

c Tours ever, 


This was to be a year marked by very deep and pecu- 
liar trial to the Archbishop trial felt by him both as a 
philanthropist and public-spirited man, anxious that lives 
he believed useful to the state should be preserved ; and 
as a private individual, from the remarkable warmth and 
steadiness of his friendships. Several whom he valued 
were this year withdrawn; but two specially and pre- 
eminently dear to him, whose loss could never be in this 
world replaced, were removed in the course of one short 
month. On the 12th of June of that year Dr. Arnold's 
sudden decease took place, followed early in July by that 
of Bishop Dickinson, so long his faithful and devoted 


helper in all his work, and then his valued and trusted 
colleague and ally on the bench. 

His mind -was more deeply depressed by these bereave- 
ments than it had been at any previous period of his life ; 
and though he continued the active discharge of his 
duties with characteristic resolution and perseverance, it 
was with a saddened heart and a continual struggle for 
calm submission to the 'will of an all-wise God. 

The letters that follow show in what spirit he met these 
losses. He announces them himself to three of his friends ; 
and then proceeds to consult with the Bishop of Norwich, 
and with Mrs. Arnold, on the subject of the publication 
of the letters and posthumous sermons of Dr. Arnold, 

< Dublin: July 15 ; 1842. 

* My dear Harapden, You will not wonder at my not 
having immediately returned your letter, considering what 
two stunning blows I have just received. It is a sore 
trial to one's faith to see such men cut off in such a career 
of public service. 

6 But God needs not our help. May He be pleased to 
raise up other instruments, as purely devoted to His will 
and to man's good! More so I cannot conceive in a 


To the Bishop of Norwich. 

'July 10, 1842. 

c My dear Lord, It occurred to me after Mrs. W. had 
answered your letter, that the publication of Arnold's 
Posthumous Sermons, with some letters and extracts from 
that delightful heavenly diary (a methodising sailor might 
call it the log-book of a voyage to heaven) will, at any 

j35T. 55] DR, AENOLD'S SERMONS. 7 

rate, no doubt, take exceedingly in a commercial point of 
view ; but if a moderate edition, as large as a publishei 
would recommend at a venture, should sell off speedily 
and a new one be called for, there is gain indeed, but less 
of clear gain than if an edition more nearly adequate to 
the demand had been printed. Fow, if a considerable 
number of persons who may design (as I do) to buy 
several copies to give away as I shall probably forty or 
fifty were to bespeak those copies, privately, of the pub- 
lisher, this would have, in a great degree, the advantage 
of publishing by subscription, without the indelicacy which 
attaches to that course. I have often myself not with 
any view to the pecuniary advantage of the author taken 
from five up to fifty copies of some work, to give away to 
the clergy and others such as various works of Hinds's 
and of Arnold's ; the " Index to the Tracts for the Times ;" 
and one just published (which I think would interest you), 
called " The Church and the Synagogue," by Eev. J. Ber- 
nard, being an abridgment of Vitringa, &c. 

6 Now, if I had bespoken in each case such a number of 
copies, and if some twenty or thirty others had done the 
same, there would have been perhaps 500 or 1000 copies 
the more printed for that purpose. 

'Bishop Dickinson died the very day that had been 
appointed for delivering Ms primary Charge ! I had seen 
the rough sketch of it, and I understand it is complete, 
and will be published ; making, with the large extracts 
prepared to be appended to it, a small volume. It was 
on the coincidence between the Transcendentalists, now 
so much in vogue on the Continent, and the Tractites, and 
I thought it likely to be the most valuable work on a 
most important subject. His predecessor ate and drank 
for eighty-five years; and he held the diocese eighteen 


time he accomplished wonders. What 
of one's faith ! 

c Ever, my dear Lord, yours most truly, 

4 E. DUBLIN.' 

To . 

1 July 1842. 

c My dear Friend, You had better hear from me what 
you cannot fail to hear, of the second heavy loss which I 
have sustained in one short month. Bishop Dickinson 
died at 12 o'clock this day. I feel hardly more than half 
alive. He had been for ten years my true " yoke-fellow;" 
always associated with me in every duty and plan for the 
public good. How mysterious are the ways of Provi- 
dence I 

c But God needs not our services. If it were His will 
He could send some apostle, endued with miraculous 
power, who would effect more in a month than any of us 
can in a life. 

c It is a blessing, and in some degree a lasting one, when 
men of high intellectual powers are sincere Christians ; it 
tends to destroy the association so apt to be formed be- 
tween religion and silly superstition, or at least feeble 
understanding. And of all the highly-gifted men I have 
ever known, the two I have so lately been bereft of were 
the very best Christians. I mean that they were not 
merely eminently good men, but men who made it their 
constant business to bring their religion into their daily 
life and character. 

c The two had some different opinions from each other; 
but they were strikingly alike in making the Christian 
character the Gospel spirit embodied in the life their 
great study. "Blessed axe the pure in heart, for they 


shall see God," and when they meet, in his presence, they 
will know perfectly and not care at all which was the 
nearest the truth in his opinions here on earth. 

c Pray for me, dear friend, that I may be able to bear 
up against the rough blasts of opposition which I have to 
encounter, when such props are taken from me ! ' 

c My dear Mrs. Arnold, You need not fear acting 
against my decided opinion ; for in fact I have no decided 
opinion in this case. 

c It was otherwise with the question about suppressing 
that Sermon. There, I never felt any doubt. 

' There are strong reasons for and against every one of 
the three possible alternatives. 

; 1. The biography would certainly be the more com- 
plete by the publication of everything, great or small, 
that ever appeared in print And there is no one of 
the occasional productions that does not contain valuable 

c But then there are reasons against this. For instance, 
some of the articles in reviews have had something of 
prejudice raised against them by having been served up 
with the sauce which the conductors of the Edinburgh 
think it necessary to season everything with for certain 
palates. The title of "Oxford rnalignants," and some 
insolent expressions in another article, that on the Epis- 
copalian Letters, are editorial condiments of this kind ; 
and though these may be expunged, the articles have been 
so long before the public with them, that perhaps some 
of the bitterness may, as it were, have soaked in. Then, 
there is the pamphlet on Eoman Catholic Emancipation, 
which gave dissatisfaction to both parties. Now one must 
make up one's mind, to give offence, when there is some 


practical point to be carried, which requires one to speak 
his mind, and this happens to be unpopular. But there is 
now no practical point at issue ; so that it would be gra- 
tuitously raking up the embers of a controversy which 
is dying away. 

c Then the letters to the Sheffield paper are wonder- 
fully good, considering how very hastily they were 
written ; and they contain much more of valuable matter 
than of what is not ; but there is in them an admixture 
of some crude and ill-considered views (though less than 
one might have expected under the circumstances), which 
one would be glad to expunge. I know the extreme 
haste in which, in the midst of various other occupations, 
several of them, at least, were written, being in the house 
at the time. One of them, indeed, is half of it mine ; 
for after having written the opening of it, he asked me to 
finish it for him, as he had not made up his mind what to 
say. Of course it was to be expected, considering tho 
importance of many of the points touched on, that several 
things should have been thrown out which would have 
been materially altered on attentive reflection. 

C 2. The second alternative to publish some of the 
occasional pieces and omit some, or to omit certain pas- 
sages, is, perhaps, at the first glance, what one would 
most be disposed to approve. But there are objections 
to that. 

6 It is not like selecting from MSS., for every one is 
understood to write many things of which some are fit 
for publication and some not; but whatever he has 
printed he has, evidently, at the time, thought fit for the 
public. And it is a delicate matter to make selections 
out of these. Notwithstanding all the explanations one 
may give as the why's, it will be apt to follow that what 
is omitted is understood to be more strongly condemned 


than one intends (and people know what it is that one 
omits ; which in the case of a MS. they do not) ; and 
again, one is understood, when any omission is made, to 
be the more decidedly pledged to a full approbation of 
all that is not omitted. 

* 3. The objections to the third alternative that of 
reprinting none of the occasional publications are very 
obvious. A considerable amount of valuable matter 
would be withheld. 

c You see, therefore, that I am quite in a wavering 
state of mind. 

'When in that state, the opinion of Fellowes could 
not but have some influence. He said, that viewing the 
whole matter merely as a question of trade, he should 
suppress the whole of the miscellaneous pieces ; because 
he thought some of them would so far raise or revive 
prejudices, as to do more harm than good to the sale of 
the work. 

6 Now the sale, as a matter of profit, is not the main 
consideration ; but it is something of a sign of that which 
is an important consideration wide circulation and 
favourable reception. 

c But Fellowes may be mistaken ; or, again, if he is 
not mistaken, there may be overbalancing considerations 
on the other side. 

* And now I have said all that occurs to me ; which, 
if not otherwise very satisfactory, at least must satisfy 
you that you cannot adopt any course which has not in 
my judgment strong reasons for it as well as against it. 

* Ever yours affectionately, 

'B. W.' 

The following letter alludes to a matter to which re- 
ference has been made elsewhere. The Archbishop 


was a good deal mortified by the opposition made to his 
scheme for the establishment of a Divinity College as 
supplemental to the course of the Divinity School in the 
Dublin University, He was particularly pained because 
many assumed the plan to be a covert attack on Trinity 
College, than which nothing was farther from his mind. 

Many men, however, opposed the plan, because, though 
they knew the Archbishop too well to suspect him of 
any motion but the ostensible one, they, nevertheless, 
believed the tendency of the scheme would be, in various 
ways, prejudicial to Trinity College. Some who then 
took this view confessed themselves afterwards mistaken. 
But amongst those who opposed the Archbishop on 
conscientious conviction was the Venerable John Eussell, 
Archdeacon of Clogher. The Archbishop was greatly 
mortified at this, the more so because Archdeacon Eussell 
was a near relative of Dr. Dickinson; and he feared, 
therefore, that the opposition of one who had such 
opportunities of close communication with those connected 
with the plan would carry all the more weight. He 
thought, besides, that Archdeacon Eussell, being a per- 
sonal friend, ought to have communicated with him 
before taking any public action, and seems to have mis- 
understood a little the motives of delicacy which hindered 
him from doing so. Be this as it may, the Archbishop 
broke off his intimacy with him for some time. Imme- 
diately after Bishop Dickinson's death, the Archbishop 
wrote to the Archdeacon the following letter, and he 
subsequently invited him to the palace, as before, when- 
ever he visited Dublin, 

< Dublin: July 22, 1842. 

'Dear Sir, I have understood from Mr. Croker that it 
would be satisfactory to you to receive, direct from 


myself, assurance of the entire absence from my heart 
of all feelings of enmity or resentment towards you, such 
as my beloved friend the Bishop so earnestly deprecated. 

6 I beg you to receive these assurances with my most 
solemn protestations of their sincerity. Any wrong, or 
apparent wrong, on your part, whether with or without 
your consciousness of it, I forgive, as a debt of one 
hundred pence, as fully as I hope to be forgiven rny debt 
of ten thousand talents ; and for any wrong on iny part 
towards you, I heartily ask your pardon. I feel a strong 
hope that my departed friend did not think me a man to 
cherish anger or ill-will towards any one, or to feel dis- 
pleasure at all against any one for a mere difference of 
opinion even on important practical points ; whatever I 
might, for a man's mode of expressing such difference. 
To say that I think you perfectly blameless on that head, 
I am sure he could not have expected me, because that 
would be to express a judgment at variance with his own, 
such as I (and probably you also) have often heard from 

e But such words as " forgive," &c., are somewhat offen- 
sive, and what I would fain avoid, as implying the exist- 
ence of something wrong ; while, after all, both he and 
I being but fallible mortals, may have erred in our judg- 
ment, and you may have been quite blameless all through. 
Still, it would not be allowable to say so without sincerely 
thinking it, and yet to say the contrary may give offence ; 
and for this reason it is that I have all along been disposed 
to decline, unless distinctly called on, to say anything at 
all about the matter. 

6 In the mode, however, of my expressing disapprobation, 
when I did receive such a call, he may have suspected 
that I used harsher language than in fact I did ; and if 
he had seen what I said (supposing it had been in the 


case of some other person, comparatively a stranger to 
him) it is not unlikely he would have thought (I have 
since thought so myself) that my language was more 
severe than was necessary ; for it was his rule, when called 
on, to give his judgment in any matter, not, indeed, to 
disguise his real opinion through fear of giving pain, but 
to give as little pain as possible. In a similar case, I had 
the advantage of being able to show to the Bishop and to 
West a letter I received from a Mr. M. and my answer to 
it. West has my permission to show you the letter, and 
my answer as finally approved by them, from which you 
will be able to judge after making any allowance that 
may seem needful for the points of difference between 
the two cases what would have been the probable result 
of my having had, in your case also, the advantage of the 
Bishop's counsel ; but it had occurred to me spontaneously 
some time before that a great part of my letter to you 
would have been, on more mature reflection, erased. 
For any unnecessary pain I may have caused by any part 
of it (which I really believe was the case), I most sincerely 
ask your pardon, and I as sincerely assure you of mine 
for anything amiss in your conduct towards me. I will 
only add my assurance that there is no ground whatever 
for any suspicion you may have had of my having thrown 
out any such imputations as you, at one time, seemed to 
suppose, and from which you seemed anxious to clear 

c You assured me, for instance, that the course you took 
had the approbation of your conscience, of which, I can 
assure you, I had never expressed any doubt that it 
was painful to you to find yourself standing publicly 
opposed to your brother-in-law and to me that you had 
no personal interest in view that you did not yourself 
:lraw up the memorial you signed that you acted wholly 


on your own deliberate judgment, uninfluenced by others, 
&c. In short, in respect of every one of the points you 
dwelt on in your letter to ine, I must solemnly declare 
that I had never said anything to the contrary. 

6 In respect of the last-mentioned point, indeed, I cer- 
tainly had heard an opposite suggestion ; not, however, 
from any one unfriendly to you, but from those who, on 
the contrary, considered themselves as taking the most 
favourable view. By such I had heard it suggested that 
you had been (perhaps unconsciously) over-persuaded, 
over-awed, or in some way influenced by those around 
you, and that if you had exercised deliberately your own 
unbiassed judgment you would have never put your name 
to such a paper. This, as I have said, was suggested by 
those who thought themselves putting the best construction 
on the matter, and especially by our departed friend himself. 

< But, for my own part, I repeat my assurance that I 
never uttered any hint of an opinion, one way or the 
other, on any of those points. 

c With sincere good wishes to you and yours, 
4 Believe me, dear Sir, 

c Your faithful humble servant, 


The following letter to the Bishop of Norwich is of an 
earlier date than the preceding ; but it has been thought 
best to place it here, because it concerns a different sub- 
ject, and one on which the views of the Archbishop were 
very strong. This expression of his opinion of the mode 
of treating the attacks on the sovereign, at that time so 
frequent, is too characteristic of himself to be omitted. 

'Dublin: July 6, 1842. 

6 My dear Lord, Allow me to lay before you, and to 
beg you to turn in your mind and consult others on it, 


what I have long been thinking and should now probably 
bring forward if I were in the House. 

' It surely is high time that we should at length take 
warning by experience in respect of the attacks on the 
Queen ; one of the papers says, " it was the more mar- 
vellous (this last attempt) on account of Francis having 
just been reprieved." I should rather say, if he had been 
hanged, there would have been a something to wonder 
at in a fresh attempt. I should be inclined to move for 
a resolution of the House preparatory to an Act, that the 
prerogative of pardon should be withdrawn from the 
sovereign in the case of attempts on her own life, except 
on an address from both Houses. 

c It is placing the sovereign in a most indelicate pre- 
dicament, because there seems something shocking in 
allowing the law to take its course when the individual 
who has the power to pardon is the one assailed * but the 
nation is so greatly concerned in the sovereign's life, that 
the public welfare ought not to be sacrificed to the feel- 
ings of delicacy of any individual. In all other cases 
the prerogative of pardon is very fitly vested in the 
sovereign ; but not where there is so much of what is 

c I write in the midst of pressing business, therefore 
pray excuse haste, and believe me 

c Most truly yours, 


To the Bishop of Salisbury. 

Counts-signature of Testimonials The Archbishop's Reasons for 
his peculiar Form. 

< The Palace: Aug. 81 , 1842. 

'My dear Lord, I am glad your Lordship has applied 
to me, that I may have' the opportunity of explaining. 


The form of countersignature is my usual one. I adopt 
it in all cases; because sometimes to add "worthy of 
credit " and sometimes to omit those words would be in 
some cases ungracious, and in some productive of incon- 
venience ; and again, to add those words in all cases, 
would perhaps be made use of as pledging me to more 
than I should like to stand to. I state, therefore, officially, 
exactly all that I mean : viz., that the signatures are, as 
far as I know, genuine signatures of bond fide clergymen ; 
and secondly, that I know nothing to the contrary of 
what they have stated. Then I am ready to give, 
privately and confidentially, answers to any bishop who 
may wish to inquire more particularly. In the present 
instance I really know nothing of the Mr. in ques- 
tion. The signers are not persons on whom I should 
very particularly rely in any doubtful case ; but I have 
no reason for believing this to be one. 

* Ever, my dear Lord, yours very truly, 


Mrs. Arnold had written to consult the Archbishop on 
the subject of the publication of one of Dr. Arnold's 
posthumous sermons, to which exception had been taken 
by some of his friends. The following is the answer : 

< October 20, 1842. 

4 My dear Friend, I am grieved you should have so 
much worry ; but I am happy to be able, as far as I am 
concerned, to cut short all perplexing deliberations. 
Much as I am given to hesitation, I feel none here. If 
Bishop Dickinson were alive, I would not lose a day's 
post for the sake of consulting him ; and that is saying a 
great deaL 

4 Mr. Stanley's reasons appear to me to have very little 

VOL. IL c 


weight. Arnold would not, he thinks, have published the 
sermons himself; suppose it so (which I feel by no means 
disposed to be sure of), what then? There may be 
many things not written with a view to publication,, and 
even which the author may be very right in never pub- 
lishing himself, but which yet (for instance, his private 
letters to friends on several important subjects) may be 
not at all unfit to be published posthumously by others. 
It is only on the supposition that he would have abstained 
from publishing it on the ground of his having changed 
his opinions, or of its relating to some private or local 
matter not fitted for general readers, or of its having 
been written under some excitement of feeling which in 
his cooler moments appeared indecorous ; it is only when 
on such grounds we judge that the writer would have 
abstained from publication, that this should be a reason 
for our abstaining. 

4 As to its " giving pain " to several persons, I can only 
say, it must be a sorry sermon that does not. I remem- 
ber one of my parishioners at Haleswortli telling me that 
he thought "a person should not go to church to be 
made uncomfortable." I replied that I thought so too ; 
but whether it should be the sermons or the man's life 
that should be altered, so as to avoid the discomfort, 
must depend on whether the doctrine was right or wrong. 
But " what is one man's meat is another man's poison." 
I dare say you have heard from me a curious and in- 
structive anecdote about one of the " Future State " 
Lectures; that on "preparation for death," two of my 
friends wrote to me, pressing me most earnestly to sup- 
press or alter it as " having given pain to many a pious 
mind;" and at the same time another man, a personal 
stranger, wrote to beg iny permission to print it as a 
separate tract for distribution I 

-)T. 55] TO MRS. ARNOLD. 19 

6 Mrs. W. will enter, perhaps, more fully than I shall 
now do, upon the merits of the sermon itself. There is 
no need to discuss the question whether it should be 
published at all or suppressed, since that is decided. 
The question is only as to whether it should be reserved 
or not, for another volume. There might be something 
said for this latter course, if it were on some extraordinary 
occasion, so as to be quite out of the course of his ordi- 
nary teaching ; but to omit an Easter-day sermon, would 
lead people to suppose that it was, in point of matter, 
something of an exception from his habitual instruction. 
It would imply (and I have no doubt that is the real 
drift of the suggestion ; I mean Mr. Ward's drift) that his 
crudest thoughts, what he occasionally gave vent, to in 
hasty communications with his friends, were much more 
apparently adverse to Tractism than his more deliberate 
and well-considered doctrine ; and that for once, by inad- 
vertency, he let out in a Eugby-serrnon some of these 
crudities, which he himself would on consideration have 
excluded from a place where they ought not to be found, 
as being unfit for exoteric discourses. 

c If his works were now for the first time to come 
before the public, it might be prudent to select, for the 
first volume, such of his doctrines as might be the most 
generally acceptable, lest some readers should be sca,red 
away in the outset by too violent a shock to their preju- 
dices ; and the succeeding volumes might bring forward 
those opinions, one by one, which were more likely to 
prove a stumbling-block to some. But he has long been 
before the world as an author, and the volume in question 
is not a selection at all of the most fit for publication ; but 
professes, as I understand, to be a continuous course, 
containing all his sermons that are not unfit; so that 
the exclusion of one from the set would be an exception, 



leading, I think, to such a conclusion as I have above 
alluded to. 

6 To-morrow two years Bishop Alexander died, aged, I 
think, eighty-five ; and his successor died the July twelve- 
month following, aged fifty I Mysterious and trying to our 
faith are some of the dispensations of Providence ! Bishop 
Dickinson was engaged in writing, and had nearly com- 
pleted a Charge setting forth the coincidence in many 
points between the Tractites and the German Transcen- 
dentalists, which I hinted at in the last note but one to 
my last volume. Dr. West will publish what is com- 
pleted along with some sermons. 

1 Never, surely, did the world more need the warning 
against " false prophets in sheep's clothing ; " though the 
fleece is so very thin it is a matter of wonder that intelli- 
gent men should so generally fail to see the wolf beneath 
it. So very simple a contrivance as that of using words 
in new senses generally the very opposite of the old, seems 
to answer the purpose. If Tom looks into the Corcyrean 
civil war in Thucydides he will see in many points, but 
especially in what relates to this artifice of misemploying 
terms, an almost exact description of much that is now 
going on. 

ccc Humble-minded " men are especially to be guarded 
against ; the word means what used to be called arrogant 
and insolent; on the other hand, the worship of God 
only, and a deference for Him and His Word, beyond 
what is paid to any mortal man, is, now-a-days, " profane- 
ness and self-conceit;" a ".pure and holy man*' is one 
who fasts twice in the week, but " neglects the weightier 
matters of the law, judgment, and justice, and mercy." 
I think the "holy men" who garbled and distorted 
Hampden's Bampton Lectures with the deliberate design 
of holding him up to the hatred and persecution of 


unthinking bigots, are the genuine descendants of those 
Eoman emperors who dressed up the early Christians in 
the skins of beasts, and then set dogs at them to worry 
them to death. 

' Ever yours affectionately, 


The Eev. A. P. Stanley, now Dean of Westminster, who 
had commenced preparations for the biography of Dr, 
Arnold, wrote to consult the Archbishop on the subject 
of a memorial to him, in which many of his strongest 
opponents took an active part. 

To the Rev. A. P. Stanley. 

( November 1. 

i My dear Sir, 

'Indelicacy is too mild a word to characterise the 
effrontery and presumption of men who, while Dr. Arnold 
was alive, repaid his kindness and fiieudship with the 
bitterest insults, heaped on him on account of the very 
circumstances which have led to the proposal of doing 
honour to his memory (for if he had gone on in decent 
and obscure mediocrity, they would not have reviled or 
opposed him, nor would others have thought of public 
honours to him); and who now come forward to take a 
part in that work, when, as it appears, their scheme is to 
garble his works, and to degrade his monument. They 
may conceivably have been right, and he in error, all 
through ; but then, let them not take their stand on the 
" mountain of blessing " when their proper place is on the 
"mountain of cursing." There is a passage in the 
speech for the Crown which seems exactly to fit the occa- 
sion, where Demosthenes speaks of the indignant rejection 
by the authorities of those who were candidates for the 



office of speaking the funeral oration over the soldiers 
who fell in their countries' cause, and who had been the 
friends and agents of Philip. (I quote from memory not 
having the book at hand). 

Trpocnj/cctv rovro TW povvra TOT em rot? 
KOCTI /cat Tf\v IKCWCOV aplr^v Kocr^orovra /x/rj 

ov elvai TOL<$ 71750$ e 
/^Se ry $a>vfi Soutpvew 
v, dXAa rfj 


c Ever yours truly, 


It was in this year that the long Whig administration 
being now succeeded by a Tory one, 1 the Archbishop felt 
- that decisive steps must be taken as to the Education 
Board, if the national system was to continue. He ac- 
cordingly wrote early that autumn to the Lord-Lieutenant, 
Earl de Grrey, urging the importance of a speedy decision 
on the part of ministers. c I had written,' he writes in 
his note-book, ' to represent to them how important it 
was not to keep people in suspense on so important a 
matter ; not to excite false hopes, but declare speedily, 
openly, and strongly, whether they approved of and would 
continue the system and the Commissioners, or not ; in 
which latter case I would at once retire.' 

This communication had been answered satisfactorily, 
and the following is the letter he wrote to the Lord-Lieu- 
tenant on the subject, 

National Education System. 

'Palace: Nov. 17,1842. 

* My Lord, I have had the honour of receiving your 
Excellency's communication, which I have had the oppor- 

1 Sir K. Peel became Prime Minister in September 1841, and remained 
so until July 1846, 


tunity of imparting this day to several of the Education 
Commissioners. They concur with me in feelings of great 
satisfaction at the announcement of a resolution so im- 
portant to the welfare of this country. 

' We have not felt ourselves at liberty to make to other 
parties, but we conclude Government will take opportuni- 
ties to make known to all who are interested in the ques- 
tion the course that has been resolved on. This will, I 
have no doubt, go far towards allaying the distrust, anxiety, 
agitation, and dissension that are to be found in the country, 
and which I adverted to, as evils likely to prevail, in my 
letter to your Excellency last year. I think it likely that 
the decision of Government, distinctly announced and 
steadily followed up in practice, may have a great efiect 
in obtaining the co-operation of some, and the neutrality 
of others, among those who have hitherto been active 
opponents ; and this, without any compromise of principle 
on their part, or even any change of opinion, except as to 
the practicability of their designs, A man may very con- 
sistently support a system that shall appear to be the best 
that is attainable, but which he had felt himself bound to 
oppose, as long as there seemed a chance of substituting 
what he regarded as a better; and, up to this time some 
have apparently cherished in themselves and in others 
hopes of bringing about a change or an extinction of the 
Education System, either directly or by obtaining a separate 
grant for schools on a different plan, and thus effectually 
destroying the essential character of a national system. 
I do not see but that, those who, from entertaining such 
hopes have hitherto opposed the Education Board, may 
hereafter lend aid to its operations, even though believing 
the system not to be the very best, 

4 Certainly the scruples which many have urged against 
any education, not based on the religion of the Established 


Church, have always been readily received, on the express 

condition of non-interference with their religion 

Iam, &c.' 

Extract from a Letter to a Gentleman who had sent him a 
Book treating of Church Government. 

'Dec. 17, 1842. 

6 It has often been a matter of wonder to me, that no 
one, as far as I know, of the many writers who have 
treated of Church-polity, have ever apparently had a 
thought of the danger connected with such discussions. 
They display great research and ingenuity, and adduce 
arguments which, whether of any real weight or not, have 
undoubtedly influenced many minds, to show that Episco- 
pacy was, or was not, the form of government introduced 
by the apostles, and adhered to in the earliest ages ; and 
each seems satisfied if he has made out this point to his 
own and his friends' conviction. 

'But if a man is led, or is left to conclude that it is 
essential to his salvation to live under such a Church 
Government as the apostles established, or at least that 
he is otherwise in a perilous way, what a Pandora's box of 
evils is opened, with not hope, but despair at the bottom ! 
There is a book such as Bishop Wilson's, for example 
which not one in 10,000 can be expected to read, and not 
one in 10,000 of those who read it are competent to 
verify by consulting the ancient authorities ; but to those 
who can, it affords strong proofs, or at least considerable 
probabilities, that such and such a form of Church-polity 
is essential to Christians. Hence it is evident that all 
Christians, except one in a million, have nothing to trust 
to but the word of a very, very few learned men, for their 
being even likely to be genuine members of the Church 
of Christ. 


' Now, if we must needs take their word for one part of 
what is essential, why not for all the rest, too ? 

c Who, in his senses, would go to analyse one-half of the 
medicines the doctor sends, if the other half which he 
must also take are what he cannot analyse ? 

c Therefore, the mass of mankind, who wish to have as 
little as possible of the trouble of thinking about their reli- 
gion, will a.t once acquiesce in whatever their teachers bid 
them believe ; and the more thoughtful few will set down 
the whole as a heap of priestcraft; because (they will say) our 
religion pretends to be a revelation, and is not ; because 
it is a mockery to tell the mass of mankind to prove all 
things, and hold fast to that which is right, and to be able 
to give a reason for the hope that is in them, if it is clearly 
beyond their power to give any reason for even hoping 
that they are at all members of the Church of Christ ; 
if this depends on their being governed on the Apostolical 
model, of which the apostles have left us in their writings 
no precise description, but which we are to collect by a 
comparison of what St. A. saith in such a book, with what 
is reported by St. 33. to have been reported by St. 0. as 
the practice in the Church of D. 

4 And what makes the absence of this revelation the 
more staggering (supposing the thing itself- to have been, 
designed to be essential) is, that it is so much easier to 
be put down in writing than moral precepts and exhor- 
tations, and so much more needful ; and yet this is not 
done, and the other is. More needful, I say, because the 
light of reason may guide men in a great degree into 
moral truths into the application of Christian motives ; 
whereas positive regulations, as whether a church should 
be governed by a single overseer, or by a council, or in 
what other way, one could no more determine by the 
light of reason than whether every seventh day or every 



sixth should be a religious festival. And more easy also ; for 
it would be easy in three or four pages, in one-twentieth 
of the space on which might be given a very slight and 
scanty sketch of the various modes of conduct right to be 
pursued on the several occasions of ordinary life that 

arise to give such an outline of a form of Church-polity 

as would, if it had been delivered on Apostolical authority, 
have settled at once and for ever all the disputes on the 
subject that have agitated the Church for so many ages. 

* Yet this has not been done. 

* One of two conclusions seems to me inevitably to 
follow : either there is a complete failure in the professed 
design of giving mankind (I mean men in that ordinary 
degree of civilisation to which the mass of mankind may 
conceivably attain in a civilised country) a revelation of 
what they must do to be saved ; or, the design was, to 
leave Christian faith and Christian principles of conduct 
fixed, and to leave Church government, as well as various 
rites and ceremonies, to the discretion of each Church in 
each age and country. 

4 I can see no other alternative.' 

The end of this year, so full of trial, brought him some 
cheering influence in the appointment of his friend Dr. 
Hinds, who had accepted the living of Castleknock, near 
Dublin. The prospect of having this valued companion 
of his early days again near him was the most consoling 
one of which his circumstances now admitted. 

In the December of this year he paid a visit to him 
deeply affecting to the bereaved family of his beloved 
friend Dr, Arnold, in their home at Fox How in Westmore- 
land. In the letters written by them at this time are 
several notices of this visit, so highly prized by them, 
which give so lively a picture of his habits in social and 


domestic intercourse, that we will quote one or two : 
'Have I ever described to you the Archbishop's 
manner when lie was here ? It was really very affecting, 
and continually, without one word of profession, showed 
forth his love for his friend and his mingled compassion 
and affection for that friend's wife and children. Even 
what might be called the natural roughnesses of his 
character seemed softened and harmonised ; and it was 
very striking to see him wandering about here looking 
at the flowers and talking with the gardener, with the 
younger ones playing about him, just as he did at Rugby.' 

After luncheon,' writes another of the family, c we 
went up Loughrigg with the Archbishop, and a most 
delightful walk we had. As we caine back we overtook 
a little girl about six years old, who has daily to carry a 
heavy can of milk a distance of two miles, The poor 
little thing was quite frightened at having to go so far in 
the dark. The Archbishop was shocked at her having to 
carry such a load, so some of us took her can" and he 
carried her himself to Pox How, whence the rest of us 
walked home with her.' 

In the following year (1843), we find my father receiving 
and answering frequent letters of consultation on the 
subject of memorials, epitaphs, and biographies of Dr. 
Arnold, whose loss was still fresh in the minds and hearts 
of all who had the privilege of knowing him. 

The following letters are on this subject: 

< Jan. 19, 

c My dear Mrs. Arnold, I cannot resist sending you a 
most characteristic note from Dr. Wilson, to whom I had 
lent the " British and Foreign Review." 

c I am disposed to concur with him ; and, in respeet of 
the Anglo-Catholic, should perhaps have bestowed stronger 


commendation. This may be from its being a favourable 
review of my own work among others ; but I believe I 
am in general rather fastidious as to writers on my own 
side. I think I am even more mortified by weak argu- 
ments in favour of my own views than by strong ones 
against them. 

4 The other article is whimsically infelicitous in the 
idea of compounding together Hume and Johnson to 
make up an Arnold, unless he thought that, as two 
negatives make an affirmative, so two red-hot Jacobites 
would make a Liberal. Johnson was a most sincere and 
deep-rooted Tory ; and if Hume was sincere in anything, 
it was in that. And they were so ecclesiastically as well 
as politically ; for, though neither of them thought there 
was any truth in the peculiar doctrines of Bomanisrn, the 
impression conveyed by each is, that the Reformation 
was not worth contending for. But a low estimate of 
the claims of truth too common as it is among men 
was carried so far by those two (though in many points 
so unlike) as to be characteristic of them. They resembled 
each other in their skill in dressing up a case, and in 
arguing more for victory than for truth, apparently 
regarding (Hume in his writings and Johnson in his 
conversation) a discussion of the most important matters 
as a game of chess, in which it matters not whether you 
have the white men or the black, if you do but play them 
skilfully and baffle your opponent.' 

To a Gentleman who had consulted him on the Epitaph 
for Dr. Arnold. 

'Dublin: Feb. ,14, 1843. 

'My dear Sir, A good while ago I was consulted as 
to the epitaph, through Mr. Stanley, who sent rne three 
to judge of. I stated to him at that time pretty fully the 


reasons which have long since induced me to set niy face 
against all laudatory epitaphs whatever all that contain 
any matter of opinion because they are never believed ; 
records of facts are. Not but that many a one may 
believe in the truth of that which the epitaph says ; but 
that is from his knowing it from other sources. It is not 
the epitaph that he believes, for their exaggeration is pro- 
verbial. There is nothing in the enclosed one, for instance, 
at all, beyond what we may often see said of men who 
are to Arnold as copper or silver to gold. The stranger, 
therefore, disbelieves, and the friend thinks too little said. 

' I said that I did not like to speak truth when I had 
no fair chance of being believed. I added that I had on 
two occasions written epitaphs, containing nothing beyond 
the truth on intimate friends of mine, with which I was 
well satisfied at the time; but for the above reason I 
became dissatisfied with them afterwards, and I never 
after departed from the resolution I then formed; for 
though I did afterwards put up a stone with a laudatory 
inscription to a parishioner, a man of the lower class, I 
added that it was by the rector of the parish, designating 
myself as the attester of his worth ; and his humble 
station putting all flattery from me to him or his family 
out of the question, I had no reason to doubt this praise 
would be believed. 

c We must make up our minds to consider that nothing 
can be done that will please everybody. To see Drs. 
Wooll, James, and Arnold (!) side by side, and about 
equal in the eyes of those who shall judge from their 
epitaphs, would not gratify me; but de gustibus non. 
The omission of laudation (with perhaps the reason 
assigned) would at least be a distinction. 
* Very truly yours, 



The Bishop of Norwich appears to have written to 
consult the Archbishop on a knotty point. His answer 
explains itself: 

'Palace: March 8, 1843. 

6 My dear Lord, I am making inquiries about your 
case, and will let you know the result. 

'Alas! that I cannot now resort to that counsellor 
whose qualities of head and heart made him so invaluable 
to me and to the Church I 

; My own first impression is. that testimony is to be 
resorted to only in respect of matters of fact, such as a 
man's regularity of conduct, &c. ; but that his orthodoxy, 
when it is made to turn on a passage in a written sermon, 
is a matter of opinion, on which one bishop has as good 
a right to decide as another. If any man's written or 
printed expressions lead you to think him unsound, that 
is good reason why you should refuse him a licence or 
ordination, but none why I should, if I happen to be of 
an opposite opinion, unless, indeed, the man has been 
convicted before an ecclesiastical court. I am supposing 
that there is no other objection to the man, and that you 
have only refused to license him on your own unlimited 
discretion. If this were to control the proceedings of 
any other bishop, the dictum of one bishop would super- 
sede all courts, and a regular trial would be superfluous ; 
but when there is any court in which such and such an 
offence may be tried, it seems to me that non-conviction 
is to be regarded as a decisive presumption of innocence. 
This is, however, as yet, only my own first impression. 
c Ever, my dear Lord, yours very truly, 


Provost Hawkins had suggested to his friend that much 
of the perplexity in men's minds on the subject of the 


now hotly-disputed < doctrine of reserve ' arose from many 
really and honestly imagining that this doctrine was only 
another name for that gradual and progressive teaching, 
which, in the case of young or unlearned scholars, must 
be. essential from all who would really make their instruc- 
tions intelligible. 

In his answer, the Archbishop My allows for this : 

' I have no doubt you are right in thinking that many 
well-meaning, though not clear-headed men, have con- 
founded together the necessity of teaching beginners 
the first page before they come to the second with the 
keeping back of Gospel truths from those able and willing 
to learn them. And this may have been the case ori- 
ginally with the leaders (though most of them do not 
seem to be wanting in clearness of head) of the Tractite 
party ; but this must have been a long while ago, for it 
is several years now since the " Elucidations " of Hampdeu 
was published; and I cannot conceive any one either 
writing or reading that tissue of deliberate and artful 
misrepresentations (comparing it with Harnpden's own 
volume) without perceiving unless he were a downright 
fool that it consisted of the " suppressio veri " so con- 
trived as to amount to the " suggestio falsi " the kind 
of lies which Swift justly calls the worst, " a lie guarded." 
The author and the approvers of such a work (as many 
as were acquainted with Hampden's) could have nothing 
to learn from the " slanderer'* himself! 

c I am inclined to think there is another cause which 
has greatly led to the double doctrine, as weU as to many 
other evils the tendency which, under the garb of piety, 
is most emphatically impiety, in mere men to imitate God 
or His prophets and apostles in those very points in which 
the imitation should be most carefully guarded against. 
Hence, some " teach with authority, and not as the 


scribes," because, forsooth, this is what Jesus did ; hence, 
some profess to disdain the aid of human learning, be- 
cause Paul " came with demonstration of the Spirit and 
of power;" some eulogise faith viz,, in their word 
because faith (in God's declarations) is commanded in 
Scripture; and hence, since God withheld the Gospel 
from certain generations and nations of men, we, forsooth, 
are to judge who are worthy to receive, and from whom 
we shall " keep back all the counsel of God." It is strange, 
though too true, that man should be deceived by so gross 
a fallacy, which would make an arch-rebel and his follow- 
ers imitators of a legitimate king and his loyal subjects.' 

It was about this time that the ' Life of Blanco White' 
(who, as has been mentioned, died in 1841) was published. 
The Archbishop, in common with all the early friends of 
this unfortunate man, had greatly deprecated the publica- 
tion of this memoir, which, under the circumstances, 
could scarcely be done fairly. They, therefore, almost all 
refused to contribute any letters or papers to the biography 
in question. The following letter from the Archbishop is 
on this subject : 

< April 26, 1843. 

6 Dear Sir The " Life of Blanco White" I have looked 
into just enough to see that it is pretty much what I 
might have expected, considering who the editor is ; for 
he is the very person who wrote, as I am credibly in- 
formed, a short memoir of B. White in some Unitarian 
periodical soon after his death, and which I happened to 
get a sight of a year or two after. 

6 In that he represents B. W. as banished by his friends, 
and left to pass the remainder of his days in poverty and 
solitude; the fact being -1st That lie left my house 

Mt. 56] ' LIFE OF BLANCO WHITE. 1 33 

entirely at his own desire. 2nd. That he received a 
pension from me, and another from another friend. 
And 3rd. That I and my family, and several other 
of his former friends, kept tip a correspondence with 
him, and visited him whenever we passed through 

c Now from a person who, with the knowledge of these 
facts, could deliberately set himself to produce in the 
mind of the public an opposite impression (as any one 
may see by looking at that first memoir I have alluded 
to), no great amount of delicacy or scrupulosity could be 

6 That the present publication surpasses the average (of 
publications of this kind) in bringing before the public 
what is most emphatically private, in the indecent ex- 
posure of the private memoranda of an invalid in a 
diseased state of mind, this will be evident to every one 
who gives but the slightest glance at the book. 

6 1 know publications of this character are a sort ot 
nuisance for which there is no remedy. I am only 
solicitous to clear my own character, and also that of 
poor Blanco White himself, from the imputation of any 
responsibility on this account. 

' I myself, as I have already informed you, was ap- 
plied to, to furnish letters &a from and to the deceased ; 
and I declined, stating as one decisive reason that I knew 
him to be in an unsound state of mind for several years ; 
and that I could clearly* establish this, both by documents 
in my possession and by the testimony of several com- 
petent persons, including two of his medical attendants, 
unknown to each other ; so that no memoir not adverting 
to this fact (which, of course, I -did not wish to proclaim) 
could be correct, or could fail to convey positively erro- 
neous impressions. I am, therefore, no party to the 



publication ; nor, on account of his state of mind, can I 
consider Blanco White as being so, whatever he may in 
that morbid state have said, written, or done. . . . 
And this it is right should be made known to any who 
may feel an interest in the subject. 

' Yours faithfully, 


The Archbishop was this year again in London for the 
session. While there, Mr. Stanley consulted him on the 
publication of a letter of Dr. Arnold's on Irish affairs. 

To the Eev. A. P. Stanley. 

'London: May 3,1843. 

* My dear Sir, Many thanks for what you have done 
for Edward, which is perfectly satisfactory. It would be 
strange indeed for me to object to a tutor for having been 
in the second class. I was elected at once against two 
first-class-men ; and I remember once we had eight can- 
didates for two vacancies, and the men we elected were 
the only two that were not first-class ; and this, not from 
any contempt of the school-examinations, for we were not 
even aware of the fact till after the election. 

' As general rules subject, of course, to many excep- 
tions : 1st. A first-class man is likely to be one who is 
quicker in learning than a second-class. And 2nd. A 
slow man is likely to be a better tutor than a very quick 

c I myself being more of a hone than of a razor, should 
at this day be justly placed, at an examination, a class 
below some other men in point of knowledge, whom I 
should surpass in the power of imparting it. ... 

4 In haste, yours truly, 


-5ET. 56] DB. ARNOLD'S WORKS. 35 

Again, after his return to Ireland, he writes as follows 
to Mrs. Arnold on the subject of her husband's biography, 
at that time in preparation : 

< Dublin: Aug. 16. 

6 My dear Friend, If you in fact are ultimately the 
editor, so that you are to have unlimited power as surely 
you ought to have over every MS. before it goes to 
press, I think it likely that that very circumstance may 
check those who might otherwise endeavour to show 
objects through their own coloured glass. 

' " A mechant chien, court lien." Let no one deter you 
from exercising your own judgment in this matter. The 
responsibility is heavy, but it must be yours after all ; 
since whatever others may do by your permission is 
virtually done by you. 

c and , I find, have discovered that Arnold 

was a most estimable man, and did not really differ from 
them at bottom ! 

' I dare say the same discoveries will be made of me, 
after I am dead, and not before. The bees will come 
and build their combs in the lion's carcase, but not while 
he lives ! 

c I think if this sort of patronage was to be extended to 
me, Mrs. W. would reject their posthumous honey or at 
least I should if in her place by saying, Why did you 
not find out his good qualities sooner ? I wiH tell you 
why: it is because they wanted the one circumstance 
which really recommends him to you his death. Why 
did you not earlier declare his coincidence, at bottom, 
with your views ? I will tell you ; it is because he was 
alive to contradict you. You are like the savages of the 
South Sea Islands, who are glad to get hold of the body 
of a dead enemy, that they may fashion his bones into 
spear-heads for future combats, " Be content," she would 

D 2 


say, " with having misrepresented him while living ; but 
expect not me to aid you in misrepresenting him when 
dead. I will not help you in whitening the sepulchres of 
the prophets whom you have stoned!" 

' I would have you receive courteously all contributions 
of letters, &c., and all various pieces of advice, with one 
general answer (I have three or four " general answers" 
for different classes of applicants, which my secretaries 
write in each case that arrives), viz. : 6C that you are 
obliged, and will take it into consideration." But be you 
the ultimate decider on every word that goes to press. 
Thank God, the decision could not be in better hands ; 
and at any rate yours must after all be the responsibility.' 

Again, a notice in the letters from Mrs. Arnold's family 
at Fox How tells of a visit there. ' You would, I am 
sure,' says the writer, c have loved the Archbishop if you 
had seen his tenderness and kindness to all, and his 
readiness and pleasure in teaching and amusing the whole 
party. He is such a lover of Natural History, that every 
ramble in the garden gives him matter on which to dwell 
and impart information.' Another member of the family 
adds, alluding to a later period, c His delight in teaching 
was very great. When the " Easy Lessons in Reasoning " 
came out he was at Fox How, and made us all his pupils, 
including my mother, whom he complimented on her 
quick-witted answers, and probing our minds, I must 
say, in a most searching manner.' 

The following notes, occasioned by Mr. W. Palmer's 
narrative of events connected with the c Tracts for the 
Times' found among the Archbishop's papers, have 
already been quoted in a former volume. 

4 Mr. W. Palmer is quite right in recommending charity 
and courtesy of language, but it should be remembered 


that a most uncharitable and unjustifiable reproach to 
others may be conveyed by terms not applied to them, 
but to ourselves. For instance, a person was asked in 
Italy " whether Christians are tolerated in our country." 
The Spaniards and Italians limit that name to those of 
the Church of Borne ; and in like manner the " Uni- 
tarians " imply, by assuming that title, that we do not 
teach the Unity of the Deity. In like manner, when we 
are told that the Emancipation Act struck horror into 
all friends of " religion," this implies that those who had 
all along advocated the measure on religious grounds, 
were in reality men of no religion. This is just as 
strongly and clearly implied as if the abusive epithet had 
been directly applied to them. Again, when " Church 
principles " is constantly applied to designate those who 
hold such and such opinions (perhaps very right ones) 
on the subject, this is equivalent to telling all who differ 
from these that they do not maintain "Church prin- 
ciples," which they (mistakenly perhaps, but sincerely) 
profess to do. It is in vain to recommend charity if we 
do not ourselves set the example of it.' 

To William Palmer, Esq. (Senior.) 

* NOT. 80, 1843. 

c My dear Sir, If not too late, it would be well to 
suggest to your son, in a new edition of his pamphlet, 
to take some notice of the system of admitting students 
at Dublin University : answering it, if disapproved ; and 
if approved, defending it on some principles not appli- 
cable to Oxford. 

* That the attack on Hampden was caused not really 
by the alleged heterodoxy of his Bampton Lectures, but 
by his proposing to give the same facilities to Dissenters 


at Oxford as they enjoy here, most people pretty well 
understood at the time ; but I think the public are in- 
debted to Mr. W. Palmer for the frank avowal of it. 
Besides those to whom the Bampton Lectures afforded a 
mere pretext, and who, by their " elucidations " of them, 
endeavoured to persuade those who had never read the 
work that it was quite different from what it is besides 
these, I think it likely that there were not a few who 
really did see heresy in the work after he had advocated 
the admission of Dissenters, and who, if he had taken an 
opposite course, would have stoutly maintained, and 
firmly believed, the orthodoxy of the very same work. 
At least, I have often met with cases of people judging 
of a book, or of a measure, by the quarter from which 
it comes. Doubtless there are several among the Whigs 
who really believe the Corn-laws to be an abomination, 
and have done so above these two years, but to whom 
no such thought ever occurred when Lord Melbourne 
declared that " it would be madness to think of meddling 
with those laws.' 7 

* Trinity College, Dublin, and numerous private schools 
kept by Protestant clergymen in Ireland, freely admit 
Eoman Catholics and Dissenters on the express condition 
of non-interference with their religion ; and yet those 
who approve and defend and take a part in these institu- 
tions are sometimes found deprecating the extension of 
this system to the English universities, and cry out against 
the National Schools for acting on it. 

c Till they shall show some grounds for thus approving 
and condemning the same principles, in those different 
cases respectively, how can they complain if their sin- 
cerity is suspected ? 

c Very truly yours, 



To the Same. 

' Dec. 7, 1843. 

c My dear Sir, If Mr. W. Palmer were to say in Ms 
pamphlet just what he says in his letter to you, that 
would exactly meet the objection. All people might 
not adopt his views, but at least they would see what 
they are. 

c I don't undertake to decide how far it was advisable 

to introduce at all into a pamphlet about the Tracts 

any question as to the adrnissibility of Dissenters to 
university education ; but if the question be introduced, 
it is clearly necessary that any one who treats of it espe- 
cially a member of Dublin University should advert to 
the system of that university, and should forestall the 
obvious question, " Why is the same thing deprecated in 
one place, which is acquiesced in without complaint in 
the other?" 

* That this question has not been asked by almost every 
reader of the pamphlet, I believe may be attributed to 
the strange ignorance that prevails. Great multitudes 
are totally unaware what is the fact. One of the English 
newspapers brings forward a bright thought, proposing 
as a novel and conciliatory measure that Roman Catholics 
should be made admissible at Trinity College, Dublin ! ! I 
If any one says, " I censure those Protestant schoolmasters 
who consent to receive Roman Catholic boys on such and 
such conditions, and I lament that such is the constitution 
of the University of Dublin, but I am hopeless of being 
able to bring about such a change, and therefore I should 
not attempt it," people would perceive that he was at least 
acting on a consistent and intelligible principle, whether 
they agreed with him or not. 

'And certainly a private individual cannot, we all 


know, by his own authority change the statutes of univer- 
sities. But the legislature can. It might interfere to 
place Dublin University on the footing of Oxford. And 
I presume Dr. Hampden, and also those who wrote 
against him, considered it as no moral impossibility that 
the legislature should interfere to place Oxford on the 
footing of Dublin, and that it might be influenced in 
such a matter by the publications of individuals ; else 
they could have had no motive for writing at all on 
the subject. 

4 Believe me yours truly, 

'En. DUBLIN.' 

The following letter relates to a constant subject of 
watchful interest the prospects of the Education Board. 
It is addressed to an influential member of government. 

< Sir, The letter of which you were so good as to send 
me a copy seems to me the most proper that could have 
been written, and I heartily wish it may produce the 
effect desired. Nothing on my part ever has been or 
shall be wanting towards that object. Any altercation 
between the Board and any individual or body of men, 
I have always discouraged as far as possible, and have 
constantly endeavoured to guard against everything likely 
to lead to disputes and litigation : holding myself ready, 
however (and the same may be said, I believe, of all the 
Commissioners), to afford hearing individually, to any 
reasonable applications for explanation, or suggestions 
offered, in courtesy and in a fair spirit, by respectable 

persons. It is not unlikely that and others may 

have known of the application I made (by a letter to Earl 
de Grey) to ministers, immediately after their accession to 
power, urging them to prevent false alarms and false hopes, 


and doubts and suspicions of all kinds, among all parties, 
by an early, public, and distinct declaration of their 
designs in respect of National Education ; offering either 
to retain or to resign my situation, according as they felt 
confidence or not in the system, and in me as a conductor 
of it; and only entreating that they would not delay 
deciding, and declaring their decision one way or the x 
other. And if I had received within a month or two, or 
even within three or four months, an answer breathing 
the same spirit as your present letter, and followed up by 
corresponding measures, I have no doubt the effect would 
have been far beyond what the most sanguine can now 
anticipate. [I would not thus advert to matters that are 
past, were it not necessary in order to enable any one 
to estimate aright the present condition of men's minds.] 
Whether, however, they were aware or not of my appli- 
cation, they must have seen what actually took place. 
No declaration was made of the views of Government, 
even when (some time in Nov. 1841) the primate, in 
answer to an address of the clergy on the subject of 
education, entreated them to take no step, but to wait 
for the promulgation of the ministerial plans. Subse- 
quently, most of the appointments made, and all of them 
in. the Church (including three bishops), were of men dis- 
tinguished by constant opposition to the Board, and the 
progress of the National System was brought to a stand 
for above a year ; the grants being only sufficient to sup- 
port the existing schools, so that all applications for new 
ones were unavoidably refused. 

6 It is not unlikely that the B, of and others 

may have hence concluded that government would be 
ready an'd glad to receive complaints against the Commis- 
sioners, and suggestions either for the suppression of the 
Board, or for the establishment of a rival institution, or 


for such modifications as would virtually nullify its fun- 
damental principles. 

6 Ultimately, ministers did signify unequivocally their 
determination. But, in the meantime, uniappily, many 
have been led so far to commit themselves anew to oppo- 
sition, that I fear they will not easily be induced to draw 
back. And the number also of influential opponents was 
meantime augmenting, by the addition of all who have 
received preferments from the bishops opposed to the 
Board . . . Hopeless, and worse than useless, to all but 
Dr. MEale and his band of agitators, as reason would 
show such opposition to be, one too often sees men deaf 
to reason, when actuated by resentment for a disappoint- 
ment and supposed wrong, and by a false shame at con- 
fessing error. Could they be brought to reflect calmly, 
they would see that the Protestant cause not only will 
suffer severely by their failure, but would suffer even 
more by their success ; and the more severely in propor- 
tion as their success should be the more complete. 

6 Suppose, for instance, modifications were introduced 
into the National School system such as should meet the 
wishes of those Protestants who have hitherto been its 
opponents, the distrust which the Eoman Catholic agi- 
tators have long been labouring to produce would soon 
arise, and become so strong and general, that there would 
be no resisting the demand for a distinct set of schools, to 
be placed under their exclusive control. Or, suppose a 
like object to be accomplished in another way, by acced- 
ing to the primate's proposal of making a distinct grant 
to the Church Education Society, the result of which 
would be that what is now the National Board would be 
unavoidably placed wholly under Eoman Catholic control. 
Indeed, the demand for this would be so evidently just, 
as weH as irresistible, that I for one should not wait for 


it to be made, but should immediately withdraw; as 
well as most, if not all, of the Presbyteriaa Commissioners, 
and also Mr. Blake, who has always declared he will never 
have anything to do with any system of separate educa- 
tion. And probably Dr. Murray would withdraw also ; 
to be succeeded, most like, by some prelate of the most 
opposite character. 

'Now, what would be the result of this system of 
separate grants of (suppose) 7000Z. or SOOOZ. to Protestant 
schools and 70,000/. or 80,000i to Eoman Catholic? 
In those numerous districts of the south of Ireland, where 
there are in each school not above 5 or 6 Protestant 
children to perhaps 80 or 100 Eoman Catholics (from 
the smallness of the proportion of poor Protestants 
in the population), these poor children would either 
remain untaught, or, more likely, go to schools under the 
unrestricted control of Eoman Catholics. And through- 
out Ireland the far greater part of the Eoman Catholic 
population would be brought up in a system, it is to be 
feared, of bigoted jealousy against the Church, and aliena- 
tion from their Protestant fellow-subjects. 

c I need not say what would be the result of attempting 
to carry out fully the principle avowed by the opponents 
of the Board ; which is (according to their own expres- 
sion, in an address of the clergy, which I have reprinted 
in a volume of tracts, p. 206), to recognise the clergy of 
the Established Church as the proper and legitimate 
guardians of national education; in other words, to 
compel every parent to send his child to a school under 
their exclusive control 

- Every attempt, in short, to legislate now in the spirit 
of the old system of Protestant ascendancy and penal kws, 
would only tend towards the depression and ultimate 
overthrow of Protestants. 


c In proportion as men can be brought to reflect soberly 
and calmly, they will come to perceive these truths. But 
I fear the progress towards them will be slow. In the 
meantime it will be essential for ministers to follow up 
steadily and firmly the declarations they have made by 
corresponding measures. 

c 1. The placing of the Secretary for Ireland on the 
Board as one of the Commissioners, was an arrangement 
under the late ministry, which, besides the advantages of 
declaring emphatically the adoption of the institution as 
a part of the system of government, had also this, that it 
saved them effectually from troublesome and perplexing 
attempts to get between Government and the Board, and 
to excite mutual distrust ...... 

6 2. The Board should be incorporated, and thus put at 
least on a level with the other Irish Board of Education, 
which is entrusted with the superintendence of a higher 
class of school. And one very great and continually 
increasing source of trouble, dispute, and litigation that 
connected with the Vested Schools would thus be at once 
and for ever done away. 

; A BUI should be brought in to place National Schools 
on the same footing in respect of sites for schoolhouses, 
with railroads and other public works. 

5 As it is, the obstinate hostility of a few individuals 
enables them to defeat, throughout large districts, the 
operation of an important national measure, and to 
deprive thousands of their countrymen of an advantage 
which they earnestly wish for, and which the legislature 
has deliberately resolved they ought to have . . , .' 

Lady Osborne had been writing him, in strict con- 
fidence, some particulars respecting persons who either 
were actually, or had been, officiating in the diocese. 


The following is an extract from the letter this elicited : 

< Dublin: Dec. 29, 1843. 

4 There is a circumstance which I think you overlook 
(but which you will immediately perceive on reflection) 
when you speak about "liking" or "not liking" such and 
such a person. A man in a private station will usually 
associate with his neighbours, because he likes compa- 
nions ; and with each, more or less, according as he likes 
them. ; but it is not so in a public situation ; over and 
above my own most intimate friends, I see a great deal of 
a great many men (such as I should indeed be glad of as 
companions, if I were in a remote part of the country), 
but whose society, here, cannot repay me as far as my 
own personal gratification is incurred for the sacrifice of 
leisure and privacy. I see more or less of each of them 
in proportion as I am able to get something or to impart 
something. Any one who can furnish me useful informa- 
tion or counsel, or can be brought to forward in any way, 
under my superintendence, the great objects I aim at ; 
and, again, any one who is able and willing to be instructed 
by me, these are the persons I see most of ; not necessa- 
rily those who would be the most eligible companions, 
supposing I were in a situation to want a companion. 
You are not therefore to conclude as you fairly might, 
of a man in a private station that I like or dislike each, 
in proportion as I more or less seek his company. 

6 I hope the "learning" and the " architecture" of the 
Tractates will not lead you any farther. For myself, I 
cannot make any such exception. Their learning and 
their churches both I utterly dislike. As to the latter, 
the Party is "edifying" in the wrong sense of the word. 
Their continual effort is to fix on the building of stone the 
veneration (as a temple) which belongs properly to the 


congregation the "living stones." And their learning 
again tends continually to a substitution of paper-currency 
for gold ; an attention to human writers which gradually 
absorbs and supersedes the study of Scripture. 

6 There was a kind of club formed at this place of 
clergymen who were to meet and study together certain 
of the Fathers ; , and several Non-Tractites joined it. But 
after a time it was found that certain members of the club 
were not disposed to treat the said Fathers as infallible, 
but to canvass freely all that was read. No open censure 
could be pronounced on them for this ; but a rankling 
suspicion and jealousy was felt of them by some of the 
more Tractite portion; and, accordingly, by a kind of 
manoeuvre, they managed to shake off these unruly dis- 
ciples, dissolving the society, and then re-forming it with- 
none but safe men. 

c There is an account given in the Roman historians 
of a man who had been proscribed under one of the 
Triumvirates, and to save his life, disguised himself by 
wearing a black patch over one eye. A good while after, 
when the danger was passed, he took off the patch ; but 
in vain the sight of the eye was gone ! This is a type 
of a great number of " sincere and conscientious men" 
(i.e. men who have come to be " sincere") ; they have so 
long resolved not to see, that they are become blind. 

6 A union of livings cannot be made without the Diocesan 
taking the first step. 

4 1 think with you that the Bible will not make a man a 
Protestant Le. a member of our Church unless he shall 
have first thrown off his reverence for the priest, and reads 
it against prohibition. But I don't think that the Scrip- 
tures are, even to the imperfectly learned, favourable to 
the Church of Eome, unless they be studied in the way of 
scrap Sl j)icked out here and there. Each whole book of 


Scripture, read as a whole, is the other way. K g. " This 
is my body," seems standing by itself to favour the 
Eoman Catholics ; but not conjoined with " I am the 
true Vine," "Behold the Lamb," &c. The intelligent 
study of the Bible tends, not indeed to make men in Ire- 
land join our Church (there is too much old animosity), 
but reform their own ; for the yoke of Borne may come 
to be nominally borne, and yet be but a shadow. 

' Tours, very truly, 

' E. D.' 

The following fragment of a letter to the same, probably 
written about this time, is sufficiently characteristic : 

6 What a delightful thought, that of your residing in 
Dublin ! And is it getting up a faction for me you are 
after ? No, I'll have no Whatelyites 1 I think I could 
before now, if I had been so disposed, have raised myself 
into the leader of a party that is, induced a certain 
number of asses to change their panniers. But I have no 
such ambition. I wish people to believe all the facts which 
I state on my own knowledge because I state none which 
I have not ascertained to be true ; and to listen to the 
reasons I give for my conclusions because I never use 
any arguments which do not appear to me sound. And 
that is all the conformity I covet. Any one who tries to 
imitate me, is sure to be unlike me in the important cir- 
cumstance of being an imitator ; and no one can think as 
I do who does not think for himself. 

4 But I must not write any more where I am not re- 
quired. Little do the Irish landowners know what a 
sword is now hanging by a hair over their heads, or how 
anxiously I am toiling, day after day, to keep it from fall- 
ing ! If the Poor Law Bill should pass in its present 
form, their estates will not be worth two years' purchase. 


If they and the public in general were to give ine credit 
for one-half of what I have laboured to do and been 
ready to suffer for their benefit, in various matters, I should 
have more popularity than would be safe for rne. 

' I would not say to one of less candour than yourself, 
for fear of being thought affected or fanatical, that in 
praying for the success of my efforts for the public good, 
I never omit to pray that I may meet with as much per- 
sonal mortification and disrepute as may be needful to 
wean me from an over-regard for human approbation and 




Triennial Visitations of the Archbishop Conversation with his 
Clergy on the importance of studying the Irish Language Letter 
to Miss Orahtree on Mathematical Puzzle Letter to Dr. Hampden 
Illness of his Son Letter to Lady Osbome on f Fasting* 
Letter to Mrs. Arnold Letter to Mr. Moore on progress of Trae- 
tarianism Letter to Vice-chancellor of Oxford on the same subject 
Spiritualism Letter on Animal Magnetism Death of his Sister- 
in-law Letter to Mrs. Arnold on his difference from Dr. Arnold 
Letter on proposed meeting of Bishops of Province of Canterbury. 

THE year 1844 opens, as usual, on scenes of active and 
unremitting labour, ecclesiastical, political, and literary. 
The death of the Archbishop of Cashel had added to the 
sphere of Dr. Whately's labours ; his province, -which had 
only comprised Leinster, now embracing Munster also. 
His triennial visitations or journeys round his province 
were, from this change, extended to fully half the country. 
These provincial tours, which were never entirely omitted 
throughout his life till the last year of it, now brought 
him frequently into Irish-speaking districts ; and he never 
foiled to take this opportunity of urging on the clergy of 
these districts the importance of the study of the language. 
Such a conversation as the following would frequently 
take place : 

4 Are any of your parishioners Irish-speaking, Mr ?' 

* Yes, my Lord, nearly ' (one-half, two-thirds, or as 

the case might be). 



4 Do you or your curate understand Irish ?' 

; No, not a word.' 

6 1 am very sorry to liear it,' the Archbishop woiild 
reply ; 4 how can you fulfil the duties you have under- 
taken towards parishioners with whom you cannot com- 

* Oh 5 my Lord/ the answer would be, c all the Protestants 
speak English/ 

4 1 should think so, indeed ! ' was the Archbishop's reply. 
6 How could it be otherwise ? How could they be Pro- 
testants at all, unless they already knew the only language 
in which the Protestant clergy could address them ? ' And 
then would follow an earnest exhortation to the incum- 
bent to endeavour to find some means of communicating 
with all who were resident in his parish, either by himself 
learning the language, or securing the services of assistants 
who did. And on the next tour, when the same place 
was visited, a change for the better was usually observed, 
and increased attention paid to the claims of those who 
could only be addressed through the medium of the Irish 
tongue. Thus, the Archbishop was doing continually 
much to promote the same objects, which were carried 
on in a different manner by the venerable Irish Society, 
and other instrumentalities. He was always of opinion 
that the way really to gain the attention of any people 

by addressing them in their mother tongue ; and not, 
in the first instance, to urge on them the acquisition of 
a foreign language, whose use they cannot appreciate. 
When once they know how to read, and acquire a love 
of books, they will of themselves be eager to learn a lan- 
guage which can furnish them with the knowledge they 
desire ; and in this manner, in proportion as the people 
are educated, a language possessing a current literature 
will ultimately take the place of one which has none. This 


may appear a digression, but it illustrates the character- 
istic diligence and earnestness with which the Archbishop 
applied himself to his rapidly increasing labours. 

Miss Crabtree had sent, as on a former occasion, an 
arithmetical or mathematical puzzle to the Archbishop. 
A friend of hers had also made some objections to his 
theory of Probabilities/ 

1 Dublin: Feb. 4, 1844. 

' My dear Miss Crabtree, Thanks for your enclosure, 
which I have left in the hands of a friend who is curious 
in such questions. 

c Mr. B. must have somehow misapprehended me, or I 
him; for the result he brings out in answer to that 
question is not, as he seems to anticipate, different from 
what I should answer, but the very same viz. five-ninths 
as the resulting probability ; and this you may see (or he 
may) for yourself by looking at page 76 of the " Easy 
Lessons/' where I give the computation of the probability 
of a conclusion supposed to be supported by two inde- 
pendent probable arguments; for if, instead of the numbers 
given (page 76), four-ninths and two-fifths, you substitute 
(as in the question given in the letter) one-third and 
one-third, and then proceed just as in that paragraph 
(page 76) is directed, you will find the result come out 
(instead of two-thirds) five-ninths. 

c 1 fully understood Mr.B., however, to say and maintain 
in that conversation, that, in the case of probable argu- 
ments, it is of no use attempting to calculate at all, because 
we cannot be quite sure of the exact degree of probability 
of each argument, which it is true you cannot. No more 
can any one pronounce with exactitude the precise amount 
of probability of any Individual's life, yet so it is, that, at 
the offices where life insurances are effected, life annuities 
and reversions bought and sold, &c., they do reckon one 

E 2 


life as better or worse than another; and, forming the 
best guess they can from consideration of all the circum- 
stances, they thereupon form their calculations, not con- 
ceiving that, because they cannot avoid some possible 
inaccuracy in the data they set out with, therefore there 
is no use in avoiding an additional inaccuracy in calcu- 
lating from these data ; and so it is that they do contrive 
to make their business, on the whole, profitable. So, 
also, there is no one who does not consider the guilt or 
innocence of a prisoner, for instance, or any other conclu- 
sion, to be rendered more or less probable, though not 
certain, by such and such arguments ; and no one who 
does not consider, among probable arguments, some to 
be more probable than others, and, again, that three or 
four probable arguments have together more weight 
(other things being equal) than two or one. 

4 And, doubtful though we must be, after all, as to our 
estimate of the degree of probability of each, that is no 
reason why we should not estimate the joint force of them 
as exactly as we can. The necessity of proceeding on 
one rough guess is no reason why we should have two 
when we can avoid it. 

fi And the suggestion, accordingly, of such a procedure 
seemed to me to be needed in a logical treatise ; but I 
knew myself to be but a very sorry mathematician. Still, 
a man need not die for want of medicine, though he be 
himself no doctor ; he may consult a doctor. I applied, 
accordingly, for aid, and consulted (long before I saw 
you last summer) some competent persons ; among others 
Sir W. Hamilton, our Professor of Astronomy, who is 
generally allowed to be at least one of the greatest mathe- 
maticians of the age. 

c Perhaps you expect me to tell you how the trial 1 is to 

1 O'Connell's trial, 


terminate. I not only cannot, but cannot even say which 
would be the greater evil, a condemnation or an acquittal ! 
Queen and Imperial Parliament at Dublin is the only 
real remedy. 

' Yours ever, 


c It seems to have been supposed by Mr. B., as it was 
suspected (and I own very naturally) by Sir W. Hamilton, 
that each of the two diseases introduced in the example 
(page 76) was viewed as excluding the other. To avoid 
this misapprehension, I have in the forthcoming edition 
taken an example from a totally different subject. 

6 But the main point which (to my apprehension) Mr. 
B. dwelt on again and again was, the uselessness altogether 
of resorting to any calculation at all in cases where we 
cannot be quite sure of the exact degree of probability of 
each separate proposition. But besides the insurance 
offices which proceed on calculations ready made in 
statistical tables for ordinary risks, there will always be 
found persons who make it their business to insure against 
all varieties and degrees of extraordinary risks, and to 
deal in the purchase of contingent reversions, dependent 
on a variety of accidents, the precise amount of each of 
which no one could presume to state with perfect cer- 
tainty, though he may have reason for judging that his 
judgment will not be very wide of the mark.' 

To Dr. Hampden, in acknowledgment of a Set^mon received 

from him. 

1 Dublin: March 8, 1844. 

'My dear Hampden, Thank you for the sermon, 
which, I think, sets forth very well the different kinds of 


claim of the Eoinish Church, and of any which puts forth 
no more than can be well supported. Is there not an inad- 
vertent expression in p. 10, which would seem to imply 
that the literal flesh of Christ might, if it were present, 
confer a spiritual benefit ? He Himself having explained 
that " the flesh profiteth nothing," and that " His flesh is 
(means) His life," I have been accustomed strongly to set 
forth that the bread and wine at the Eucharist are not 
only a mere sign, but a sign of a sign. 

6 Your account of the " high and dry " party was news 

to me. I had compared Mr, to the hen in the 

fable who persisted in sitting on snakes' eggs, and was 
greatly surprised to find young snakes come out. I am 
inclined to think he will do more good than harm ; but 
I feel doubtful, because, in this most extraordinary age, 
not merely ingenious nonsense, but dull nonsense is 

This year brought him some domestic anxiety in the 
dangerous illness of his son at college from rheumatic 

Lady Osborne wrote to him at this time on the subject 
of Fasting, just then a much-agitated question in the 
Church. The Archbishop who had made it the subject 
of two special sermons, afterwards incorporated in one 
pamphlet thus answers her questions, in a letter from 
Cheltenham, where he had removed with his family, to 
meet his invalid son from Oxford : 

< Cheltenham : April 16, 1844. 

' My dear Lady Osborne, I cannot, of course, develope 
in a letter what I found difficult to compress into two 
pretty long sermons. You must be content with a very 
slight and partial sketch; but read the two "Homilies 

57] ON PASTING. 53 

on Fasting," and also look, by help of a concordance, at 
all the places in Scripture where " mortify " occurs. 

' I pointed out that our Church nowhere enjoins or 
gives rules for either fasting or (mind this) feasting ; and 
that in the " Homilies " she evidently means by fasting 
such control of the baser parts of our nature as ought 
evidently to be not occasional but constant and habitual. 
If, with a view and as a means towards that, any one finds 
it expedient to adopt on certain days a more spare diet 
than ordinary (which she leaves to each individual's 
discretion), and wishes to fix on the days which his 
ancestors were accustomed so to distinguish, for the use 
of such a person, she marks in the calendar the old 
accustomed days. I added that fasts on certain days, 
though neither enjoined nor forbidden by our Church, 
are more apt to prove a substitute for habitual moderation 
and self-control than an exercise towards it ; and that in 
the sense of what is called in the Ascetic (Roraish and 
Tractite) knguage "mortification," i. e. self-inflicted 
privation and pain, as something in itself as pain 
acceptable to God; fasting, scourging, hair-shirts, flint- 
beds, &c., ought all to be classed together, all being alike 
unscriptural and alike (strange as it is) coveted by the 
natural man under some circumstances as making man 
effect atonement for himself. Witness the Fakirs, the 
Hindu ascetics and self-sacrificers, &c. 

' I am here with three daughters, and am expecting 
daily Mrs. W. from Oxford with my other daughter^and 
my son as soon as he is able to move. 
4 With best regards, 

c Tours very truly, 



The following letter was written to Mrs. Arnold imme- 
diately after the perusal of Stanley's 'Life of Dr. Arnold :' 

< June 18, 1844. 

* My dear Mrs. Arnold, The memoir is well worthy of 
the very favourable reception it has received. There is 
no declamatory puffing about it ; and Stanley has kept 
himself out of sight with remarkable good taste. The 
notice of Sismondi, Mrs. W. has, I suppose, spoken to you 
about. If it had been a well-weighed and correct judg- 
ment of him that was expressed, instead of being such as 
those who knew him best would dissent from, still it 
would have been pity to give pain to his surviving friends, 
and to prejudice them against a work from which they 
might derive benefit. This, therefore, will, I suppose, be 
omitted in the next edition. There is room, I think, for 
a little more particular account of the appointment to 
Eugby, which would be to the credit of the trustees, of 
himself, and among others of myself. It might be as well 
to mention, therefore, that he had withdrawn his name 
from the list of candidates, at the instance of a friend who 
persuaded him that it was hopeless to make head against 
the powerful interest that others could command ; that I, 
having learned that Sir H. Halford was resolved to induce 
if he could the other trustees to disregard interest alto- 
gether, urged him to come forward again, and conveyed 
to Sir H. H. my full conviction that they would not find 
any one so well qualified. This made him the last in the 
fi^ld; and the trustees proceeding on the above plan, 
found that, though stronger interest was made for others,' 
the award of fitness was due to A., and chose him almost 
unanimously. All this is, I think, quite inoffensive, and 
gives credit to those who deserve it.' 

-r. 57] TO MRS. ARNOLD, 57 

The letters which follow are on a subject of increas- 
ingly deep interest to the Archbishop the rapid spread 
of Tractarian, or, as they were then called, Oxford princi- 
ples. He had seen friend after friend swept off by the rising 
tide ; and many who did not profess or even allow that 
they entirely agreed with the views of the ' Tracts for the 
Times,' nevertheless softened any protest made by them 
with the modifying clauses that they approved of many 
things in these tracts ; that they saw no objection to the 
first, or first two, volumes ; and especially that the learn- 
ing, piety, and high excellences of the writers should in 
great measure soften the disapprobation with which their 
principles might be otherwise regarded. 

The Archbishop dreaded anything which might even 
appear like a compromise with error ; and in the first of 
the two letters before us he urges the danger of these 
concessions on a clergyman whom he had met and much 
liked shortly before at the house of a relative in England, 
and who had written to him expressing his intention of 
publishing on the subject, and pointing out that the 
4 Tracts for the Times ' might be so understood as to be 
of real service in the Church : 

To the Rev. H. Moore, now Archdeacon of Stafford. 

< Palace: Sept. 11, 1844 

c Permit me the liberty of suggesting to you the re- 
flection whether you are imperatively called on (with or 
without the assistance of others who may agree with you) 
to lay before the public your views of the sense in which 
the Tracts ought to be understood so as to do that good 
service for which you think them commendable, and so 
as to be fully reconcilable with all that you say of the 
supremacy of the Scriptures the duty of inquiring, 
private judgment, &c. That your interpretation is based 


on. good reasons I will not dispute, nor do I conceive 
that it is peculiar to yourself ; but you are well aware 
that it is not universally adopted ; that the Tracts are by 
many understood in a sense quite different, and even 
opposite, and reconcilable with nothing but downright 
Popery, open or covert ; and you also know, doubtless, 
that this interpretation is far from being confined to their 
opponents, but is that of a large portion of their followers. 
I speak not merely of the handful who have already 
joined the Church of Borne ; but I dare say you are 
aware that Tract 90 was elicited from Newman by the 
solicitations of a great body of his followers, who insisted 
on having, if they were not to join the Eomish Church, 
some scheme of interpretation laid before them by which 
they could professedly adhere to the Articles. And they 
accordingly obtained one which would have taught them, 
if need were, to subscribe to the Koran. Now, if any 
one were to bring into this country a cargo of cassava 
root, which, if the poor Irish were to dress it like potatoes, 
would kill them, I should think myself bound to teach 
them how to press out the poisonous juice and retain the 
wholesome meal ; for it would be poor consolation, when 
the mass of the people were poisoned, to reflect that there 
were some hundreds of well-informed men who would be 
using this meal with safety and advantage. 

c An analogous duty to this is, I think, called for from 
you at present. That the doctrines which you think so 
salutary are actually in men's minds mixed up (no matter 
through whose fault) with what you consider as deadly, 
is an undeniable fact. Is it not for those who know how, 
to separate the venomous juice? to point the non-con- 
nexion of the principles which you approve, and which 
you consider as those of the Tracts, with those conclusions, 
which (however erroneously) are in fact deduced from 


them, both by their opponents and a great portion of 
their followers? 

. c You are quite right, as a general rule, not to occupy 
yourself in reading second-rate books, but I would suggest 
that there are exceptions. " A straw best shows how the 
wind blows." Inferior men will serve as a touchstone to 
show what impression is made on the multitude by such 
and such teaching ; they show how such a doctrine (not 
ought to be, but) is actually interpreted and acted on by 
the mass of mankind. With this view I recommend to 
you, if you have not read them already, Mr. PercivaTs 
and also Mr. Palmer's pamphlets (either is imperfect 
without the other), giving their account of the rise and 
progress of the Tractite party. They are men of no great 
calibre, and yet both took a very prominent part in the 
movement from the first ; and they have a considerable 
degree more of frankness about them than the rest of the 

* I take the liberty of sending you the transcript of an 
article in my "Common-place Book" on Phenakisrn; 1 
begging you to understand that it is not expressed as I 
should have done in a letter. I think I did not before 
send you the enclosed letter on the Restoration of 
Bishopricks. If the clergy and other members of the 
Church are in earnest on the subject, they will importune 
government with petitions, which is the only way to 
carry a point, as I believe is now understood. 

4 Believe me to be, yours very truly, 


The second letter on this subject, or at least on a 
kindred one, is to the Yice-Ohancellor of Oxford. 

1 See Miscellaneous Bemaias from Ms Common-place Book,' P 213, 


'October 26, 1844. 

c Dear Mr. Vice-Chancellor, I shall not, I trust, be 
deemed guilty of impertinent intrusion in making this 
application to you, and through you to the other Go- 
vernors of the University, in reference to certain theo- 
logical publications which for some time past have 
attracted so much attention, and which seem daily to be 
assuming a more decided tone. 

c At first, principles were advocated which appeared to 
some persons (though not to others) to be fundamental!} 
at variance with those of our Reformed Church, and to 
lead, if fairly followed out, to Bornanisrn, or something 
equivalent to it. By degrees, stronger and stronger com- 
plaints against our Church, and censures of the Reformers, 
were put forth ; and ultimately a bitter detestation of the 
Reformation was avowed, the most exceptionable tenets 
of the Romish Church were defended, the censures that 
had been at first passed on that Church were retracted, 
the Articles were explained away in a "non-natural 
sense," and men were taught to look forward with hope 
to a penitent submission of our Church to that of Rome. 

" And these publications are understood to be from the 
pens, not merely of members of the University of Oxford, 
but of resident graduate clergymen, some of them hold- 
ing such situations iu colleges as may be expected to give 
them great influence over the rising generation. 

' Now, I need not remind you that I and the bishops 
of this province are often called on to ordain, to license, 
or to institute, persons educated at Oxford. And a degree 
at that, or at one of the other universities connected with 
the Established Church, is considered, I believe, by every 
bishop as either an indispensable requisite for ordination, 
or, at least, a considerable recommendation. It does not, 
indeed, supersede our private examinations; but it is 


supposed to afford a presumption that the candidate shall 
have received, besides mere literary instruction, a careful 
training in sound Protestant Church principles. 

It may be easily conceived how mortifying it must 
be to me to find this presumption weakened, or de- 
stroyed, or even reversed, in respect of the university 
at which I was myself educated, and of which I am still 
a member. 

' And yet, can it be reasonably expected that a bishop 
should feel confidence as to the sound religious education 
of a candidate, from the circumstance of his having been 
trained in a university where several of the official in- 
structors and guides of youth profess openly (besides 
what others of them may naturally be supposed to incul- 
cate privately) such principles as might be looked for 
from the University of Salamanca or Coimbra ? Are we 
to be satisfied with testimonials to a candidate's fitness 
for the sacred ministry of our Church, signed by men 
who have probably been avowing their disapproval of its 
principles, and their contempt for its Reformers ? 

c If the bishops should resolve that an Oxford degree 
should henceforth reckon for nothing,, or less than nothing, 
and that a candidate brought up there should be called 
on to clear himself of the suspicion of being contaminated 
with such principles as he might be presumed to have 
imbibed in it, the university would doubtless consider 
itself affronted by such a mark of distrust. When, then, 
confidence is claimed on the one side, is it not reasonable 
that on the other side some sufficient ground for confi- 
dence should be afforded? I would submit, therefore, 
that we ought not to be deemed at all intrusive in calling 
on the university authorities to take such steps as in their 
judgment shall seem best for removing our well-founded 


c I remember the case, a good many years ago, of two 
members of the university being expelled for a publication 
in favour of Atheism. The procedure was doubtless very 
proper, though the doctrine inculcated was not likely, 
either from its own intrinsic character or from any 
influential position of its advocates, to make progress. If, 
instead of obscure undergraduates, those men had been 
graduate clergymen and college officers having a con- 
siderable party ready to support them, and if the false 
doctrine they taught had come recommended by profes- 
sions of piety and of zeal for the Church, their removal 
from the university, though it might have cost more 
trouble and more obloquy, would have been, in respect of 
the mischief they were likely to do, incomparably more 

c It would be idle to allege that the case I have alluded 
to would furnish no precedent, on the ground that Atheism 
is a worse error than any that have recently been pro- 
mulgated. This plea would manifestly be nothing to the 
purpose, since those men were not, I apprehend, expelled 
under any special statute against Atheism. The question 
is not as to the exact magnitude or the precise kind of 
each error, but as to its promulgation, and its being 
fundamentally " contrary to the doctrine or discipline of 
the Church of England." 

6 The bishops are solemnly pledged and a like duty, 
I apprehend, lies on the university as far as its jurisdic- 
tion extends to " banish and drive away all erroneous 
and strange doctrines contrary to God's Word." By 
which I understand not that we are literally to wage war 
against infidels and heretics, or to call for penal laws 
against those not professing to be of our communion, but 
to do our best to " drive out of the Church erroneous doc- 
trines ; " to protect, as far as lies in us, those members of 


the Church who are placed under our care from being 
corrupted through the teaching of " false prophets, who 
come in sheep's clothing, while inwardly they are raven- 
ing wolves," teaching false doctrine under the authority of 
the Church, and as her recognised instructors. Ill should 
we discharge our sacred duties if we should knowingly 
and willingly suffer any such within the fold on the ground 
that Atheism would be still worse. 

c I do not presume to determine what particular steps 
can or should be taken in the case. But I felt that I 
could not clear my own conscience without distinctly 
stating the alarm which is, not unreasonably, felt by my- 
self in common with many others, and making application 
to the authorities of that university wherein the causes of 
that alarm first arose. 

c I remain, Mr. Vice-Chancellor, 

' Tour faithful, humble servant, 

fi ED. DUBLIN.' 

*The letter which follows relates to a subject on which 
(and its allied topics) Dr. Whately has been charged 
with credulity. On such a matter it is far better to let 
the subject of a biography speak for himself. He was 
invariably opposed to the assumption of infallibility, and 
the dictation of things to be believed, by any human 
authority. It was his uniform maxim that no one can 
arrive at truth, in any sense worthy of the name, who 
does not discard such dictation, and examine for himself. 
But though apt to be sanguine as to the results of new 
discoveries in medical and similar sciences, it was by no 
means his habit to be led into extravagance in support of 

As to the modern notion of communications with the 
invisible world, or what is termed ' spiritualism/ the 


reader may consult a paper in the recently published 
' Extracts from his Common-place Book' (p. 381), one of 
the last which he regularly dictated, and which has been 
published to show what his deliberate opinion on this 
point was. As an inquirer, he did not venture to reject 
what seemed to him to have some, though by no means 
conclusive, evidence in its support : as a religious man 
he could not but maintain that, if there was any truth in 
it, it was presumptuous, and, perhaps, within the actual 
prohibition of Scripture.* 

Letter to a Friend on the subject of Animal Magnetism, 

' October, 1844. 

c I have been for some time waiting for leisure to write 
to you, being desirous of asking a question of you as a 
man curious about philosophical investigations : viz. 
whether you are thoroughly satisfied, from sufficient in- 
quiry respecting animal magnetism, that there is nothing 
at all in it, but that all the phenomena recorded are either 
fabrications and exaggerations, or else may be explained 
as 1st, imagination ; 2nd, fraud ; or 3rd, accident. 

4 1 say from sufficient inquiry, because it has surely long 
since been beyond being pooh-poohed 'out of court as a 
thing not worth inquiring about. And I have long since 
been seeking for a satisfactory solution of all that is 
credibly reported (setting aside flying rumours) on the 
hypothesis of fancy or chance, or collusive trick. And 
this, perhaps, you can supply. 

' I was a good deal staggered, several years ago, by Dr. 
Daubeny telling me, soon after his tour in Germany, 
that he had conversed on the subject with great numbers 
of scientific men there, some of whom reported or 


admitted great marvels, which others of them utterly 
derided and reprobated ; but that he had never met with 
one advocate or opponent who did not believe that 
there was something in it ; I mean, something that could 
not be explained on any of those hypotheses I have 
alluded to. 

c And since then I have conversed on the subject with 
all the medical men who are in the habit of attending my 
family ; three in Dublin and one in London. They are 
none of them practisers or advocates of magnetism. ; two 
of them vehement opponents ; yet all admit that they have 
witnessed, or have had established to their full conviction, 
phenomena which go to prove that there must be some- 
thing in it. Yet the bias of every practitioner who does 
not adopt it, must be against it. And so with those 
Germans. They are, no doubt, a very imaginative 
people ; and this, we will suppose, is sufficient to account 
for all that is said by its advocates ; but if any one should 
think that it will account for all that is admitted by oppo- 
nents, he must be profoundly ignorant of human nature. 
These, and several like instances, have compelled me to 
admit that the delusion (if it be one) is one that demands 
investigation, and that the evidence adduced must be 
worth refuting. 

c I am not prepared (which seems to be 's idea) to 

refuse to listen to evidence for what is unaccountable ; 
because there are so many things which I cannot help 
believing (and which to the vulgar seem not at all won- 
derful, because they are accustomed to them), in which 
I am totally unable to perceive any connexion of cause 
and effect, and can only witness facts. E. g. take the case 
of mineral magnetism ; it is very well to talk of a magnetic 
fluid (and for aught I know there may be a gravitating 
fluid also) which operates equally through a vacuum, 

VOL. IL tf 


or air, or a table, but this is all mere guess. All we know 
is, that some kinds, and not others, of iron ore, have a 
property, which they can impart by contact to iron, which 
will or will not retain that property, according to certain 
laws, and may be deprived of it again, or not, according 
to certain other laws ; which laws have been practically 
ascertained, after ages of investigation. But if a mineral 
magnet were now for the first time discovered, and its 
phenomena recorded, how many would at once reject the 
whole as an idle tale I As for all religious considerations, 
they appear to me to offer no ground of contrast or com- 
parison of any kind with the alleged phenomena of mineral 
magnetism, any more than if there were a question as to 
the comparative value of steam and some other motive 
power, and some one were to contrast these with Christian 
motives ; or should tell me, if there were a question about 
the illuminating powers of gas, or some other proposed 
substitute of the light of the Gospel. 

c The only point of contact between religion and these 
alleged phenomena is, that there has been an attempt 
made by some to explain the Scripture miracles by phy- 
sical agency ; and again by others, to represent these 
phenomena as Satanic agency. The like takes place, and 
ever will, on the announcement of every new set of facts 
or fictions. Astronomy, geology, physiology (by Mr. 
Lawrence), Greek-criticism in short everything, is taken 
up by the adversaries of Christianity as a weapon of 
offence, and dreaded by its weak advocates. Probably 

just such people as and , if they had 

lived in Italy some ages "back, would have exhorted all 
people not to look through Galileo's telescope, or listen 
to what he said ; and so of the rest. But a person pos- 
sessing real faith will be fully convinced that whatever 
suppressed physical fact seems to militate against his 


religion will be proved, by physical investigation, either 
to be unreal, or else reconcilable with his religion. If I 
were to found a church, one of my articles would be, that 
it is not allowable to bring forward Scripture, or any 
religious considerations at all, to prove or disprove any 
physical theory, or any but religious and moral con- 

' Then, as for danger, I cannot conceive how any one can 
apprehend more danger from doubt, inquiry, investigation, 
and consequent knowledge, than from adopting a conclu- 
sion at once without inquiry and in utter ignorance. When 
opium was first heard of (I know not when, but there 
must have been such a time) the accounts of its effects 
must have appeared excessively strange, and (which they 
still are, though people overlook them) quite unaccount- 
able. Now any one who should, then, have suspected that 
they might be true, and that if so it must be a powerful, 
and, of course, a very dangerous agent, would not surely 
have been in more danger than one who should at once 
have pronounced it impossible that any drug could produce 
such effects. There are some few cases, it is supposed, in 
which that strange agent, the nitrous-oxyde gas, might 
produce very bad effects. Now, which would be in the 
less danger, one who should be inclined to believe in its 
effects, or one who should agree with Dr. Buckland, who 
stoutly maintains (or at least did) that it is perfectly inert, 
and that all we hear of its effects is pure fiction or fancy? My 
conclusion is, therefore, that animal magnetism is decidedly 
worthy of inquiry, and the delusion, if it be such, of 
exposure. And this if you can furnish you will deserve 
well of mankind. No one is bound (I should observe) to 
prove actual fraud or delusion in each individual case, 
only to show its possibility. And on the other hand, the 
clearest proof of imposition in any number of cases, if 


there are others to which that solution will not apply, 
proves nothing in respect of these latter. Hume's chief 
argument against miracles universally is, that there are 
plenty of sham ones : he might as well have argued from 
the numbers of forged bank notes that there are none 
genuine. I wish to adopt finally the conclusions that shall 
imply the least credulity. But when will people be 
brought to understand that credulity and incredulity are 
the same? 

c You probably know the anecdote of the watchmaker 
and his wig. It is one of those which I am glad to have 
by me for occasional illustrations. He had taken great 
pains with a timepiece which yet sometimes went irre- 
gularly ; and after watching it for many days, to try and 
find out the fault, at last he could not avoid remarking 
that whenever he sat before it in his nightcap it went 
well, and when he wore his wig it erred. He commenced 
a series of experiments thereupon, which completely con- 
vinced him of this strange fact. And then he carefully 
examined his wig, and at length found that the steel 
spring of it had by some chance come in contact with a 
magnet, and thus deranged the works of the timepiece 
when he sat close before it 

6 Now supposing he had never been able to detect this 
cause, would he have been justified in assuming that it 
was impossible his wig could have anything to do with the 
matter ? In truth, if he had gone on that principle, he 
never would have discovered the cause; for what led 
him to examine his wig was, the belief, or at least suspicion, 
that the wig had something to do with it. 

4 How many cases of sequence will justify one in sus- 
pecting or believing the connexion of cause and effect, 
where such connexion is quite unaccountable, can no 
more be determined exactly than (according to Horace) 

-ffii. 57] ON ANIMAL MAGNETISM. 69 

how many years will entitle a poem to be called ancient; 
but every one must admit that there may be such a 
number as would establish the conclusion. An invalid 
who has an attack of sickness after having gone out in a 
carriage, would certainly be rash in supposing the excur- 
sion to be a cause of it ; but suppose he took twenty 
drives, and was taken ill eighteen or nineteen times im- 
mediately after, and hardly ever had such an attack when 
he stayed at home, would not the credulity, then, be in 
feeling confident that this was all pure chance? Or 
suppose a tree is blown down in a certain grove, and he 
is taken ill after it, he would say it was an accidental 
coincidence ; but if the same thing happened again and 
again twenty times, and he observed that every attack of 
a certain kind was accompanied by the blowing down of 
one of those trees, would Ee not have reason to suspect 
that there was some connexion, though he could not tell 
how, especially if he found several other invalids affected 
in the same manner at the same times ? It might ulti- 
mately be explained, by a particular wind's disagreeing 
with certain constitutions; that grove being exposed to 
that wind. But whether that or any other explanation 
were devised or not, every one would be at length con- 
vinced if not by twenty cases, at least by two hundred 

that there must be some connexion between the two 
sets of phenomena. 

4 Whether sleeping in the moonlight in the East Indies 
brings on sickness (which is quite unaccountable), I am 
unable to decide. I may sometime or other meet with 
an East Indian (I never did yet ) who disbelieves it ; but 
the multitude of persons is so great who attest that 
sleeping on the one side of a wall, in the shade, or on the 
other side, in the moonlight, makes all the difference, and 
that the latter rarely or never escape, that I conceive it 


would, in the present state of my knowledge, imply cre- 
dulity to pronounce confidently that the thing is impos- 
sible. Yet people will reckon themselves " incredulous " 
or sceptical precisely for not being sceptical, i. e. for not 
doubting or inquiring, but deciding at once. . . .' 

There are few other records of this year on the whole, 
an uneventful one to the Archbishop, as far as public 
affairs were concerned, though marked with private 
sorrow, in the death, after a long and suffering illness, 
of a sister-in-law, to whom he had always been warmly 

The next letter before us is to Mrs. Arnold, in answer 
to one from her on some points of difference between him 
and his departed friend : 

< Dublin : Nov. 17,1844. 

'My dear Mrs. Arnold, Your letter to Mrs. W. is 
what I should have expected from you, and from hardly 
any one else. You seem to me to have attained the right 
medium between want of due deference, and blind 
deference, and blind idolatry. 

'Many there are who fail to perceive that this letter is, 
in truth, far less complimentary to its object than free 
examination and fair trial, because rational inquiry is the 
natural ally of truth, while implicit acquiescence is per- 
fectly indifferent as to right and wrong, and may be just 
as well bestowed on the most absurd priest of Brahma 
as on a rational teacher. 

' I once took occasion to give a warning to , of 

which he seemed to me to stand much in need, that if 
his wish were to be, as fajj as possible, such a man as his 
father, he could not take a more effectual way to defeat 
his object than by resolving to adopt aH his father's 

-<ET. 57] TO MBS. AENOLD. 71 

opinions and closely to copy him, since lie was especially 
characterised by never servilely copying any one or taking 
any one's opinions as his standard ; and he would, I have 
no doubt (as well as myself), have thought himself more 
honoured by one who should agree with him on nine 
points and differ as to the tenth, after having carefully 
examined the reasons on both sides, in all, than by one 
who should adopt all ten without any reason except that 
they were his. This latter we should have considered as 
being in the right only by accident. 

6 When we are in the act of bringing our thoughts into 
order on some subject, we are almost sure to entertain, 
for a time, some views that are incompatible with each 
other, and of which, therefore, some must be abandoned 
to make room for the others, if we would arrive at a 
consistent whole. It is like the compounding of some 
medicines, in which ingredients are introduced that are 
chemically incompatible, and will be sure, after a time, to 
decompose each other. While there is an internal action, 
and perhaps an effervescence going on, and before the 
mixture has become the compound that will remain per- 
manent, it is something like the crude mixture of our 
thoughts on any subject before we have arrived at an 
harmonious system. A spoonful taken up here and 
another there, from different parts of the vessel, will 
exhibit different and even opposite properties. 

4 That it is most desirable to have the governors of any 
country men of true Christian wisdom, is what no Chris- 
tian can doubt ; but it would never do to allow that any 
government is, or ever can be, authorised to proclaim 
itself as being of that character, and therefore assume the 
right to dictate to the consciences of all the citizens, for 
two reasons first, because any set of governors might 
claim this right, professing a conviction (often, no doubt, 


a sincere one) that theirs is the true religion, and if any 
one demanded proof of this, they would be ready (as 
experience abundantly shows) to cut short all question 
by an appeal to power to the sovereignty i. e. the 
physical force of the civil government. " There is no 
arguing with the master of twenty legions." And yet 
their religion might, after all, be far enough from true 
Christianity. Secondly, if there even were a set of 
governors who not only were perfectly in possession of 
true religious principles, but also gifted, like the apostles, 
with miraculous powers, as credentials from heaven that 
might enable all men to know the truth of their religion, 
still, the adoption of this must be left (as in the times of 
those very apostles themselves) to the voluntary acquies-- 
cence of men in the conviction thus wrought, because the 
whole virtue of religion must depend on its being sincere 
and voluntary. Governors are, indeed, bound to offer no 
impediments to what they judge to be true religion, and 
to offer to their subjects every facility for learning and 
practising it ; but as soon as they begin to act as gover- 
nors, directly enforcing the profession of a true faith, that 
moment they give it a fatal stab, because they thus 
change the motives from which such a profession ought 
to spring. 

' I remember once arguing with a man on the much- 
trodden field of the National Schools, and he dwelt on the 
often-repeated argument that all persons ought to read 
the Scriptures, that they were inexcusable if they did 
not, or if they did not have their children instructed 
therein, &e. Well," said I, " but do you think the benefit 
of reading the Scriptures extends to those who do so on 
compulsion or for the sake of payment, or is it confined 
to those who study with hearty goodwill ? " " Certainly," 
said he, " the latter ; but then all men ought to read the 

Mt. 57] TO MRS. ARNOLD. 73 

Scriptures voluntarily." " So I think ; but I suppose there 
are some who will not be persuaded to do as they ought." 
"Why, then, they should be compelled"!, e. compelled 
to read the Scriptures voluntarily ! 

4 Now this discussion was on a question which is one 
part of the general question as to the employment of 
" power " (i. e. secular power) in religious matters. 

' But I think it is no more than fair to apply the same 
rule of interpretation to any author whom one believes to 
be honest, which we apply to the sacred writers namely, 
to take whatever is most clearly expressed, and which 
leaves no doubt as to the writer's meaning, as a guide and 
interpreter of whatever is obscure and doubtful, so as to 
admit of no sense of any passage that shall be at variance 
with what we are quite sure the writer taught. Now, no 
language can be clearer than Dr. A.'s when he says (in 
one of his latest works) : " The highest truth, if professed 
by one who believes it not in his heart, is to him a lie, 
and he sins greatly by professing it. Let us try as much 
as we will to convince our neighbours, but let us beware 
of influencing their conduct when we fail in influencing 
their convictions. He who bribes or frightens his neigh- 
bour, &c." (" Life," p. 435.) Now this is so clear that 
I think we ought to take it as the standard by which to 
try anything more obscure and doubtful, concluding that 
anything seemingly at variance with it either is misunder- 
stood by us, or would have been altered by him so as to 
be reconcilable therewith.' 

The last letter of this year is one to a friend, on a pro- 
posed meeting of the Bishops of the province of Canter- 


' Dublin: Dec. 18, 1844. 

c Allow me to take this opportunity of asking whether 
the newspaper accounts are correct, of an intended meet- 
ing of the bishops (of the province of Canterbury?) to 
decide on questions connected with the Kubric, and what 
is likely to be the result ? 

6 Some advantage I can perceive as likely to be pro- 
duced by such a meeting ; but I am not without appre- 
hension of danger from it. Much benefit may result from 
a decision of all the bishops of the United Church, if under- 
stood to be bon& fide unanimous, and if also coincident 
with the views of the generality of the clergy and laity. 
But what if they are not unanimous ? or if it be suspected 
that the minority are borne down by the majority, and 
brought to acquiesce in something against their own judg- 
ment? In Parliament, or in any kind of legally- estab- 
lished convention, the decision of the majority is (if such 
be the law) binding on the whole. A man may, and 
should, submit to an act of parliament where compliance 
is not clearly sinful even though he may think it an un- 
wise one. But it is not so with any self-convened assembly, 
having no legal power in a corporate capacity. The de- 
cision of such an assembly is its unanimous decision ; and 
the individuals so met would not have even the right to 
bind themselves in the first instance by a unanimous vote 
to submit, in all subsequent proceedings, to the will of the 
majority except in matters intrinsically unimportant. 
For a bishop who should do so, would be giving up his 
own judgment as to the concerns of his own diocese, 
which he is bound to govern according to the best of his 
own judgment, and endeavouring to renounce that indivi- 
dual responsibility of which he has no power to divest 


himself. And if, accordingly, some few should refuse to 
comply with decisions which they might deem inexpe- 
dient, would not this be making a more marked division 
I may say a more organised schism in the Church than 
any that has hitherto existed ? 

' Again, should any decision be made which seemed to 
savour of concession to the Tractites, even in matters in- 
trinsically trifling, might not this excite alarm and dissatis- 
faction ? Whether the English flag bear lions or leopards, 
can, in itself, make no difference in the power and welfare 
of the state ; but if in the time of Buonaparte, we had, 
in seeming compliance with him, substituted leopards, all 
Europe would have regarded this as a step towards sub- 
mission. The via media, which is now the watchword of 
many, and which consists in going a certain way, and no 
further, in the Tractite path, is regarded by many others 
(of whom I am one) as halting between the premises and 
the conclusion ; not venturing either to give up their 
principles or admit the consequences to which they fairly 
lead. And I cannot but feel apprehensions lest some such 
middle course as that should be adopted. If the assembled 
bishops would agree to petition for a Church-government, 
that, I am convinced, would be the only real remedy 
for the existing discord.' 




Letter to Mr. Senior on Irish Poor Laws Letter on Proceedings 
against Rey. Mr. "Ward Tribute to Bishop Copleston Letters 
to same Lady Oshorne's Question: Why Protestantism seems 
more easily uprooted than Romanism ? Letter in reply Anecdote 
of Mrs. Whately : the poor sick woman and her cleanliness 
Letter to Mr. Senior on Irish affairs Change of Ministry : Lord 
John Russell prime minister Letter to Bishop Copleston on 
theological subjects Letter to Bishop of Norwich. 

THE c Lessons on Reasoning ' had now been added to the 
other series of 4 Easy Lessons,' and were received in the 
National Schools, as well as in others. 

It was probably in the January of this year that the 
Archbishop wrote to Mr. Senior the following criticism on 
an article on the Irish Poor-Law, which had appeared in 
a leading Whig paper. 

'Jan. 2, 

* My dear Senior,_The article is less garbled than I 
had feared, and reads well. It seems also to have the 
effect of exciting great alarm among the supporters of 

6 It grieves me, however, that so much good sense and 
good writing should have the disadvantage of being under- 
stood to be a party-work, and that what there is in it good 


and true is said, not because true, but as suiting a party 
object. E. g. the Protestant religion was not more forced 
on the Irish nation than the Poor-law; it was not opposed 
by so great a variety of classes of the people ; it did not 
more completely fail of producing the religious harmony 
it aimed at than the Poor-law did of its object, &c. ; the 
obvious reason why the one act of folly and injustice is 
exposed to a censure which the other escapes, every one 
will see to be that the one was, and the other was not, a 
Whig measure. 

6 1 wish aU sensible people would give up both Whigs 
and Conservatives, as such, and set themselves to mark 
out a new fort, to be built and garrisoned by a new party, 
having Free-trade for one of its rallying cries. Catholic 
Emancipation, Parliamentary Reform, and several other 
questions on which parties were divided at the time, are 
things over and past And as for the Corn-laws, the 
Whigs, as such, were not opposed to the Conservatives. 
Lord M. said " it would be madness to touch them till a 
financial difficulty arose ;" and then, it was only a modifi- 
cation, for, though nominally a fixed duty, it was one 
which was to be unfixed again in the event of a dearth. 

* It is time that these two armies should, as soon as 
possible, be disbanded, being fallen into as much disrepute 
as the " Rump " and " Praise-God Barebone's " parlia- 
ments. And then the " auld brass will buy us a new pan." 

4 The masters in training were examined a fortnight 
ago, as usual, publicly, at the close of their course, and, 
among other things, in the " Lessons on Reasoning," of 
which they gave a very creditable account ; and the work 
is spreading throughout the schools. 

* I wonder if Dr. Eay-Shuttleworth knows it ? ' 

The following letters relate in part to the proceedings 


taken this year at Oxford against the Bev. Mr. Ward, 
author of fi The Ideal of a Christian Church/ who after- 
wards joined the Church of Kome. 

'Dublin: Jan. 10, 1845. 

'My dear Senior, I have received communications from 
many and various persons, all objecting, somewhat as you 
do, to the new statute ; except, of course, the framers of 
it. Before, however, I had received any of these, I had 
written to Hawkins (who had sent me a copy of it) to 
point out that these objections would be raised, and would 
probably defeat the plan. To me it seems a great error 
to introduce any test of the kind. Ward had given them 
a great advantage which they are throwing away ; they 
might have said, We will waive all questions as to what 
is the right sense in which a man ought to subscribe 
all questions as to what is or is not conformable to the 
views of our church and her reformers : you do not pre- 
tend to subscribe to the Articles in any natural sense ; 
therefore you are manifestly, and by your own showing, 
guilty of a breach of faith. 

'This advantage they are throwing away; and will 
transfer the dread and indignation which was felt against 
the Tractites, to their opponents. This, at least, was my 
expectation; and every day almost brings me a letter 
from some Oxford man confirming my apprehensions. 

* What steps should now be taken I cannot think. I 
have advised Price, Merivale, Powell, Bishop, and some 
others who have consulted me, to meet and confer with 
as many non-party men as they can collect, with a view 
to acting together ; and to get up addresses to the bishops 
to join them in applying to the Queen to appoint a 
commission analogous to that of the reformed Poor-law, 
for suggesting a plan of Church government. 

^ET. 58] REV. MR WARD'S CASE. 79 

4 Pray let Fellowes supply you with any copies of my 
last two Charges for distribution, that you can think of. 

c Ever yours, 


'Dublin: Feb. 10, 1845. 

' My dear Senior, I understand that high legal authori- 
ties have declared " degradation " to be illegal, though the 
university may " expel," i. e. place a man in the same 
situation as the majority of graduates place themselves 
in, when they take their names off the books. 1 

'I pointed out - immediately to Hawkins, that the 
university placed itself in a false position by degrading 
without expelling ; but I had not heard of the illegality. 

c I should like to know what is the distinction made 
by Hampden between the proposed censure against 
Tract 90, &o., and that against himself. There may be a 
valid one, but I have not seen it made out. My wish is 
that a number of persons should apply to the Vice- 
Chancellor, calling on the Hebdomadal Board to propose 
the rescinding of the statute against Harnpden. 

c What is wanted by the persons Shiel speaks of is not 
(except for the present) equality, but ascendancy and 
revenge. That such is the feeling of a large portion of 
the community, I have his own word. 

4 Education, however, is really desired by many ; and 
the more education is given, the more it will be craved for. 

6 The Metropolitan University would no longer be the 
only one in repute, or the most in repute, if my suggestion 
lately given to government were carried into effect. I 
ana for limiting the annual number of M.A. and other 

1 This question was brought to an issue at Oxford in convocation, on 
February 13, 1845, when two votes passed, one censuring Mr. Ward's 
book, the other for his degradation. 


higher degrees conferred by the new university. This 
would give them a value which no degrees of that class 
now possess, or can possess elsewhere. 

c In haste, yours ever, 

' R W. 5 

The following tribute to his former tutor and old 
Mend, Bishop Copleston, is too interesting to be omitted ; 
it accompanied a copy of some publication. 

< Dublin: July 7, 1845. 

c My dear Lord, I am bound to send, and you to re- 
ceive, as a kind of lord of the soil, every production of 
my pen, as a token of acknowledgment that from you 
I have derived the main principles on which I have 
acted and speculated through life. 

4 Not that I have adopted anything from you, implicitly 
and on authority, but from conviction produced by the 
reasons you adduced. This, however, rather increases 
the obligation ; since you furnished me not only with the 
theorems but the demonstrations ; not only the fruits but 
the trees that bore them. 

c It cannot, indeed, be proved that I should not have 
embraced the very same principles if I had never known 
you ; and, in like manner, no one can prove that the 
battle of Waterloo would not have been fought and won, 
if the Duke of Wellington had been killed the day before : 
but still, the fact remains that the duke did actually gain 
that battle. And it is no less a fact that my principles 
actually were learnt from you. 

6 When it happens that we completely concur as to the 
application of any principle, it is so much the more agree- 
able ; but in all cases the law remains in force, that 
" whatsoever a man soweth, that also shall he reap : " and 


the credit or the discredit of having myself to reckon 
among your works, must in justice appertain to you. 
' Believe me to be, at the end of forty years, 

4 Tour grateful and affectionate friend and pupil, 


To Bishop Copleston. 

'Dublin: Nov. 15, 1845. 

dear Lord, What you say about the Welsh and 
other provincial languages is so undeniably just and 
Important, that the only marvel is there should be any 
occasion to say it at all. Those who, in this country, 
cultivate the Irish language, always possess at least the 
design of bringing in English to supersede it. They say 
that people are more easily brought to learn to read, and 
learn more easily, in the language they are well acquainted 
with, and that when they have acquired the art, they soon 
betake themselves to the language in which there are the 
most books. Whether they are right or not, such is their 
professed plan. 

c There is a man at this time proposing to translate the 
little tract on " Evidences " into Welsh, and I have put 
him into communication with Tyler, to try whether the 
S. P. C. K. will print it. If such a version, bound up with 
the original, which is in very simple plain English, were 
circulated, perhaps it might help towards the knowledge 
of English. I know there are persons who use the 
French translation of it as an easy reading book for 
children who are perfecting themselves in reading French. 

c By-the-bye, I lately received from Smyrna a magazine 
in Romaic, containing among other things a translation 
of that tract, I found I could read it with very little 

VOL, n. G 


* Allow me to say a word in behalf of tlie persons you 
have censured as lukewarm in not voting for Ward's 
degradation. Some of them, I am sure, did not act as 
they did from that cause ; but they felt that the degrada- 
tion, not accompanied by expulsion, placed the university 
in a false position, and implied that a man, who, from 
being hostile to the Church, was disqualified for being a 
graduate, might still be allowed to be a member, though 
no officer in the army would be, for treason, reduced to 
the ranks, but either acquitted or dismissed. 

c Ever yours most truly, 


Lady Osborne had written to propose a question to 
the Archbishop, how it was that Protestantism seems 
more easily driven out by persecution than Bornanisni ? 

< Palace: Sept. 13. 

* My dear Lady Osborne, Though this is my audience 
day, I write one hurried line of remark on the very curious 
question you discuss. 

<1. "By fair means or foul;" this furnishes part of 
an answer. It is almost enough to make a man cling to 
a false religion, to try to bribe or bully him out of it It 
becomes a point of honour with him. 

4 2. Eomanism is the religion of nature. Cast your eye 
again over my " Eomish Errors," and see what I say on 
that point. 

< 3. In Belgium, Bohemia, Italy, Spain, &c., Protestant- 
ism was persecuted out, while Eomanisin stands all such 

6 May not this be from its being so easy a religion to 
retain or adopt in a state of degradation and barbarism, 
such as persecution produces ? 


4 Can the poorest of the Irish peasantry (aad the most 
ignorant) have any religion except one of external cere- 
monies ? 

6 But it is a very difficult question. 

c Ever yours truly, 



4 Mrs. Whately, in going through the village of Stil- 
lorgan from time to time to look after the poor, always 
urges them to the practice of neatness as far as their 
poverty will admit, though often with no great success. 

* One poor woman who is infirm and sickly, and only 
able to do about a month's work in the year, was found, 
when Mrs. Whately called the other day, to have got 
some neighbour to whitewash the walls of her cabin, and 
she had hung up a few prints which some one had given 
her, swept her floor, and cleaned all her little articles of 
furniture, mended all rents in her poor garments, and 
kept her person and house very neat. She was congratu- 
lated on this ; but it appeared she had lost her allowance 
of food by it. The relieving officer, on stepping into 
her cabin, observed, " Oh, you seem to be very comfort- 
able here !" and thereupon her allowance was stopped ! 
Several of her neighbours, not at all poorer, but living in 
a state of swinish filth, and disorder, had their allowance 
continued ! Thus, among other many and great evils, the 
out-door relief system is made to operate as a direct 
bounty on squalid carelessness and brutish habits, and as 
a penalty on civilisation and efforts after cleanliness and 

4 You may perhaps find means to communicate this 
specimen case to those to whom it may be usefully in- 
structive, *EB. DUBLU/ 

"G 2 


1 Dublin: Saturday, 1845. 

* My dear Senior, You seem to have quite mistaken 
the nature of iny apprehensions. It is not that there is, 
or is supposed to be, any probability of the increase of 
Protestants, though some Protestant landlords might make 
an effort (should the measure Lord John Eussell hinted 
at be adopted) to turn out Eoman Catholic tenants and 
replace them by Protestants who, as well as themselves, 
would be shot ; but the danger I apprehended was, that 
it would be concluded by parity of reasoning that a 
further diminution of Protestants would be followed by a 
further reduction of revenue, and thus the tithe would be 
a regular bone of contention (not that either party would 
get much) ; but animosity would be increased tenfold. 

c Ever yours, 


* What I wished to express about O'ConnelTs obtaining 
office is this. If he is put into a political office, such as 
that of Secretary to Ireland, which might be held by a 
layman, this will be inevitably regarded as a direct reward 
of his agitation, and an announcement that his principles 
are to be acted on. The same objection would not lie 
against his being made " Master of the Eolls," if he would 
accept such an office nor, with the same strength, against 
his being Attorney-General ; for, though this is a political 
office, yet it must be held by a good lawyer, and it might 
be said he was put into it on account of his talents as a 
lawyer, and in spite of his agitation.' 

In the interval between this and the next letter occurred 
the change of ministry by which Lord John Eussell 
became Prime Minister, succeeding Sir Eobert Peel, and 
Lord Clarendon Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, 


To Bishop Copleston. 

< Dec. 2 7 1845. 

c My dear Lord, I have sent orders, though I believe 
it was not necessary, to Fellowes, and also to Parker, to 
place always at your disposal any copies of my works you 
may wish for. It would be hard, indeed, if a man were 
not free to pluck the fruit from the tree he had planted. 
I included, in writing to Fellowes, Bernard's " Vitringa," 
which is a work undertaken at my suggestion. It deserves 
to be much more known than it is. 

c Your letter, and Dr. 's book, came into my hands 

together. I do not know him, but shall make inquiries. 
At a slight glance I see the importance of his argument. 
It strikes me, however, that he has advanced his outposts 
further than there was any need ; and that he might have 
maintained, practically, the same position without insist- 
ing on so much. Suppose the three gospels were com- 
posed, in their present form, long after some of the epistles, 
and that John's was later than any, still, if the first three 
were compiled from those early documents seemingly 
alluded to by Luke, and John's written from his own vivid 
recollections, the main point is proved. If some intimate 
and early friend of Napoleon Buonaparte (supposing the 
existence of N. B. 1 ) had drawn up an " eloge" just after 
death, and had subsequently written memoirs of his early 
life, it is likely we should have found him usually called 
" Buonaparte" in the memoirs, and constantly " Napoleon" 
in the other. There are many critical and other points to 
be elucidated by a careful study of the New Testament 
writings, of great importance, and generally overlooked 
by commentators, which I wish Hinds had leisure to 
write on, and which perhaps Dr. Dobbin may hereafter 

1 A jocose allusion to his own ' Historic Doiibts.' ^ 


treat of; e.g. 1 Cor. i, 26 has often proved a stumbling- 
block, by suggesting the idea that the Gospel was rejected 
by all but the lowest and most ignorant of the populace ; 
whereas it is plain from the context though our trans- 
lators overlooked it that Paul is not speaking of the 
" called," but of the " callers." Then again in Gal. ii. 14, 
there is a puzzle, from its appearing that Peter had laid 
aside the observances of the Mosaic Law ; and that too 
at the very time when he was reproached for having with- 
drawn from the Gentiles ; and the rebuke of Paul seems 
feeble and obscure. But tfiv tdvu<>$ evidently is " to have 
life on the same terms as a Gentile, and not by virtue of 
his being a Jew." And the rebuke furnished all but the 
very words of Peter's speech immediately after, at Jeru- 
salem (Acts sv. 11). I was looking the other day at a 
commentator on John xviii. 12, who says assuming that 
6 aXXos //.a&frijs was John with admirable simplicity, 
that "the article spoils the sense;" and so it does, the 
sense which he had predetermined to adopt. But I should 
have thought the best procedure would have been to look 
at an author's words first, and from them to elicit his 
meaning. What the Evangelist does say, leaves no doubt 
that "the other disciple" must have been the only one, 
besides Peter, who had been named just before. 

* What you say, and what has for a good while past 
been often in my mind respecting Episcopacy, often re- 
calls to me your remark in your note on " Analogy," as 
to the errors we fall into by the application of the same 
names to offices and situations not precisely the same in 
different ages and countries; e.g. we often call ours a 
monarchical government, as if we were under a single 
Euler; and, if we were under a Protector as we probably 
should have been if Eichard Cromwell had been at all 
like his father we should probably have called our 

-a&. 58] TO BISHOP OF NORWICH. 87 

government " republican." When a church and a diocese 
were co-extensive and synonymous which certainly seems 
to have been the Apostolical model a bishop was as dif- 
ferent from what you and I are, as a sovereign prince 
from a colonial governor. I do not say that Christian 
churches had no right to make the change, on very mature 
and grave deliberation. But whether they were wise in 
making it, is a more doubtful question. 


To the Bishop of Nonuich. 

'Dublin: Dec. 28, 1845. 

6 My dear Bishop, Eor saying that our authorised 
version is not the Bible, but only a translation thereof, 
and that it is not the standard of our Church, I have been 
most fiercely assailed ; and not the less inasmuch as what 
I have said is quite undeniable. 

6 What you observe of Mr. 's speech is very just ; 

and perhaps if he had thought of that he would not 
have said it ; but I really think he is a man who would 
be glad so to put the matter before the minds of his own 
people as to make them remedy the evil; for though 
sadly timorous, he is far from a bigot. 

c What you say of Church government reminds me of 
a speech of Dogberry's : " it hath been proved already 
that you are stark knaves ; and it will go near to be 
thought so shortly." The absence and the need of a 
government were unanswerably proved by me, and by 
poor Bishop Dickinson, years ago ; and now many people 
are beginning to think it. Did I send you a copy of my 
letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury about legalising 
occasional forms of prayer ? 

c would be a much better bishop than any, 

except one, that has been appointed since I came. But I 


shall be very greatly disappointed if they appoint any but 
Hinds, whom the Lord-Lieutenant has had the wisdom 
to make first chaplain. Surely you know his publica- 
tions? In ability (including the power of influencing 
men's minds) and in learning, he would make two of 
Hoare, and in moral worth four. 

c Have you seen my proposal for re-establishing the see 
of Kildare by uniting it with the provostship of Trinity 
College ? Ministers profess to be anxious that I should 
continue on the Educational Board, and also that I should 
attend Parliament ; neither of which will, I fear, be pos- 
sible, unless I am relieved of Kildare ; and yet they will 
not even take any notice of my proposal, though backed 
by petitions to the Queen from both dioceses. 

' Some, I fear, will advocate the cause in such a style as 

to do more harm than good. There is a Dr. B who 

has sent me a pamphlet on the subject, full of the old 
cant against the Maynooth grant, and " driving out " false 
doctrines, &c, 

4 1 hope your daughter will not be plundered and mur- 
dered in Madeira, and that your son will not be eaten by 
the Papuans ; or the other by the convicts. 

c By-the-bye, have you seen Mr. French Angas's travels 
in New Zealand and Australia ? I think it would interest 

c With our united kind regards to you and your party, 
present and absent, 

6 Believe me, very truly yours, 

c Ri>. DUBLIN.' 




Letter to Mrs. Arnold respecting the ' Model Farm 'Anecdote of 
the Archbishop : tries the effect of Magnetism in curing toothache 
Opinion of Mr. Gladstone Letter to Mrs. Arnold Disapproves 
the 'Evangelical Alliance ' Letter to Eev. R Kyle on the subject 
Letter to Dr. Hinds on new Penal Colony in Western Australia 
Memorandum on Bill for legislating forms of Prayer The tour to 
Switzerland Reminiscences of the visit by Mr. Arnold Anecdotes 
of the Archbishop Translation into German of the ' Lessons on 
Evidence ' Letter to Miss Crabtree on the subject Letter to Mr. 
Senior Letter to Mr. Duncan Lines on Australia. 

THE first letter of 1846 is to Mrs. Arnold in answer to 
some questions of hers with respect to the c model farm' 
attached to the Educational Institutions in connexion with 
the National Board. 

The nest letter alludes to the objections sometimes 
made by young men in choosing a profession. 

' January 2, 1846. 

4 My dear Mrs. Arnold, The Model Farm is a thing 
which certainly ought to be visited, so as to get an idea 
of the arrangement of the buildings, the agricultural im- 
plements, &c. And if a man were sufficiently bent on 
becoming an agriculturist to put up with the annoyance of 
attending the courses of lectures along with the farmers' 
sons (a lower class than those in England) and working 
along with them in the fields at all kinds of husbandry- 


work which is insisted^ on by Mr. Skilling, our agricul- 
turist, as an essential part of the training he would derive 
great benefit. But I doubt whether it would be worth 
any one's while to drop in for a month or two in the middle 
of a course of lectures ; and Skilling has so much to do 
that he would be quite unable to bestow any separate 
attention on a single pupil. So that a man would, as it 
were, dip at random into the midst of a book and pick 
up what he could by chance. 

c Something, no doubt, might be gained in that way : 
but I should think not half so much as might be gained 
in the same time by residing with a good farmer even 
half as good a one as Skilling who had not a set of 
regular pupils to attend to. You may judge for yourself 
of the difference between dropping in for three or four 
weeks into the middle of a College-lecture, and spending 
the same time with a private tutor. I should not hesitate 
between the two. 

< I went over yesterday to Eedesdale, partly to visit some 
patients whom Mr. Tennant (whom I suppose Mrs. W. 
has told you of) had magnetised. I visited and inquired 
about seven; less than half of those he had operated 
on in my presence. They were all cases of acute pains, 
chiefly rheumatism ; and most of them had been wholly 
free from pain ever since, and the rest greatly improved. 
I saw also a poor woman whom I had operated on about 
the same time (three weeks ago) for a dreadful tooth- 
ache. She had half the tooth drawn by a bungling 
dentist who had also apparently splintered the jaw ; and 
had been in torture for three days, and her whole face 
so inflamed that she could not bear it touched. She 
had come to our house expecting to see a gentleman 
who could perhaps relieve her. She had heard nothing 
of magnetism. I saw her waiting in the hall, evidently 


in great torture ; and as he did not corne, I resolved 
to try my hand. In seven or eight minutes she pro- 
fessed to be entirely free from pain ; and so has remained 
ever since ! If all this be fancy, it is a very pleasant kind 
of fancy. 

fi Ever yours affectionately, 


c P.S. You ask whether it is a good thing that the 
best measures should be brought forward by those who 
propose them, not because they like them, but by those 
who cannot avoid them. It is a question that does not 
much affect the present ministry as compared with the 
late : for the Whigs had publicly declared that it would 
be madness to meddle with the corn-laws ; only when they 
found themselves in a financial difficulty they discovered 
that cheap bread is a good thing. 

c In an absolute monarchy so far as it is really abso- 
lute the measures adopted will always be such as the 
ruler thinks best. In any free government it cannot but 
be common for the subjects to force on their governors 
measures not really approved. 

' I think it the best thing, when a measure really good 
can be carried triumphantly by men who really approve 
it, that it should be so. 

c Especially, anything of conciliation has a far better 
effect when not extorted. Some people reproach the 
Eoman Catholics for not being grateful for the emanci- 
pation. I always thought them rather over^grateful to 
O'Connell ; but as for the Tory Ministry, to thank them 
for granting what they dared not refuse would have justi- 
fied the spelling of the word " great fool." You might 
as well thank an ox for a beef-steak. 

c But it will often happen that it will be difficult or 


impossible for a certain measure to be carried, and carried 
in its completeness, except by those who are avowedly 
averse to it. This is a paradox, but it is very true. 
Many men will vote and speak violently against a measure 
when in opposition, which when their party is in, they 
will suffer to pass. They even think it no insincerity to 
oppose a measure, on the ground that they sincerely 
dislike it, which they are conscious at the moment they 
would themselves advocate if in place, as being aware 
that it is unavoidable. And others, not so unscru- 
pulous as that, will often oppose a measure which they 
think may be defeated ; though when their own party 
come into power it proves necessary. Thus, the chief part 
of the men now in power either opposed or did not at all 
support the Educational Board : but when the Tories came 
in, and found themselves not strong enough to overthrow 
it, their adherents for the most part gave up their opposi- 
tion in despair. The great ground of confidence in the 
dispositions of the present ministry towards the Board 
is the conviction in most people's minds that they would 
have destroyed its fundamental principles if they had 
dared. The D. of W. when out of place spoke of its 
being a good thing for the Eoman Catholics, but a com- 
plete failure as a united system. I gave ministers notice 
that if they adopted that view, and accordingly made a 
separate grant for Protestant Schools, I should instantly 
resign. He has never said anything of the kind since. 

6 And so with the corn-laws. Peel is more likely to 
carry the abolition than the Whigs would have been ; 
and therefore I think it better that he should be in than 

c What they can see in I cannot think, 1 His 

1 The Archbishop is speaking of one "wnom he knew, up to' this time, 
far more as a writer than a politician. 


mind is full of " cul-de-sacs.'* He takes up a principle, 
and defends it plausibly, and follows it up to some absurd 
conclusion, and then scrambles away one can't tell how. 
You follow a good, well-made road, for a certain distance, 
and then find yourself in the midst of a thicket, or on 
the brink of a precipice. And he seems quite unaware 
of this,' 

' April 17, 1846. 

* My dear Mrs, Arnold, I am half provoked when I 
hear people talk of a dry study by which a young man is 
to obtain a comfortable and respectable subsistence. If 
this is to be the general tone of "Young England ;" if 
they think to live in Lubberland, where pigs run about 
ready-roasted, and the streets are paved with plum- 
pudding, we shall have some Young Englanders of the 
humbler classes telling us that driving a plough is dry 
work, and that they would rather employ themselves in 

4 Why there is Senior, a man of the highest talents and 
most varied tastes and acquirements, who drudged at 
conveyancing for his livelihood ; and, I may add, had 
leisure hours for the study of political economy and lite- 
rary criticism, which as a barrister he would have had no 
chance of. 

c Who, except a man of fortune, has a right to say he 
will only follow his own tastes and inclinations ? 
4 In haste, yours affectionately, 



' Give my regards to my grafts and buds at Fox How/ 

The following letter requires some explanation. The 
Archbishop strongly disapproved of the principles and 
working of the c Evangelical Alliance,' a branch of which 


had just been established in Dublin, and expressed 
his desire that his clergy should not join it. No one 
who knew him could doubt that his decision proceeded 
from conscientious conviction. But in this case the col- 
lision into which it brought him* with the conscientious 
convictions of others, was necessarily most painful both to 
himself and them. It was on this subject that he was 
addressed by the Eev. E. Kyle, a curate in his diocese, 
who wrote to ask him whether he considered that a dis- 
regard of the desire expressed by his Grace would be an 
infringement of his vow of canonical obedience? The 
Archbishop's answer was as follows : 

'Palace: March 14, 1846. 

c I have no objection to explain as clearly as I can, 
the meaning I intended to convey : not undertaking, 
indeed, to use such expressions as could not be cavilled 
at or misrepresented by special-pleading subtlety on the 
principle of those "non-natural" interpretations which 
we have lately heard of but speaking as to a man of 
honour, and ^candour, and common sense, as I consider 

6 1 must premise, that the question between you and 
me now does not necessarily involve any consideration 
at all of questions relative to the vow of obedience, and 
the episcopal admonitions which a man would be bound 
in conscience to obey or disobey. Tor if not only you, 
but I myself, thought that you were bound in conscience 
to take some course which you considered essential to 
peace and church unity, and which, I felt convinced, 
tended to the utter destruction thereof, I could not, 
consistently with duty, continue to employ your minis- 
tration. And, I cannot doubt you would, in a parallel 
case, act on a similar principle. If, for instance, you 



were rector of a parish in which a certain person officiated 
who could not do so but by your permission, and that 
you found him imbued with some notions, suppose, of the 
Tractites, which he held to be essential parts of church 
principles, and of the genuine gospel, but which you 
judged to be quite opposite thereto, you could not say that 
it was his duty to abstain at your desire, from teaching 
what he thought the only true gospel ; but you would 
think yourself quite unjustifiable in making yourself a 
party (by continuing your permission) to what you re- 
garded as wrong and pernicious. 

e Although, however, the course I take in reference 
to yourself, is independent of all considerations of the vow 
of obedience to admonitions, I am ready to explain my 
views thereon, in answer to your inquiry, as I id advert 
to the subject in conversation with you. 

c I do think then (as I have said in the pamphlet, which 
of course you have seen) that the admonition now in 
question, is one which the clergy of this diocese cannot, 
consistently with their vow, act in opposition to, either 
" openly" or secretly. The distinction which you seem, 
impliedly, to make when you speak of " open opposition," 
is one which I did not make nor can recognise. Any 
vow that is binding on the conscience at all, must be 
binding in the dark as well as in the light. For though 
man may be unable to bring home to any one a secret 
violation of it, all things, you know, are open to Him 
before whom vows are made. 

c Were I to say that a Bishop has no right to forbid 
anything " not contrary to the laws, or canons," &c., 
I should be reducing the office to that of a regulator 
of mere insignificant trifles a kind of master of the 
ceremonies an office which would not need a Bishop for 
each diocese, but might be adequately discharged by one 


of the humbler officers of the royal household, acting 
for the whole empire. And, even in these trifles, he might 
be obeyed or disobeyed at pleasure, wherever " the laws " 
had made no decision, 

6 In. fact, the vow so solemnly made, would evidently 
be a mere idle mockery, if we were to understand a 
bishop's admonitions to be entitled to obedience only in 
things already determined by the church or the civil 
government to be binding just in those cases, wherein 
one is equally bound without any admonition. This, 
surely, would be a " non-natural " mode of interpreting. 

* And equally nugatory would it be to interpret " godly " 
as meaning what is, in each clergyman's opinion, condu- 
cive to a desirable religious object. For each is already 
bound in conscience to do, in all things left to his conduct 
and control, whatever he thinks likely to promote the 
religious and moral good of his people. 

* What, then, you may say, is the limit ? since some 
limit there must be. In the first place, the word " godly " 
is one limit, in the meaning in which every man of sense 
must perceive it was used viz. " of, or relating to God " 
pertaining to religious (as distinguished from secular) 
matters. Our older writers commonly use this term, 
and also " ghostly " (what we now more commonly call 
"spiritual,") to denote what has reference to religion, 
as distinguished from what are called "human affairs," 
A clergyman's voting, for instance, for a member of par- 
liament, or the like, does not come under the cognisance 
of a bishop. 

6 But there is another most important limitation, which, 
even if it were not distinctly mentioned in the oath admi- 
nistered, would be plainly suggested to every candid and 
intelligent mind by the very nature of the case* As in 
Paul's admonition to " children to obey their parents in 


all things," so here we, of course, understand the limitation 
" in all lawful and honest commands." Anything contrary 
to the law of the realm, or of the church anything 
immoral, or contrary to God's word no one, of course, 
can be bound to by any vow. 

' And the like holds good in all other cases. Soldiers 
ought to obey their officers ; and if each soldier were to 
inarch or fight according to his private judgment, they 
would be, though individually good warriors, an undis- 
ciplined rabble, easily defeated by half their number of 
regular troops ; but if a general should be a traitor, 
and lead his troops to war against their king and country, 
they would be bound to disobey him. 

* If, for instance, a bishop of the diocese, in which I 
held a cure, should desire his clergy to abstain from 
teaching the doctrine of the atonement, or to inculcate 
views which, I was convinced, were at variance with those 
of our communion-service, or baptismal-service, or with 
any of the formularies or articles, or if he should urge 
us to incite the people to resist government, &c. 5 1 should 
consider thaf I was under a prior obligation on the oppo- 
site side. 

6 But, then, in order to make good this plea, I must be 
satisfied that I am under a specific obligation to that par- 
ticular thing which the bishop forbids. In the supposed 
case, I should be bound to inculcate those very doctrines 
of the gospel and of the church, which he bid me oppose 
>r suppress. But as for the mere general conscientious 
obligation to do everything (that is left to my discretion), 
with a view to the promotion of sound religion and 
morality, according to the best of my own judgment, 
this would not be a valid plea in opposition to the spe- 
cific admonition of the bishop, as to some particular 
point. For that general obligation extends to all parts of 



the ministerial duties. And it would be as I said before, 
making the vow nugatory, to say that I am to obey the 
bishop only when he directs me to do what I felt con- 
scientiously bound to before. 

c ln all things, great or small, that are left to my 
discretion, I am bound in conscience to act according to 
the best of my judgment for the good of my parish and 
of the Christian world ; but some step which I take with 
a view to that object, may appear, suppose to the bishop, 
objectionable; and then, if I am not absolutely and 
specially bound to that very step, the 'bishop's admoni- 
tion thereon must be yielded to. For otherwise the 
promise of obedience would be a mere mockery. 

c Eor example, the bishop might prescribe to me a 
mode of administering the eucharist such as I could not 
say was " unlawful," but which (supposing I had charge 
of a very populous parish), would make it hardly possible 
for above half as many communicants to attend as other- 
wise would. In such a case I should have, previously, 
felt it to be even my duty to administer in the way 
which, while I believed it perfectly lawful, I was convinced 
would best secure their attendance. The bishop's prohi- 
bition I should lament ; and I should endeavour, by 
argument and respectful remonstrance, to induce him to 
withdraw it. But if I failed in this, I should feel that 
there was nothing left but to submit, and to endeavour 
by increased labour by trying to obtain the aid of other 
clergymen and by inducing the people to attend, part 
on one day and part on another, to prevent or mitigate 
the ill effects apprehended. 

* I have purposely selected a supposed case in which 
the episcopal admonition would have been (in my judg- 
ment) most injudicious, though not beyond the province of 
episcopal control. 


4 1 myself have always done my best to avoid both of 
two faults which ought to be kept quite distinct, though 
often confounded together the exceeding of rightful 
authority, and the ill use of it, by deciding amiss on 
points which do pertain to such authority. If the king, 
for instance, were to levy " ship money " or other taxes, 
without consent of parliament, however moderate the 
taxes might be, this would be going beyond the limits 
of the prerogative. But if he should, for instance, pardon 
all criminals without exception, or dissolve parliaments 
six times a year, this would be only a most absurd 
and mischievous abuse of an undoubted prerogative, and 
of one, too, which ought not to be removed from regal 
control ; for there can be no salutary power entrusted to 
mortal man, that shall be completely secured from the 
possibility of misuse. 

4 1 have never interfered (farther than by an expression 
of opinion, or by private advice) in matters which I regard 
as beyond the province of episcopal control : and in those 
who do, according to my view, fall within that province, 
I have nevertheless preferred leaving the clergy to their 
own discretion, except when convinced that very important 
religious interests were involved, and that consequently I 
should be myself violating my own duty if I were (as the 
consecration service expresses it), " so merciful as to be too 
remiss," either in the " banishing of erroneous doctrines," 
or in the " forwarding of peace and quietness, and correct- 
ing the unquiet, criminous, and disobedient." 

'Many other such conceivable cases as the one I adduced, 
for example-sake, might easily be brought forward. But 
it can hardly be necessary to explain more fully to any 
sensible man, that a member of any community must, as 
such, part with some portion of his individual liberty, 
and that, too, in points where, independently of Jaws End 


injunctions emanating from competent authority, he would 
be allowed, and even bound, to act differently. For every 
man is bound in conscience to " DO THAT WHICH is EIGHT IN 
HIS OWN EYES," in all points wherein he is not controlled 
by competent authority; now, if he were still bound to " do 
whatever is right in his own eyes," when the governing 
powers have decided otherwise, all communities must be 
speedily dissolved. For it is inconceivable that a multi- 
tude of uninspired men should, in all points, arrive spon- 
taneously at precisely the same conclusions. 

C A11 real unity, concord, harmonious co-operation, 
&c., must be the result of practical decisions as to what 
course should be pursued in reference to the common 
cause ; and this can only be effected by leaving the deci- 
sion, on several points, in the hands of some recognised 
authority. An army in which every soldier should march 
in whatever direction he judged best, would be soon 

c In the present case, I feel very strongly the dangerous 
tendency of the proposed alliance, for reasons of which 
I have set forth a part and though only a part, yet what 
seem to me sufficient in the pamphlet you have seen. 
And I have not heard of anything that can be considered 
a refutation. For I cannot accept in place of arguments 
mere declamation, and unsupported assertions, and texts 
of scripture strung together without any attempt to show 
their applicability to the case in hand. That concord, 
and Christian charity 5 and unity, &c., are desirable, is 
what all are agreed on ; but what we have to do is to 
ascertain what course is likely to secure these advantages, 
or to operate the other way ; else we may be losing 
the substance while catching at the shadow, and running 
the risk of creating disunion and strife (an effect, indeed, 
which is in some degree already produced) while unwisely 


seeking unity and peace. That the errors of the Tracts 
ought to be opposed we agree, but the point to be 
cautiously and clearly decided, is, how to do this so as 
not in fact to strengthen the party opposed, partly by 
sanctioning, through our example, their taking upon 
them to combine and form a sort of imperium in irn- 
perio, and partly by enabling them to point to the disorder 
and independence of rightful church authority which they 
will trace to the abandonment of what they call " church 

4 1 will only add that we may learn, in this matter, 
from the experience of what took place, on a small scale, 
in another diocese, in which, a few years before I came 
hither, a sort of alliance, substantially similar in objects 
and procedure, was introduced. The only results, I 
believe, were, the establishment of a new sect, which still 
subsists, and the separation, from the church, down to this 
day, of a number of families that had formerly belonged 
to it. As for the question however between you and me 
at present, you will remember that it does not (as I said 
at the beginning) involve necessarily any of the questions 
relative to the ordination vow. 

6 1 trust you will believe me that I can never but 
be grieved to find myself in any case obliged to with- 
draw my sanction from the ministrations of a well-meaning 
and zealous man. But I cannot doubt that you would 
yourself, in a like case, feel conscientiously bound not to 
make yourself, by giving your permission, a party to any 
measures which you thought productive of the divisions 
and strife which you so heartily deprecate. 

* Believe me to be, my dear sir, 

; Yours faithfully, 

'Bo. DUBLIN.' 


The following letter to Dr. Hinds is on a different 
subject, but one of lively interest to the Archbishop : 

'Dublin: May 30, 1846. 

c My dear Hinds, I am shocked at what you tell me of 
the design of founding a new Penal Colony in Western 

' Oar friend Phillipsa letter from whom I enclose to 
youhas often, as you know, expressed his satisfaction, 
in the midst of all the disadvantages the colony is exposed 
to, at the exemption from the curse of convicts; and once 
I remember his mentioning a great degree of corruption 
having been introduced into it by two or three emanci- 
pists who came with some cattle. 

c Can nothing be done to prevent the further spread of 
this awful moral pestilence ? 

c If I were in London I think I should make bold to 
wait on Earl Grey, though I have hardly the honour of 
acquaintance with his lordship, and plead as my apology 
that I know no nobleman of equal influence who is so 
likely to take the right side in this matter. I would 
lay before him the views of Governor (Royal-Eesident) 
Phillips as well entitled to consideration. And I could 
explain more in half an hour's conversation than in several 
long letters. 

The best thing that I can now think of is, that you 
should ask leave to wait on his lordship, as from me; 
and if admitted you could say everything that I could! 
and say it quite as well. 

< Tours, very truly, 


The Mowing memorandum on a proposed bill for 
legalising forms of prayer, was probably drawn up at 
this time : 



c lt has been urged as a reason against the proposed 
bill, that all the eminent lawyers who are and have been 
privy counsellors, are to be understood as fully concurring 
in Sir J. Nicholl's opinion : which must therefore be sup* 
posed to be a sound one. 

6 Admitting all this, which is more than many persons 
would admit, it leaves quite untouched the reason ad- 
duced for bringing in a declaratory Act. The opinions of 
all these lawyers can, at the utmost, only go to prove that 
there is no good ground for doubt. 

c But the prevalence of doubt, which is undeniable and 
notorious, and the desirableness of having it removed, is 
not at all contradicted by these authorities. 

6 It might, however, be reasonably questioned, whether 
there is any sufficient reason to infer this alleged unanimity. 
The lawyers who axe privy counsellors, may have 
acquiesced in a practice they found established, without 
having ever, even, brought before their mind a question 
(as to its legality) on which their opinion as lawyers was 
never asked. And again some of them may even have 
formed an opinion and yet may not have felt bound to 
volunteer it unasked. 

^ c I have met with persons who have advocated the prin- 
ciple of allowing, in some cases, custom to supersede law ; 
and this doctrine may be maintained by a lawyer as well 
as by a layman. And moreover it should be remembered, 
that it is only the private opinions of lawyers that are 
brought forward : not any public decision. The only case 
(Johnson's) that was ever, as far as I know, tried, was never 
decided : but, after a great number of years, he consented, 
when worn out with legal expenses, to submit 

6 There is a strong presumption, that if the law had 


been clear against him, there would have been a decision 

* As for the ground on which Sir J. NicholTs opinion 
is based, it appears to nie not only utterly untenable, 
but also, even if admitted, to prove nothing to the pur- 
pose. It is that the royal prerogative is to be supposed 
to extend to all points from which it is not expressly 
excluded. Now if our ancestors had considered that 
any such prerogative had existed in reference to public 
worship they would hardly have brought in two Acts of 
parliament, that of Elizabeth and that of Charles II., to 
establish and to alter the forms of public worship, when 
the sovereign had power to settle all these matters without 
recourse to parliament. 

'But admitting that there was such a prerogative, 
the passing of those Acts does plainly go to limit it. 
The sovereign (we will suppose) had full power to 
regulate public worship in whatever way he might 
think best ; then he assents to an Act detei mining that it 
shall be conducted in this particular way and in no other. 

6 This surely is an abandonment, pro tanto, of all dis- 
cretionary power previously lodged in the sovereign as 
to that matter. And this view, if it could need confir- 
mation, would be confirmed by the clause relative to 
the names of the royal family, since it would be nugatory 
and absurd to provide for one small alteration, if there 
were already a power to alter the whole, or any part of 
the Prayer Book. 

* But as I have said, if Sir J. NichoIPs opinion were 
fully admitted, it would leave the argument in favour of a 
declaratory Act to remove doubts perfectly untouched.' 

In this year the Archbishop again visited the continent 
with his family, and spent a short time among the beau- 


tiful scenery of the Saxon Switzerland. We have a few 
reminiscences of this journey, from a son of Dr. Arnold, 
who accompanied the Archbishop and his family on this 

' The Archbishop/ he writes, c travelled on the continent 
in 1846. I was of the party, and in my journal I find a 
record of a curious circumstance which occurred in Ba- 
varia. We were travelling post from Prague to Ratisbon. 
On the night of the 30th July, we slept at Waldmiinchen ; 
and in order to avoid delay at the post houses the next 
day, notice was sent along the road that evening that our 
party was coming on, and would require so many horses. 
It seems that the approach of a bishop became generally 
known ; for the next day, as the Archbishop's carriage 
passed, nearly all the people at work in the fields by the 
roadside, as soon as they caught sight of the three-cornered 
hat, left off working and went down on their knees, 
doubtless in the hope of receiving an episcopal bene- 
diction. At the little town of Eote, as the Archbishop 
was standing in the street, while the horses were being 
changed, a wretched-looking man came up, threw himself 
on his knees in the mud before him, and with clasped 
hands and in supplicating accents began to mumble forth 
entreaties which our imperfect knowledge of German 
did not permit us to understand. The Archbishop looked 
at him askance, and with curious eye, as if he were 
some remarkable natural phenomenon, and then abruptly 
turned away. The peasantry in this part of Bavaria seemed 
to be, at that time, at any rate, a squalid, miserable, abject 
race, and evidently to their simple minds, a bishop was a 

* At Schandau in the Saxon Switzerland, Edward and 
I had a good day's fishing in the little river that runs 
through that charming valley. Towards the evening 


the Archbishop joined us, and after looking on for a little 
while, took Edward's rod out of his hand, and after a 
few casts landed a fine grayling, the best fish killed that 
day. . . . The Archbishop relished with a hearty 
natural enjoyment all out-of-door sports and amusements, 
especially if they illustrated any novel principle, or re- 
quired particular ingenuity in the use of them. Thus he 
delighted in making and using imitations of the Australian 
" wumerah " or throwing-stick, and also in throwing the 
" boomerang," a semicircular piece of wood which hits 
with great force when well thrown, and returns to the 
thrower's hand. 

4 This recalls to my recollection an incident in his 
former journey abroad in 1839. At Eapperschwyl, on 
the lake of Zurich, while the horses were being harnessed, 
he amused himself by teaching a number of boys at play 
on the border of the lake, by dumb show (for he spoke 
no German), to throw the spear in the Australian fashion ; 
and was highly delighted when he saw how eagerly they 
entered into the new diversion.' 

< Dublin: Oct. 8, 1846. 

'My dear Senior, Tours reached me on the 6th. 
Your article is capital, 1 containing, like the " Homilies," 
"wholesome doctrine and necessary for these times." 
These times are indeed dreadful, and the evils you 
advert to have been rapidly increasing since you wrote. 
The exertions of the Irish, except in the way of riot 
(which has increased), diminish with the approach of 
famine. They are like the man who, having lost all on 
the race-course, ordered a chaise and four to drive home, 

1 See ' Ed. Rev.' yol, Ixxxiy. * On the Economical State of Ireland/ 



because he could not pay for a pair. They despair of 
providing for themselves folly by any exertions, and, 
therefore, trusting that England must support them, they 
think it needless to exert themselves at all, and strike 
work for advance of wages ! I wish you had added a 
little hit at the repealers those whose motto is " Ireland 
for the Irish." O'Connell should be reminded that, on 
that principle, no aid should come from the United 
Empire. It is not fair to say I when you find a purse, 
and we when the hue and cry is raised to catch the thief. 
Perhaps you were rather hard in the opening on P. He 
doubtless did mean, and was understood to mean, that 
Ireland had the same right to good government as Eng- 
land. This certainly ought to be a truism, and will, I 
trust, ripen into one in the course of some hot summer ; 
but a century ago it would have been denounced as a 
paradox, and, though admitted and cheered in theory, it 
has never yet been folly adopted in practice. Till the 
priests are paid, it cannot be said to be fully carried out 
I am not easy on the subject of the Education Board. 
Mr. Blake, who, though absent, exercised a very important 
and beneficial influence, has been at the point of death, 
and is only just recovering. He and I together bear up 
against some evil influences, which I doubt neither of us 
singly could do. 

6 1 have been visited by Major Jebb, Inspector-General 
of Prisons, seemingly a very excellent one, who tells me 
Government have at length resolved to adopt all my 
views on secondary punishments, &c. If they had done 
so when I first addressed Lord Grey, fourteen years ago, 
what incurable evils they might have avoided; but better 
late than never to buy the sibyl's books, 

* Yours ever, 



The letter which follows, to his old and valued friend 
Mr. Duncan, is a reply to one in which Mr. D. begged 
leave to introduce a clergyman who was desirous of 
officiating in the Diocese of Dublin. 

'Dublin: Dec. 19,1846. 

6 My dear Duncan, I have no objection to an introduc- 
tion of Mr. F., but you should tell him that there are 
curates, and most deserving ones, who have been serving 
in this diocese many years, for whom I have not yet been, 
able to find provision. So you may judge what his 
chance of preferment is from me. It would be a good 
thing if he could get an introduction to the Lord-Lieu- 
tenant, who has a good deal to give. My patronage is 
wretchedly poor. Of the few livings in my gift a consi- 
derable portion are such that I am forced to look out for 
men rich enough to afford to take them. It is a bad 
plan to give a very poor living to a very poor man. He 
generally falls into disrepute, either by running in debt, 
or living in the style of a pauper. 

^ Mr. F.'s essay I began, but did not get through it, find- 
ing that his views and mine were wholly opposed, and 
that he adduced no reasons for me to change mine. But 
his style is respectable ; and I have understood him to be a 
man of fair abilities and attainments, and good character. 

4 1 wish I could persuade you to try a remedy for your 
knee, which effected, to all appearance, a complete cure 
to mine. I was suffering, the spring of last year, from so 
much pain in the knee, a return of a former attack, that 
I not only was quite lame, but was kept awake in the 
night by pain. As no remedies presented by the greatest 
physicians 'had ever afforded any relief, I resorted to 
animal magnetism, making my servant operate. I always 
found the pain abate, seeming to follow his hand, I 


mended rapidly, and in a few days I was cured ; and now, 
whenever I have a slight threatening of a return, I resort 
to the same, and with uniform success. 

' There is a place in distant seas 
Full of all contrarieties ; 
There, beasts have mallard's bills and legs, 
Have spurs like cocks, like hens lay eggs. 
There parrots walk upon the ground ; 
And grass upon the trees is found ; 
On other trees, another wonder ! 
Leaves without upper sides or under. 
There pears you'll scarce with hatchet cut ; 
Stones are outside the cherries put ; 
Swans are not white, but black as soot. 
There neither leaf, nor root, nor fruit 
Will any Christian palate suit ; 
Unless in desp'rate need you'd fill ye 
With root of fern, and stalk of lily. 
There missiles to far distance sent 
Come whizzing back from whence they went. 1 
There quadrupeds go on two feet, 
And yet few quadrupeds so fleet. 
There birds, although they cannot fly, 
In swiftness with your greyhound vie. 
With equal wonder you may see 
The foxes fly from tree to tree ; 
And what they value most, so wary. 
These foxes in their pockets carry. 
There the voracious ewe sheep crams 
Her paunch with flesh of tender lambs. 
Instead of beef and bread and broth, 
Men feast on many a roasted moth. 

1 The 'boomerang/ see p. 106. One of Dr.Whately's singular and favourite 
pastimes was the use of this curious implement^ "which, he would throw "with 
the utmost dexterity, at the same time holding forth on the mathematical 
principles which its flight illustrated. 


And courting swains their fondness prove 

By knocking down the girls they love. 

The north winds scorch ; but when the breeze is 

Full from the south, why then it freezes. 

The sun when you to face him turn ye, 

From right to left performs his journey. 

There every servant gets his place 

By character of foul disgrace ; 

There vice is virtue, virtue vice, 

And all that's vile is voted nice. 

Now of what place could such strange tales 

Be told with truth save New South Wales? 

< By Dr. WHATELY, Archbishop of Dublin/ 




Distress in Ireland The Archbishop's munificence His measures 
for relief Attends the Session of 1847 Letter to Mr. Senior on 
the distress Bill for Out-Door Relief in IrelandLetters to Mrs. 
Arnold Injurious tendency of the Memoir of Blanco White 
Takes an active part in the debates of the Session Letter to Mr. 
Senior Letter on translation of the Works of George Sand 
Formation of the Statistical Society Interest taken by the Arch- 
bishop in the Society Letter to the Bishop of Norwich Rumour 
of his appointment to the See of York. 

THE year 1847 was one of peculiar trial to all who were 
living and working for Ireland ; Dr. Whately's attention 
was now earnestly and painfully occupied by the distress, 
which was beginning to assume a more alarming form, 
and which called forth his energies in a new direction. 

* It was the fate of Dr. Whately, of which these pages 
have already afforded ample evidence, to have portions 
of his character and opinions much misunderstood ; and 
misunderstood partly in consequence of his own over- 
mastering tendency to outspokenness. He could never 
refrain he held it an absolute duty not to refrain from 
bringing forth his entire opinions on a given subject to 
its utmost extent ; he would cut off, as it were purposely, 
all those accommodating qualifications by which persons 
are in general accustomed to guard unpopular avowals of 
opinion. In his abhorrence of everything approaching 
* reserve * or c casuistry ' he would carry these tendencies 


even beyond reasonable limits, and where he would him- 
self, in practice, have admitted modifications of his doctrine, 
he would have deemed it a surrender to the enemy to 
allow, in theory, of the possibility of such modifications. 
In nothing were these peculiarities more conspicuous than 
in his contest and language on the Poor-Law question, ' 
and in relation to charities in general, His condemnation 
of the English system, such as it had been in his youth, 
was absolute and uncompromising. His arguments against 
them extended to the very principle of Poor Law itself, 
nor would he therefore shrink from urging them. It 
was not unnatural that so daring an assailant of rooted 
prejudices, of the beneficent class, should be judged in 
some degree by his own language, and set down as a man 
of c hard-hearted ' opinions, if not hard-hearted in conduct. 
And this may be a justification for a brief allusion to a 
subject which, in ordinary biographies, is best past over 
in silence, as a portion of the great account between man 
and his Maker, not between the citizen and the world. It 
may be worth while to show how one who wrote and 
thought like Dr. Whately practically interpreted his own 
doctrines on c charity/ 

* Those who knew the Archbishop well,' writes one of his 
most valued and trusted helpers, * could not fail to observe 
in him a strong developement of various traits of character 
not often found combined in such equal proportions 
large-hearted munificence in affording relief for distress, 
with careful investigation as to the merits of each case, 
and sound judgment and discrimination as to .the best way 
of conferring the benefit ; readiness to contribute openly 
and largely to public institutions for the promotion of 
religious or charitable objects, with much more extensive 
liberality to private cases of destitution or pressure. 
These were brought before him by his chaplains sepa- 


rately, or by others, as each individually happened to 
come to the knowledge of them ; and generally the mem- 
bers of his own family, and often all except the immediate 
dispensers of the bounty, were left in complete ignorance 
of the matter. When occasion required, he gave largely 
of his time, attention, and invaluable counsel, as well as 
of his money, for the alleviation or effectual remedy of 

*He has left little or no record of this in showy bequests 
and large endowments. He always advocated the wisdom 
as well as duty of giving as much as can be given while the 
donor can see it spent according to his wishes, and with 
the exercise of real liberality and self-denial on his part. 
Upon this principle he always acted ; and many 
churches and schools built in his dioceses by help of 
liberal subscriptions from his purse ; many societies either 
founded or largely supported by him, bear real, though 
silent, witness to his open-handedness in giving. For 
more than thirty years he continued to pay 100/. per 
annum to maintain a chair of Political Economy in the 
University of Dublin ; and indeed might have endowed 
it at less cost to himself; but, acting consistently on his 
fixed principle, he preferred paying the Professor out of 
his income. He left behind him no accumulated savings ; 
the larger part of the provision whicb he made for his 
family being effected by life insurances, the premiums on 
which were met by his private means. 

In all his gifts, moreover, he was accustomed to make 
strict inquiry into the merits of the case ; iH considered 
and indiscriminate giving was a thing which he always 
denounced as one of the most mischievous uses that can 
be made of money.* 

It may not be out of place here, in speaking of the 
Archbishop's charities, to quote an extract from a friend's 



note-book, on his objection to the practice of giving alms 
in the street. 

c I have heard him say/ writes his friend, * that whatever 
you pay a man to do, that he will do ; if you pay him 
to work, he will work, and if you pay him to beg, he 
will beg. Dr. Churchill told my wife that he had heard 
him say, " I have given away forty thousand pounds since 
I came to the see, and I thank God I never gave a penny 
to a beggar in the street." 

c Giving to beggars, he often added, is, in fact, paying a 
number of wretched beings to live in idleness and filth, 
and to neglect and ill-treat the miserable children whose 
sufferings form part of their stock in trade.' 

But contributions to matters of public utility did not con- 
stitute the characteristic part of Dr. Whately's beneficence. 
His private charities, compared with the amount of his 
salary and his absence of fortune, were literally princely. 
They were for the most part given not on system, but on 
the spur of the occasion, called forth by peculiar instances 
of want and peculiar calls for sympathy. Of beneficence 
like this the records are necessarily few ; some who are 
alive, and more who are deceased, could testify to the 
measure and the spirit of their Archbishop's liberality. 
But of such he kept no nominal record. c Many instances 
have come to my knowledge,' says one of those most 
intimate with him, * in which large sums, from IQQL to 
1,000/., were given by him quite privately.' His agent 
says that in his book such entries as c To a clergyman, 
200Z. ; to a gentleman, 100J. ; cash given away, 50i ;' are 
not uncommon. He often provided poor rectors with 
the means of paying a curate; and frequently, through aid 
timely and delicately given, enabled clergymen whom 
he saw overworked and under paid, to recruit their 
health by holiday and change of scene. Nor were the 



recipients of his generosity confined to his own profes- 
sion and to the literary class, with the straggling members 
of which his sympathies were strong. But more than 
enough has perhaps been said on a subject only to be 
slightly touched. It may be added, by way of summary 
that being a man of simple tastes and inexpensive life, he 
accumulated nothing from the income of his Archbishopric, 
and left to his family nothing beyond his own small 
fortune and his insurances. Nor did he supplement, in 
their favour, his own narrow means out of the public 
means. He has been accused, in his distribution of Church 
patronage, of favouring men of his own c set, 5 that is, of 
his own intellectual following; of 'jobbing,' or personal 
motives, never. 

The winter of 1847-8 was one of deep and painful 
anxiety. The Irish famine had reached its height. The 
failure of the potato crop through the mysterious blight, 
during a succession of seasons, had come upon a people 
wholly dependent upon this, the cheapest and simplest 
food, as their staff of life. Their normal condition was 
only just raised above starvation ; and when the years of 
dearth came, nothing but starvation remained for them to 
sink to. No one who passed the years 1846, 1847, and 
1848 in Ireland can ever forget that terrible life and death- 
struggle of a whole nation. How earnestly the Arch- 
bishop exerted himself to supply the required aid to the 
utmost, aH who were on the spot must well remember ; 
and how indefatigably she who was the sharer of his labours 
lent herself to the same service, taxing her often-failing 
strength to the uttermost, needs not to be recalled to 
the mind either of those who laboured with her, or of 
those who were the recipients of her benevolence. She 
became from that time forth more actively associated than 
ever in the various organisations formed to promote the 


welfare, temporal and spiritual, of tlie distressed, the igno- 
rant, the homeless, and the erring ; and how many impor- 
tant worts of charity sprang out of the deep misery of 
those years of famine, many can now testify with earnest 
gratitude to Him who thus brought good out of what 
seemed at first unmixed evil. 

In the session of 1847, the Archbishop was again in 
London, actively endeavouring to stem the tide of public 
feeling, which had taken a turn threatening much evil to' 

The English public, from a mixture of benevolence and 
impatience pity for the sufferers and hopelessness of any 
real amelioration of their condition were eager to bring 
the whole Poor-law system to bear on Ireland. The state 
of that country was such as to render the increased 
pressure almost intolerable. There were no resources to 
meet it. The increased rates, while they could not ade- 
quately alleviate distress, bore most severely on the classes 
least able to endure the burden and hardest to help under 
it: the smaller proprietors and householders, and the 
clergy. Of the former, many who had been independent 
were reduced -to actual pauperism by the rates ; the 
latter had to struggle through an ordeal enough to sink 
the stoutest spirit. Tew to this day have any idea of 
the suffering endured, and generally most patiently and 
bravely endured, by a large number of the Irish country 
clergy in those years of famine ; striving in the midst of 
their own deep poverty to assist the indigent, their own 
income often rendered scarce more than nominal from the 
nonpayment of their rent-charge, and yet expected to 
pay the full amount of increased poor-rates. In very 
many cases they and their families were reduced so low 
as to be in want of the very necessaries of life. Their 
condition in this respect having become known to the 


members of the Ladies' General Relief Association, in 
the course of their correspondence on the subject of the 
distress in their respective parishes, the idea was sug- 
gested, in the early part of 1849, of forming a separate 
Committee for their special relief. Of this movement 
the Archbishop was, in fact, the originator and patron, 
commencing the fund by a donation of 100Z., on the 
21st of April, 1849 ; and during the three years of the 
Committee's operations, he continued his unwearied 
attendance at its meetings, and his warm sympathy with, 
the cases of deep distress which from time to time came 
under its notice. 'The united contributions of Mrs. 
Whately and himself to the fund,' writes the secretary of 
the Committee, 'exceeded 470Z. ; the total amount received 
and disbursed nearly reached 4,60(U' Dr. Whately's 
total contributions towards the distress of 1848-9 have 
been reckoned at 8,000/. ? but such estimates must be 

The following letter to Mr. Senior is evidently sug- 
gested by the distress, though on a different point : 

c My dear S., What an admirable opportunity the pre- 
sent distress affords of paying the Irish priests ! The 
starving population would be more than ever grateful for 
being relieved of the burden. The very poorest are not 
allowed to enter a chapel without paying something^ though 
the halfpence which are now a severe tax on those who 
hardly get a meal a day must afford a wretched subsist- 
ence to the priests. And yet the priests must wring 
from them this miserable pittance. 

4 But I suppose and would do their best 

to prevent such a measure, except in the way of taking 
the funds from the Protestant Establishment; a plan 
than which Satan himself could not devise a more 


effectual one for keeping up and exasperating religious 
animosities in this truly wretched country. Each succes- 
sive government seems ambitious to outstrip its prede- 
cessor in the career of folly.' 

In this year the Archbishop was again greatly occupied 
with the Poor-law. The government were desirous of 
introducing a bill for out-door relief in Ireland. This the 
Archbishop, in conjunction with some few others, among 
whom Lord Monteagle was the principal, steadily opposed. 
On the 26th of March, 1847, a debate took place on a 
motion of Lord Monteagle for a select committee to be 
held on this subject and other matters. His speech is an 
important one, and the Archbishop's name appears with 
those of Lords Eadnor, Monteagle and Mountcashel, in 
the signatures to a protest against the measure of out- 
door relief. 

The bill was nevertheless passed, the clause of out- 
door relief being included in the Poor Belief Extension 
Act, which was passed in June 1847. The numbers 
relieved out of the workhouse, at first very large, dimi- 
nished from 800,000, in July 1848, to about 2,000 only at 
the end of 1850. (Ed. Rev. vol. 93, p. 246.) 

'February 21, 1847, 

6 My dear Mrs. Arnold, You have before now I think 
had a copy of this tract ; l but you may like to give one 
to some of those who are talking and writing and read- 
ing about Ireland, and noticing at all the main impedi- 
ments to its improvement. 

4 Most people have taken up some notions on the sub- 
ject, which they cling to ; and do not wish, or even like, 
to be better informed. And it must be owned, that in all 

1 Probably the one entitled * Paddy's Kecollections in the Poor-House' 
a tale founded on feet, 


legislation, but most especially for Ireland, the distant 
prospect shows all smooth and easy, and a nearer approach 
and more perfect knowledge shows more and more of 
crags and swamp and tangled thickets. " It bothers one 
to hear both sides." 

c No doubt there are good, bad, and indifferent among 
the landlords in Ireland, as among other men; and 
cases have no doubt occurred of tenants being harshly 
ejected. But I believe the cases are far more numerous 
in which the tenants have been offered not only remis- 
sion of arrears but also money in their pockets to enable 
them to emigrate, if they would go quietly ; and yet 
they have often either attempted to maintain their posi- 
tion by force or have complained grievously of hard- 
ship. And I certainly do pity those who, being attached 
to the house of their infancy, would endure almost any 

hardship rather than leave it. And Mr. seems 

to think that the only thing wanted is a kind landlord, 
who will never exact a high rent, nor ever eject a tenant. 
Now this is the very course which is, and has long been, 
pursued in very many parts of Ireland ; and here is the way 
it works. A small farmer rears eight or ten children, who 
marry, without having any trade or manufacture to resort 
to ; and so he divides his farm among them, just as the 
tailor in Don Quixote divided the piece of cloth so as to 
make five caps instead of one. Each of these farmers just 
manages to pay his rent, and rear a family on potatoes, 
and in rags ; and then he divides again his farm among 
them ; so that each has a patch too small to subsist on 
even if rent free ; which it usually is, in fact the rent 
remaining unpaid. These cottier-tenants eke out by 
occasional jobs of work, begging, and pilfering, till there 
comes a hard year, and then they die of want and conse- 
quent disease,- 


6 It never seems to occur to Mr. that this must 

be the case in one, or two, or three generations, were the 
land ever so fertile, and were it their own property. 
He attributes all to the exorbitant rent ; though in ge- 
neral it is less than a Yorkshire or Scotch farmer would 
gladly give for the land if he had a good-sized farm of 
it ; because he has five times the agricultural skill, and 
more than five times the capital. See how differently 
matters look when viewed closely and correctly ! 

'Again, what more reasonable, at a distance, than 
that the landlords should maintain all the poor, and en- 
able themselves to do so by selling part of their land ? 
But, first, great part of the land is mortgaged up to 
nine-tenths of its value; so that the rate would probably be 
much more, on the whole estate, than the whole amount 
of the rental which comes to the nominal landlord. And 
secondly, suppose the land not mortgaged, but that the rate 
amounts to more than the whole rental. This actually 
took place in a parish in England, and several others were 
approaching that state. The landlords in that case left 
the land rent-free to anyone who would cultivate it and pay 
the poor-rate : but of course no one could afford to do so ; 
and the land lay waste ; the paupers being maintained by 
rates-in-aid on the neighbouring parishes. And I dread 
seeing the like very general in Ireland. Now if under 
these circumstances a landlord offers to sell his land, who 
is to buy it, even at a farthing per acre ? Q. E. D. 
; Ever yours affectionately, 


1 MarcH 9, 1847. 

6 My dear Mrs. Arnold, I cannot forbear expressing 
the high admiration I feel for the justice of your cha- 
racter. It is what I have long admired in, you ; but the 

./Ei.60] LETTEES TO ilES. ARNOLD. 121 

recent occurrences have forced it tlie more on my notice. 
My wife has told me, of late years, that she used to wonder 
at my dwelling so much on justice as the highest virtue, 
but that now she understands and agrees with me. Other 
virtues depend in some degree on several tendencies, 
but the proper function of what the Phrenologists call the 
organ of conscientiousness, is to decide and do what is 
right, simply for that reason. And the formula for callin^ 
this organ into play, is that which is furnished us by the 
highest authority ; to put oneself in another's place, and 
consider what we should think fair then. This formula 
would be of no use if we had not the organ, but the organ 
will often not act aright without the formula ; whfch, 
yet, is very seldom thought of in practice. 

' A person may sometimes be found having the material 
as it were, of not only a good but a great character, of a 
kind of heroic virtue who yet, for want of habitually 
applying that formula in every-day transactions, will not 
even escape deserved censure. There is a kind of man, 
who, having fervent aspirations after pre-eminent excel- 
lence, an enthusiastic and perhaps somewhat romantic 
longing after distinguished virtue, frames to himself the 
idea of a life, which is a kind of magnificent epic poem with 
himself for the hero ; and deigns not to pay sufficiently 
sedulous attention to some humbler common duties. He 
becomes, if he have a good deal of self-conudence, so full 
of himself, his high destinies, his own claims, his 
own feelings, that he somewhat overlooks what is due 
to the claims and the feelings of others. What is done 
for him he receives very much as a, matter of course ; 
and when anything is refused him, or any obstacle placed 
in his path, he is fiercely indignant/ as having a great 
wrong done him. And yet he will never suspect himself 
of being unjust, because he never designs to be so, but to 


assign to all their due ; only lie will not estimate fairly 
what is due to others and to himself; nor does he con- 
ceive himself capable, accordingly, of being deficient in 
gratitude, because he is very grateful to those who honour 
him, and to whom, perhaps, no gratitude is really due. 

c It seems odd to say it, but so it is, that one is prone 
not only to feel resentment against those whom we 
must admit, on reflection, to have done us no wrong (a 
successful rival for instance, or one whose judgment was 
opposed to ours, and who has proved to be in the right, 
&c.), but also to feel gratitude to those whose judgment 
is flattering to us, and has benefited us. When for instance 
Lord Grey appointed me archbishop, I knew that he could 
have no partiality no desire to benefit me, and, for that 
very reason, I was the more gratified by the honour of 
his choice, from knowing, that, whether mistaken in it or 
not, he could have no motive but a wish to serve the 
public, by fixing on the fittest man. I was careful to 
place before me that I was under no obligation to him, 
else I might have been more disposed to feel grateful 
to him than if he had had some private regard for me, 
and had preferred, me partly for that reason. But it 
requires a vigilant and steady adherence to the principles 
of strict justice to view things in that light. 

* Such a kind of character as I have described the 
hero of his own epic is not a common one, but it is 
one worth reflecting on nevertheless, because it is one of 
great capabilities. 

4 Ever yours most truly, 


' Tirnbridge "Wells : May 19, 1847. 

4 My dear Mrs. Arnold, I am much annoyed at finding 
a different impression made on some persons from what 

^Si. &>] TO MR. SENIOR. 123 

I had expected, by the Life of Blanco White. Since it 
appears that some not ill-disposed persons can read it 
without disgust and mortification, I conclude that there will 
be great danger from it. Some will be convinced that 
free inquiry must, in the end, be fatal to Christian belief, 
and that one by one, all doctrines will be overthrown by 
it : and hence, part will be led to shun and deprecate in- 
quiry and resolve to shut their eyes and u believe all that 
the holy Church believes," while another part will make 
short work another way, and believe no religion at all. 5 

To K Senior, Esq. 

* Dublin: September 4, 1847. 

c My dear Senior, Tours of 14th August received, 
a little better, but still suffers much. The rest 

pretty well. 

4 A very dry summer ; though in August, not ; all the 
trees and grass and springs are parched. Corn harvest 
very good, except beans, which had been largely sown. The 
potato rot prevails, though much less than last year. 
This partial destruction, and the much smaller quantity 
than usual planted, will leave the poor very ill off (unless 
they can afford to buy) in the winter, and as the landlords 
are nearly drawn dry except those of them who will never 
give anything, and England is tired of giving, and the 
people idle and demoralised, there is not likely to be 
much less distress than last winter. Fever is raging 
among high and low. 

c Dr. has given his adhesion to the National 

Schools, and has written a pamphlet which has called 
forth answers fall of the usual trash all that he says is 
triumphant, except that he fails to explain why he did 
not vote ten years ago. 

'The Eepealers are said to have gained on the elections 


iu Ireland ; but though a few honest men have been 
replaced by others less scrupulous, I do not expect that 
these latter will do anything more than is requisite to 
humbug their constituents. I fear the payment of the 
priests will come, like other boons to Ireland, too late. 
During the interval of ten or fifteen years, a poor-law will 
have been going on under the control of the priests 
(since they will dictate what guardians are to be chosen) 
who are themselves maintained exclusively by the very 
poorest class, and who consequently have a plain interest, 
not only in keeping up the rates, but also in bestowing 
relief chiefly on those who are not in the greatest distress, 
and who conseqiiently can spare most for them. Now 
what will be the state of the country after ten or fifteen 
years of this ? The people of England, who are furious 
at the idea of endowing the priests, have endowed them 
in the most extravagant and wasteful way. 

; I hear of a meeting of Political Economists of all 
Europe to be held the middle of this month in Belgium, 
and to be repeated annually. I should think it would 
be a very good thing. Do you know anything of it? 

4 Best regards, 

c Tours ever, 


The following letter is on a very different subject. The 
Archbishop had seen advertised a translation of the works 
of George Sand, published under the sanction of a clergy- 
man, to whom, though personally unknown, he addressed 
this letter : 

' Palace, Dublin : October, 1847. , 

c Eev. and Dear Sir, I see advertised a translation 
of the works of George Sand, patronised by you. 


4 It is not nay practice to interfere in other people's 
affairs. But by your having dedicated a volume to me, 
my name has been in some degree mixed up with 
yours ; and some persons may naturally suppose that 
all the publications you put forth or patronise are in 
some degree sanctioned by me : and it may happen that I 
may eventually be under the unpleasant necessity of 
publicly disavowing all connexion with them, or approba- 
tion of them. This being the case, I trust you will see the 
propriety of my adverting to the subject, first, privately. 

6 1 cannot understand how it can be safe or allowable 
to bring such works before the public eye. If indeed 
the English were universally pure and firm in their moral 
principles, it might perhaps be worth %\hile to publish 
some portions of works popular in France, by way of 
warning, as to the low tone of morality there prevalent. 

^ But I cannot think that we are, universally, in a state 
to bear siich an experiment. I have even known English 
persons of what is called respectable character, who are 
little or nothing shocked at the antichristian and pro- 
fligate character of that woman's writings, and who even 
speak of their tendency to* regenerate society and place it 
on an entirely new footing ! And it is true, a sort of 
regeneration would take place, if people were to act on 
the principles she recommends. Society would be some- 
thing like that of Norfolk Island, decorated with a varnish 
of ranting sentimentality. It would be a kind of ragout 
of putrid meat, with an attempt to mitigate its fetor by 
a profuse seasoning of strong spices. 

1 Such at least is the impression produced on my mincl 
by the little I have read of her works. I cannot boast of 
being well versed in them. But it is not necessary to 
wade all through a heap of mud in order to be satis- 
fied of its loathsomeness. I read a good part of what 


was pointed out to ine as the least exceptionable, and 
even commended by some, as exhibiting pure and high 
morality. ' 

' I must say that the genius for which she is by some 
celebrated seems to me greatly overrated. Her tales 
are redeemed from flat silliness only by striking situations 
brought about by the most unnatural and absurd extra- 
vagances. This, however, is a question of taste, on which 
there is no room for disputing ; but what revolted me 
the most was, that the characters whom she intends to 
be models of excellence, are such that if all the world 
were like them, it would be a Pandemonium. They lie 
and cheat from morning till night. 

6 Now if it be proposed to translate such works omitting 
the foulest parts, this, I conceive, would be taking away 
from them their moral. The moral in fact is that " a cor- 
rupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit ;" that such and such 
are the practical consequences of such and such princi- 
ples. If therefore there are any such omissions made 
for decency's sake, at least it ought to be added in a 
note, that the original contains the description of such 
conduct as naturally flows from such principles, and 
which is too bad for publication. Else the principles may 
be received by incautious youth with too much favour. 

c If it be thought right to exhibit for curiosity, at some 
horticultural show, a plant of deadly nightshade, and to 
clear it of the berries, lest some of the spectators 
should incautiously taste them, at least the plant ought 
to be labelled " poisonous," lest they should imprudently 
give it a place in their gardens. 

c But I cannot think that in any way it can be desir- 
able that such a work should be published especially 
under such auspices. A strict regard for the princi- 
ples of morality and religion, and for delicacy, may be 


fairly expected as least from clergymen and ladies, if 
anywhere. " If the salt have lost its savour, wherewith 
shall it be seasoned ? " Excuse iny saying therefore, that 
it would be with me a sufficient reason to preclude a 
rnan from officiating in my diocese, that he had taken 
part in the publication of such immoral works. Over 
you I do not pretend to have any control ; but for the 
reason mentioned in the beginning, it may be necessary 
for me to be able to say that I remonstrated against such 
a publication. 

6 Yours, &c. 


It was in this year that the Statistical Society of Dublin 
was first founded. The Archbishop cordially supported it, 
and his address at the conclusion of the first session showed 
the interest he took in its aims and objects. He con- 
cluded the address with an expression of hope that 4 they 
would live to witness the good fruits of their exertions in 
the diffusion of sounder notions, on one of the most im- 
portant, one of the most interesting, and at the present 
period, one of the most vitally essential subjects on which 
the human mind in this country could possibly be em- 

When, three years later (in November, 1850) the Social 
Inquiry Society, now amalgamated with the Statistical, 
was founded, the Archbishop entered into it with the 
most lively interest, accepted the presidentship of the 
society, subscribed munificently to its funds, and delivered 
the address at its first social meeting; in which he 
remarked that the great advantage of such a society was, 
that they could deliberate on each subject according to 
its own merits, and through the means of the investi- 
gations which they conducted, and the observations made 


as to the result of them, they might so far affect public 
opinion as to have ultimately measures ready prepared 
-with all that discussion which Parliament could not and 
would not afford to them, and thus the foundations be 
laid of such improvements in their social condition as 
they could never expect from any parliament existing in a 
free country, which would always be open to the dis- 
advantage of party contests for power. 9 

To the Bishop of Norwich. 

' Dublin : November 21, 1847. 

c I cannot think what made people talk of me for York. 
. . . If it had been offered to me, it would have been a 
matter of anxious deliberation, which would probably ~ 
have ended in my declining it. Unless I could have been 
sure of having Hinds to succeed me here (which there 
would have been little chance of), I believe I should 
have done more harm than good to the public by the 
change. And for myself, personally, I should have been 
encountering an enormous amount of trouble, beyond 
what anything but the hope of doing good to the public 
would have induced me to undertake. A new set of men 
all around me, a fresh set of chaplains to be selected and 
trained, and a new set of old abuses to be inquired into, 
&c. And then, if, after all, the result had been the Irish 
Education Board going to ruin which, I am sorry to say 
it is by no means safe from what a mortification that 
would have been ! I don't say this with pride, for I should 
be fax more proud of having put the system in such a 
state as to go on safely without me. 9 




The Pamphlet, ' Search after Infallibility' Letter to Lady Osborne 
Letter to Dr. Hinds on Consecration of Dr. Hampden Letter to 
Mr. Senior on Irish State Prosecutions Letters to Dr. Hinds and 
Mr. Senior on Irish Affairs, &c. Marriage of his third Daughter 

Letter to Mr. . Letter to Mr. Senior on Irish Poor 

Law Paper on Public Executions Letter to Lady Osborne 
Letter to Dr. Hinds on Religious Difficulties Opposes the 
Bate-in- Aid Bill Paper to Dr. Hinds on Irish Relief Letter to 
Bishop of Norwich on the Jew Bill Death of Bishop Stanley 
Letter to Mr. Senior Kogers's ' Reason and Faith ' Letter to 
Mrs. Arnold Letter to Dr. Hinds on his Appointment to the See 
of Norwich. 

THE letters, at the beginning of this year, need not 
much explanation. Constantly engaged in literary under- 
takings, besides his own pressing avocations, and often 
referred to by his friends on questions, embracing a vast 
range of subjects, political, religious, literary, and practi- 
cally scientific, it is almost impossible to give anything 
like a rfaumi of the Archbishop's correspondence. At 
this time, he was suffering much from a sprained ankle, 
which he feared would produce serious consequences; 
but though slow, his recovery was complete. 

A sermon he had preached on the often-discussed 
question of c Infallibility of the Church,' was expanded 
into a pamphlet under the title of * Search after Infal- 
libility,' and widely circulated. In these letters he makes 
frequent allusions to it. 



Dublin: Jan. 3, 1848. 

'Dear Lady Osborne, I send you a paper containing 
the best account I have seen of the Hampden persecution. 
Please to return it, unless you can get the article copied 
into some provincial paper. 

c There is something in what you say of the Eoman 
Catholic population. 

' No doubt that religion is far less favourable to civili- 
sation than Protestantism, as may be seen best in some of 
the Swiss cantons, because they are on equal terms mall 
other respects ; and yet the contrast is striking between 
the Eoman Catholic and the Protestant cantons. 

c But to try what could be done for the deterioration of 
Protestants, you must suppose England again conquered 
by the Normans or some foreign people of a different 
religion, who seize on all the land, and take all the Church 
endowments for their own Church, leaving the mass of the 
population all poor to maintain their own ministers on 
the voluntary system. 

4 And especially if this had been done three hundred 
years ago, when the English were far less civilised than 
now, what would they be at this day ? ' 

< February 3, 1848. 

'My dear Hinds, It strikes me, on reconsideration, 
that there are two points which ought to be touched on 
in your sermon. 1 

'The vivid and beautiful picture you draw of the 
peace and concord of the primitive Church will throw 
some into despair, and lead others to advocate all the 
more the preceding error, as if our inferiority to the 

1 Preached at the consecration of Bishop Hampden. 

^Ei. Gl] TO DR. HESTDS, 131 

earliest Christians were owing to our not giving ourselves 
up to the Church as they did to the Apostles. 

6 IsTow it is curious and important that strifes did arise 
among them, and false teachers set themselves up as 
rivals to the very Apostles, or as pretending to be com- 
missioned by them, " to whom we gave no such com- 

c At whatever cost, I think you must take notice of and 
guard against these mistakes. 

c Yours ever, ED. WHATELY. ' 

1 Dublin : March 25, 1843. 

c My dear Senior, I suppose you will have put off 
your visit to Paris till the 31st of April, as it does not 
seern to be very safe just now. 

' I should like to know what you think of 

proceeding against Mitchell and Co. 1 There are strong 
reasons against prosecuting, and still stronger against ab- 
staining from it. It is a curious and instructive circum- 
stance that in their seditious speeches and writings.' they 
declaim against our school-books and especially the poli- 
tico-economical portion of them, and endeavour thereupon 
to direct popular rage against me. In despotic countries, 
we usually find the government anxious to repress educa- 
tion, and the reformers to enlighten the people. Here, it is 
just the reverse. 

6 The most unfortunate circumstance of our case, is 
that government is in much the same fix as the revolu- 
tionary government of France. Ministers have declared, 
and have got the legislature to declare, that the land- 
lords can, and shall, maintain all the people. 

c The people accordingly, who are at this moment in 

1 The trial and conviction of John Mitchell, for seditious libel this year, 
was followed by the serious outbreak headed by Smith O'Brien in July, the 
leaders of which were tried for treason and transported. 

K 2 


terrible distress, are in fact urged by government to 
attack all those who have any property, for not relieving 
them, and to attack government itself for not making 
them do so. It is vain to urge that what is demanded 
is impossible ; as I and many others told them a year 
ago. They chose nevertheless to undertake it, and the 
people call for the redemption of this pledge ; unjustly, 
as far as regards the landlords, who were no parties to 
the promise, but justly, as regards the government 
who made it. If a merchant contracts to supply me 
such and such goods by such a day, it is in vain for him 
to plead that ships did not arrive, or manufactures were 
stopped, &c. If he cannot fulfil his contract, he must 
pay the damages/ 

< Cheltenham: May 13, 1848. 

fi My dear Hinds, I never was in such alarm yet, about 
the Eepeal ; I mean from the English side. People who 
are not fools in other things fancy they could dismiss 
from their thoughts all care about Ireland, if it were but 
once completely separated from Great Britain. Not con- 
sidering that the Eoman Catholics would try to establish 
Eoman Catholic ascendency, and there would be one 
civil war; then, the poor finding a failure of all the 
promises of a good farm apiece as soon as the Union 
was repealed, with which they have been aroused, would 
make war on property, and there would be another. Then 
the anarchy and mutual slaughter becoming intolerable, 
some would call in France, and some America, and 
others recall Great Britain ; and Ireland would be the 
battle-field for three contending nations ours for one ! 
I wish you and West would incite and help some one 
else to write a tract on Eepeal for the use of the British ; 
to show them that however indifferent about Irish misery 


they may be, it is like King Zohrab's snakes, which were 
a part of himself. The worst of it is, the two great evils 
of Ireland, the non-payment of the priests and the poor 
laws, were and are inflicted on Ireland by the determina- 
tion of the English and Scotch people against the judgment 
of ministers, and are consequently the fruit of the Union. 
The only reply is, that though the Imperial Parliament 
governs Ireland abominably, the Irish would make it fax 
worse still. 

< You will see in the London papers of Thursday a 
report of our dinner. Senior starts for Paris to-day. 

; Have you seen the " Politics for the People " ? I am 
very anxious for its success, but not confident. 

6 But do think of what I have said about Ptepeal. Till 
now everyone has thought only of writing for the Irish, 
but now there is need for English arguments. Ask Lord 
0. about what I have said. 

4 Yours ever, E. WV 

'Dublin: July 6, 1848. 

c My dear Senior, I suppose ministers have turned the 
corner; is it that their opponents were sensible they 
could not form a ministry that would stand? It is a great 
interruption to public business to have a change, and one 

that must soon be followed by another change. was 

not apparently well pleased with me (though I said very 
little on the subject), for not being able to express iny 
approbation of his conduct. He had before earnestly 
begged me always to tell him my real sentiments ; but 
had not, I suspect, figured to himself their proving unpa- 
latable. I can well conceive the archbishop in Gil Bias 
. being, " at the moment, sincere in asking his real opinion ; 
though when he gave it he dismissed him -with all good 
wishes for his happiness " " et un peu plus de goftt" 


There is no point perhaps in which men are more apt 
to deceive themselves. And the way they do it is, to 
remain persuaded that they greatly wish to hear a friend's 
real opinion, only if it happen not to coincide with their 
own, they make out that it was given in too strong 
language, or given at the wrong time, or wrong manner, 
or wrong something ; so that in short we arrive practically 
at Gladstone's right of private judgment All men are to 
judge for themselves, provided only that their judgment 
concurs with that of the Church, which they are at liberty 
to agree with, but not to disagree with. 

c Ever yours, E. W.' 

The year 1848 brought an event in the Archbishop's 
domestic circle, which contributed more than any other 
to the happiness of his later life, and was a source of ever 
increasing comfort and blessing to him. This was the 
marriage of his third daughter with Charles Brent Wale, 
of Shelford, Cambridgeshire, which took place in Septem- 
ber of this year. In his son-in-law he gained a valued 
friend, coadjutor, and companion, possessed of qualities of 
mind and heart of no common order, who was fully capable 
of appreciating his powers and entering into his pursuits 
and interests, and whose society and friendship were the 
solace of his declining 'years ; whom he prized and valued 
beyond most of those still left to him upon earth, and 
whose life of earnest but unpretending Christian usefulness 
was not long to out-last that of his father-in-law. The cor- 
respondence with this valued friend and connexion was 
very fall and frequent through life, when they were apart ; 
but the nature of it was so strictly domestic and private, 
that for the most part it was considered unsuitable for pub- 
lication, and only a few extracts will appear. Few other 
events occurred that are worthy of special record, except 
such as his letters give. 


Extract of a Letter of the Archbishop to Air. , 


6 Dublin : September SO, 1848. 

* By-the-by, the argument of Mr. Twisleton against 
the Irish landlords, which you reported to me, seems 
to me to have more ingenuity than fairness. He com- 
plains, it seems, that they are not very logical reasoners 
(which I believe is true enough) and that he cannot get 
them to state plainly instead of merely showing the 
evils of the ministerial measures what they would 
have. " Would you do nothing and leave the people to 
be starved to death ? " If this is answered in the affir- 
mative they know that they are opening the flood-gates 
to a torrent of declamatory invective against the hard- 
heartedness of landlords who wish the people to be 
starved ; if in the negative, then comes the question, 
" What is your proposal for insuring a comfortable main- 
tenance for every individual in the nation, industrious or 

'Now if I were thus assailed, I should reply, I will 
not set up any proposal like a Shrove-Tuesday cock, 
for you to pelt at, when you are predetermined not to 
adopt it, but only to seek objections to it. Make me 
minister; and then it will be for me to devise measures, 
and for you to criticise them. But now, you are the 
batter, and I the bowler ; guard your own wicket, instead 
of asking me how I should guard mine. 

c Perhaps I could not succeed better than you. But 
even if I be no shoemaker, I who am to wear the shoe 
may be allowed to know where it pinches. 

c I admit that it is not enough to show that there are 
objections to your measure ; because there is no human 
scheme free from objections. But if I can prove, first, that 
your measure does more harm than good, and, secondly. 


that you yourselves foresaw and were convinced of the 
same (as I have printed and published your very words, 
publicly and deliberately spoken ; omitting a private letter, 
which I have seen, still stronger), then I do say I have 
reason to find fault with your measure, and also to com- 
plain of your defending yourselves by the argumentum ad 
invidiam by seeking to fix on me, or to get me to fix on 
myself, the imputation of some sentiment or principle that 
may be put in a very unpopular light. 

c This form of the argumentum ad invidiam is the 
battle-steed of pretenders of every kind ; political, philo- 
sophical, medical, &c. : of men who profess to remedy 
irremediable evils, and explain unexplainable difficulties, 
and obtain unattainable goods. They represent their 
opponents as delighting in those evils or difficulties, and 
as indifferent to those goods. The metaphysician who 
explains the origin of evil the Owenite, or other politi- 
cal schemer who proposes to abolish poverty and remove 
all need of charity the political economists who rail 
at Malthus, and provide for an unlimited multiplication 
of mouths without meat the miner who sinks a coal- 
pit where there are no coals, because (this is a fact) u It 
would be impious to suppose God would leave the people 
of any district without the means of warming them- 
selves," all these and other such pretenders fight with 
the envenomed arrows of the argumentum ad invidiam' 

On the Irish FOOT Law. 

1 Jan. 23, 1849. 

*My dear Senior, One of Beresford's Miseries of Human 

life is, " After supping on mushrooms, the lively interest 

you take in a discussion of the question, whether they 

were of the right sort." Similar, I suppose, will be the 

"interesting discussions of the Committee on Irish Poor 



Laws. I entreated them to make inquiry before they took 
an irretrievable step. But now, I know of no stomach- 
pump. I fear the Committee will be merely a blind, to 
quash all discussion in the Houses by saying, " Oh 5 wait 
for the report of the Committee ; they know more about 
the matter than the House/' And then there will doubt- 
less be some persons on the Committee, perhaps placed 
there on purpose, who will take care either that there 
shall be no report, or else one that amounts to nothing. 
My being on it would probably only tend to mislead the 
public into supposing that the interests of Ireland will be 
duly looked after, and to give my apparent sanction to 
resolutions or non-resolutions contrary to my own 
judgment. But I should not mind being called up as a 
witness. And I could bring up many others much more 

4 1 believe you were right in not suggesting any remedy, 
even supposing you had one ready; for it is impossible to 
get out of such a scrape without great difficulties, great 
loss, and great injustice (in itself) to many. And if any 
scheme involving all this be suggested, it is of course open 
to many objections (you may remember that when you 
were employed eo nomine to find objections to our 
Poor Law Inquiry Beport, you found it very easy to do so ; 
and the result was that the objections to the Poor Law, 
which was thereupon brought in, were overlooked) ; the 
urging and answering of which occupies men's attention, 
and draws it off from, the actual evil itself that is going 
on. While debating which pond to go to for water, the 
fire is burning. 

' I believe it is best therefore to give men time to let 
their minds dwell on the magnitude of the danger till 
they are ready to say, Any deliverance from such dreadful 
evils, at whatever cost. They say it is best not to attempt to 


rescue a drowning man till he has become senseless, and 
can be pulled out like a log ; for just at first he clings to 
his deliverer, and they both drown. But what would you 
suggest ? There would be some palliation in exempting 
all improvements from increase of rate for twenty or thirty 
years. As it is, the law operates as a prohibition. 

' I doubt whether is right, though "peritus creden- 

clum in arte sua." In the case of a book, which a person 
who values it will wish to have by him to consult, a high 
price may not diminish the sale so far as to counterbalance 
the increased profit. But a book which most people wish 
only to read through, they will be likely, in many instances, 
to borrow or to buy, according to the price. 

4 Yours ever, E. W.' 

< Dublin : Marcli 3, 1849. 

' My dear Senior, I am uneasy at the accounts I re- 
ceive of your health. Each successive attack seems to 
be according to the custom of the allopathists driven off 
by violent remedies, which make sad inroads on the con- 
stitution, and leave the patient more liable to a fresh 
attack, and less able to bear up against it. I am more 
and more inclined to believe that the general practice is 
a sort of Danegelt, which gets rid of the Danes for the 
present, but makes them sure to return, and to return to 
a country less able to bear their exactions. 

said, in reference to mesmerism, " If so and so 

could occur, it would be a miracle," and thus he thought 
he had disposed of the question ! Pity that a man whom 
nature has qualified to be a philosopher, should prefer 
being an orator ! I, for one, am not prepared to say I 
would reject all evidence for a miracle, merely on that 
ground ; however great may be the preponderance of im- 
probability against every other supposition. If the falsity 


of the evidence for a miracle be more miraculous (in Hume's 
sense of that word ; i. e. more improbable) than the 
miracle, then, even on Hume's own principle, I ought to 
believe it. But again, I am not prepared to call every- 
thing miraculous which is a violation of those laws of 
Mature which I am acquainted with. Else, the King of 
Bantam would have been justified in rejecting all evidence 
for the existence of ice ; and the cardinals for refusing 
to look through Galileo's telescope. 

' " Oh, but that," said (of the torpedo) is 

a case of electricity," that is, we are to believe or disbe- 
lieve, not according as we have or have not evidence ; 
not by the results of experiments, but according as we 
have or have not an explanation to offer ; and what does 
the explanation amount to ? A name ! The Brobdig- 
nagians were not bound to believe in the existence of 
the Gulliver whom they saw before them, till they had 
made out that he was a " Ealpluni Scalcatch 1 " ' 

On Public Executions. 
(Date uncertain; but supposed to be in this year.) 

c Mr. Editor, I cannot altogether coincide with your 
correspondent A. on the subject of public executions ; 
though he seems to admit what has long been forcibly 
impressed on my mind, the very great mischief often 
done by the public display of triumphant penitence 
which so often takes place at them. I do not design to 
enter into the question of the efficacy of deathbed 
repentance. Supposing the doctrine to be an essential 
part of the Christian religion, we cannot be (as your cor- 
respondent observes) justified by any fear of dangerous 
consequences in suppressing or denying it. But if the 
danger consists, as is the case in the public display which 


the writer of the " Times " complains of if the evil 
consequences may be averted by merely avoiding the 
exhibition of these too striking scenes then surely no 
regard for Christian duty calls on us to incur wantonly 
a useless danger. 

c If the whole of a public execution were removed to 
such a distance from the crowd as to exclude them from 
hearing any of the " last dying speech," &c., which for 
the most part do such incalculable hurt, and if nothing 
were presented to their eyes but the distant view of 
the criminal launched from the fatal drop, our mode of 
conducting an execution would be as perfect as public 
execution can be. All spiritual consolation which a 
Christian minister might think himself authorised and 
bound to afford, might then be afforded in private to the 
only person (the condemned criminal himself) to whom 
it is even pretended it can be useful or safe. For no one 
can think that the doctrine of the efficacy of dying 
repentance can be edifying to anyone except the dying 

4 And if any of the consolation administered were rash 
and ill-grounded, at least no harm would be done by it, 
so long as it was private ; since no one would be encou- 
raged by it (as I fear is too often the case now) to go on 
in criminal courses. It is much to be apprehended that 
some of that rashness I have alluded to in cherishing this 
ill-founded confidence in the dying is to be found where 
one would least expect it. I would not take upon me to 
say that no divines, even of the Church of England, have 
ever been so ignorant or unthinking as to resort to those 
topics your correspondent alludes to the case of the peni- 
tent thief, and that of the labourers called at the eleventh 
hour; though a very humble portion of learning and 
intelligence would suffice to show that these are far indeed 


from being parallel to the cases with which they are 

c The labourers in the vineyard had been standing idle 
till the eleventh hour because no man had hired them ; 
they are not represented as being at all in fault, as having 
been invited before and refused to come. Whatever, 
therefore, we may judge of the case of a hardened sinner 
repenting at the approach of death, it is plain it can have 
no sort of connexion with this parable. And no less 
foreign to the purpose is the case of the thief on the 
cross. He acknowledged as his Saviour and Lord, about 
to enter on a kingdom. One whom he saw perishing by an 
ignominious death amid the exulting taunts of his enemies 
and the despairing lamentations of his disciples. Such a 
strength of faith as this not many of us perhaps possess ; 
but it is what no one in the present day can possibly 

c I have proposed what seems to me a great improve- 
ment in our public executions. But, surely, it would be 
much better if all executions were private. That familiar- 
ity which breeds contempt is most effectually generated 
in the unthinking and profligate mobs which assemble for 
the enjoyment of what they call " Hang Fair," and who 
are chiefly anxious to see a spirited and becoming sub- 
mission to death, in those who (in common with many of 
the spectators) have long been accustomed to regard 
hanging as their natural death. I invite your readers to 
a fuller discussion of this important subject from those of 
more leisure and more knowledge than I profess ; and 
am, &c., &c. 



From a Letter to Lady Osborne. 

c Now, I must say it is a strong presumption against 
your view what Baron Pennefather would call a prinm 
facie evidence that ninety-nine in a hundred, both of 
Boman Catholics and Protestants, decide the other way. 

; I myself agree with them ; and I attribute the Befor- 
rnation mainly to the increased diffusion of scripture 

6 For the Bomish Church, though insulated texts may 
be adduced in its favour, perhaps nearly as many as 
against it, is peculiarly endangered by the continuous 
perusal of any entire book of the New Testament much 
more of several on account of their all omitting what 
are the most prominent parts of the Bomish religion. For 
instance, the foundation of all is the supremacy and 
infallibility of their church ; yet throughout the Acts and 
Epistles no allusion is made to any such supreme and 
infallible tribunal, present or future. You have probably 
seen my " Search after Infallibility," published about a 
year ago, in which this omission is pointed out. It was 
answered by a Dr. O'Connell, one of their most popular 
preachers ; who laboured to draw off the reader (very 
nicely) from the examination of Scripture to the Fathers, 
&c. There was a reply to him by an anonymous writer, 
which seemed to me to demolish him. At any rate, 
neither he nor anyone else has taken the field since. 

' Again, if a stranger were to visit Europe, he would not 
fail to describe most of the inhabitants as worshippers of 
a certain goddess, whose image, decked hi tawdry petti- 
coats he would see them everywhere venerating. Indeed, 
I have heard of some colony where the aborigines distin- 
guish the settlers into " worshippers of Christ," and 
c; worshippers of Mary." Now, in the Gospels we find 

^Ex.G2] TO LADY OSBOFuS'E, 143 

her pointedly excluded from taking part in her son's 
ministry; and in the Acts and Epistles she is never 
named or alluded to at all. Again, the sacrifice of the 
Mass is the main part of their worship; and in the 
epistle to the Hebrews, the imperfection of the Jewish 
sacrifices is contrasted with that of Christ " once for all," 
and no sacrificing priest (sacerdotal or hierarchical) is 
appointed by the Apostles ; while in the Church of Borne 
everything is made to depend on that. 

c Ever yours truly, 

'Bo. DUBLIN.' 

' Dublin: Feast of St. Pancake, 1849. 

: My dear Hinds, I write this to you instead of to 

because you will perhaps modify or amplify what I say. 

' There is a certain morbid state of mind which I 
suppose few thoughtful persons have ever been wholly 
exempt from throughout the whole of life, except those 
who with a sanguine temperament have " Hope large and 
Cautiousness small." I mean a tendency to unreasonable 
doubts and suspicions, especially on any point whereon 
we are the most anxious to feel fully assured. This, 
like any tendency when it goes beyond a certain point, 
may become monomania. But in a minor degree most 
people have been, at some time or other, thus haunted. 
In some, it takes the turn of fancying oneself about to be 
ruined ; in some, of all men being hostile and conspiring 
against one ; in some, of ill usage from those dearest to 
us* There was one of my clergy who was rational ex- 
cept on one point ; he fancied his wife (whom he doted 
on) was unfaithful, and was trying to poison him. One 
patient I remember hearing of, whose own reason and 
that of his friends never could satisfy him that his person 
was clean ; and having a great horror of dirt, he was all 


day washing and scrubbing his unfortunate carcase, till 
he at length caught his death of cold. And some again 
are haunted with groundless fear for the safety of a be- 
loved child, whom they will hardly bear out of their 
sight; or doctor themselves to death for imaginary 
diseases, &c. 

c Others again are haunted with a philosophical scepti- 
cism, which I regard as only another form of the same 
disease. They are always labouring to convince them- 
selves that sleep and waking are two different states, and 
that the whole of life is not a dream ; that there is an 
external world; that there is such a thing as personal 
identity (Des Cartes, with his "Cogito, ergo sum," was 
evidently haunted in this way) ; and, not least, to satisfy 
themselves of the truth of their religion, so as to preclude 
all possibility for ever of any doubt creeping in. Now, 
how is this state of mind to be combated ? Direct argu- 
ments to prove the desired conclusion do not succeed in 
such a case. At least, they are not alone sufficient prac- 
tically to exclude doubt. And the worst of it is, that 
when a man's understanding assures him, more or less 
certainly, that he ought to be fully convinced, and yet his 
feelings suggest doubts, he is apt to be haunted with a 
fresh doubt, whether this be not a sinful want of faith. 

; When I have found myself in this state, the first thing 
I do is to convince myself that there is such a state. 
Next, I place myself in a jury-box, and resolve to give a 
verdict according to the evidence, not leaving out of 
account the authority of competent persons who have 
pronounced such and such evidence good ; just as a jury- 
man does, whether there be a great or a small preponder- 
ance of probability. And then, just as a juryman does 
not try the cause over again, but sentence is pronounced 
according to the verdict, I resolve to set about acting 


according to the decision I have come to, and withdraw 
my attention for the present from the question already 
tried ; always keeping in mind that faith, in the sense in 
which it is a virtue, does not consist in the strength of the 
conviction, but in readiness to act on the conviction ; in 
being " willing to do the will of God," and hoping to be 
rewarded by " knowing of the doctrine whether it be of 

'And I have commonly found that some points of 
evidence come out incidentally when the mind is occu- 
pied with collateral inquiries. E.g., while I was discus-ing 
the corruptions that have been introduced into Chris- 
tianity, it struck me most forcibly that these would surely 
have been the original religion if it had been of man's 
devising, &c. 

4 You must have often observed that the side sight of 
the eye is the strongest. You get a brighter view of a 
comet, or some other of the heavenly bodies, when you 
are looking not outright at it, but at some other star near 
it. And so it often is with evidence. Discuss some 
other point allied to the one on which you have been 
unable to satisfy yourself, and it will often happen that, 
just as when you are hunting for something you have 
lost, you find other things which you had lost long before. 
Some argument will strike you with its fall force which 
had failed to make a due impression when you were 
occupied in trying the very question it relates to ; when 
a certain anxiety to be convinced produced a sort of 
resistance to evidence. Observe : I have said, " Withdraw 
your attention for the present from the question " that 
puzzles, you ; for it would be not only unfair, but would 
tend to keep up an uneasy suspicion in your mind to 
resolve never from henceforth to debate such and such a 
question, but put off the discussion to some definite or 



indefinite time, and turn your inind to some different 

f I dare say you have often, like rny other pupils, re- 
ceived that advice, which I always acted on myself, for 
your studies. When a man has got thoroughly puzzled 
at some passage in an author, or at a mathematical 
problem, I have known him sit over it for hours, till 
he was half distracted, without being any the forwarder ; 
and when he comes to look at it again a day or two 
after, having been occupied in the interim with other 
things, he finds it quite easy. And it is the same when 
you are trying to recollect some name. I always told my 
pupils, " When, after a reasonable time, you cannot make 
out a difficulty, pass on to something else, and return to 
the point next day ; " and many a weary hour have I 
saved them. T I have known a gamekeeper act on an 
analogous plan. When the clogs failed to find a winged 
bird in a thicket, he called them off and hunted them, 
elsewhere for half an hour ; on corning back, they found 
the bird at once. He assured me that if he had kept 
them at that thicket all day, they would never have found 
the bird. The phenomenon is curious, and I do not pro- 
fess to explain it. But of the fact and the practical 
inference I cannot doubt. 

'And now I have sent you the medicine, which, if 
you approve of it, you may administer. 

4 Ever yours, 


In this session the question of out-door relief for 
paupers was again brought forward, and a debate took 
place on the second reading of the < Bate-in-Aid ' Bill. 
The Archbishop in a short speech opposed the Bill, but 
without effect. 

.-El. 02] ON RATE-IN- AID BILL. 147 

<17 Hereford Street: April 26, 1849. 

'My dear Hinds, What you say about the Scotch 
Church is very reasonable ; but may they not object, 
that, by getting an Act passed to unite them to the English 
Church, they would be placing themselves under the 
control of Parliament? And this some would dislike, 
not wholly without reason ; and I know you prefer the 
apostolical plan of several independent churches, in Ml 

'Perhaps the object would be equally attained by their 
simply laying aside all the non-existing differences between 
the two ; for, as you observe, if they hold them non- 
essential, they cannot object; if essential, they cannot 
blame objectors. And it is an awkward thing for a man 
to be using the English offices on sufferance, just so long 
as his congregation happen to prefer it. I shall suggest 
this to Bishop Terrot. 

6 What can be done for Ireland, is a question more easily 
asked than answered ; but this is certain, and is being 
established before the Commissioners, that in those places 
where out-door relief has been resisted, the distress has 
been far less ; so that I should be for cutting off that, and 
retrieving, so far, the false step made in 1847. A rate 
in aid I would cheerfully vote for, as you suggest, limiting 
it to one year and one Qd. ; but who is to limit it ? Can 
any parliament or any ministry bind their successors not 
to do the very thing they are themselves doing ? The 
6d. is called for on the ground of necessity. If that 
necessity continues and increases, as the very relief 
afforded encourages it to do, why should not this neces- 
sity be a plea next January for a Is. or 2s. rate, and, a 
little later, for 10s. or 12s. ? If it be in our power to say 
to pauperism, " Hitherto shalt thou go and no further," 

L 2 


why not say so at the outset ? If it be not in our power, 
it is idle to pretend to it. I would have cheerfully paid 
ship-money and so, no doubt, would Hampden if there 
could have been any security that the alleged necessity of 
the King would never recur; but it was claimed, as 
Clarendon observes, " by a sort of logic which left no man 
anything that he could call his own." 

4 Universally I have a distrust of measures which are 
called "temporary" or "final." They hardly ever prove 
so ; for those words are used precisely because there is an 
evident danger that another step will be called for on the 
very same ground as the first. Surely the burden of 
proof is on those who declare that so-and-so shall be final, 
or shall be temporary. Where is their security ? They 
promised that eighty workhouses should be sufficient for 
all Ireland ; they built one hundred and twenty, and there 
were not sufficient. They promised that mendicancy 
should be suppressed; it was never even diminished. 
They promised that there should be no out-door relief, 
but the workhouse test always enforced ; they failed to 
fulfil this. They promised that this out-door relief bill 
should make each district maintain its own poor, and 
within two years they find this impossible ; and now they 
promise that the bottomless pit of a rate-in-aid shall 
swallow up no more than a given quantity. May we not 
fairly call on those who have hitherto broken every 
promise to find securities ? 

6 Tours ever, 


To the Bishop of Norwich on the Jew Bill. 

'June 24, 1849. 

* . . . I took a different view of the question (as you 
will have seen) from many others on both sides. I may 


perhaps have even damaged the immediate cause of Baron 
Eothschild by advocating a principle (to the great dismay 
of one at least of the supporters of the bill) which would 
leave Parliament as open to a Mahometan or a Pagan as 
to a Jew, and by waiving altogether the question whether 
a Jew is a fit person to sit in Parliament; but I must 
maintain my own principle, which is, that a law, giving 
to Christians generally as such, or to Christians of any 
particular Church, a monopoly of any civil rights, is to 
make Christ's kingdom, so far, a kingdom of this world, 
and is a violation of the rule of "rendering to Caesar the 
things that are Caesar's." I cannot doubt that the apostles 
were suspected of designing that, whenever their party 
should become strong enough, their followers should, by 
law, enforced by secular power, compel all men to profess 
Christianity, or at least exclude others from office ; and I 
cannot doubt that they always intended to be understood 
and were understood as denying any such design. If 
this denial were insincere, they must have been base 
deceivers. If it were sincere, one who studies to conform 
to their principle cannot deserve to be reproached with 
indifference to Christianity. 

6 And no answer has ever been, or can be given, to this 
argument, that, if removing Jewish disabilities implied 
indifference to Christianity, then manifestly the opening 
of Parliament to Dissenters must imply (what I will never 
acknowledge in myself) indifference to our Church. 

c Some, indeed, of the opponents of the bill expressed 
their disapprobation of the admission of a Dissenter ; and 
they would have been though in my opinion quite 
wrong at least consistent if they had proposed to add to 
the words, " on the true faith of a Christian," the words, 
" of the Established Church." But as the matter now 
stands, we are in a palpable false position, unless we are 


prepared to say that it is of no consequence at all what a 
man's religion may be, provided he will but profess 
Christianity I 

' Those who cast imputations of infidelity or of indif- 
ference on all who supported the bill, should remember 
that there once was a Person so circumstanced as to have 
it in His power completely to exclude from all offices 
everyone who did not embrace the Gospel ; nay, and to 
oblige all men, without need of resorting to actual vio- 
lence, to profess Christianity ; and who yet chose to forego 
this exercise of power, and to leave all men to their own 
free choice to embrace or reject the religion. 

* Was not He a traitor to the good cause ? So thought 
the Jews themselves; for, when He rejected temporal 
dominion, and resisted their attempts " to make Him 
King," they put Him to death as a false pretender for 
disappointing their expectations ; and it does seem to me 
that it is in their steps we are treading if we exclude by 
law from civil rights all who will not profess Christianity. 

4 1 do believe, however, that (besides those who opposed 
the bill merely as members of Opposition) there were 
several well-disposed men who either could not or would 
not consider clearly the question really before iis, and ran 
away with the general vague notion that it was a question 
whether it is or is not a matter of indifference whether a 
man is a Christian or not. 

4 As for the argument (?) that the present is an unsuitable 
time for passing such a measure, because Providence has 
blessed our arms with success in India, and because we 
are exempt from the civil discord which rages on the 
continent, I cannot but feel the greatest wonder that any- 
one should suppose it possible such a reason could con- 
vince anyone. Those who are advocates for the removal 
of the disability must either believe that such a course 

.-El. 02] Otf THE JEW BILL. 151 

does imply contempt for Christianity, which, of course 
they must reject and contemn, or else must be persons who 
think that the law as it stands is adverse to the religion 
which they venerate, and is a reproach instead of an 
honour to it. 

* Now the former class will never surely be made pious 
men and good Christians by our victories in India. The 
victories gained by Frederick of Prussia and by Bona- 
parte had no such effect (nor was there any reason they 
should) on them or their followers. If our Indian vic- 
tories depended on. our exclusion of the Jews from office, 
they may say, how came the Americans to defeat the 
Mexicans ? In the United States, Jews are not excluded. 
Then, as for the other class, if I am convinced that the 
attempt to monopolise civil rights for Christians is to 
make Christ's a kingdom of this world, how should Lord 
Gough's victories change my opinion ? My gratitude to 
Divine providence can never lead me to run counter to 
what I believe to be the Divine will. NOT can it alter 
my view of what that will is, unless there be a special 
revelation for the purpose. 

c If I were to urge (as I might equally well do) that 
the potato-rot is a judgment on us for the Jewish disabi- 
lities, it would be sufficient to reply as in the other case 
also what proof can you offer of this ? The Egyptians 
could not have been expected to conclude that it was the 
Grod of Israel who sent plagues on them for the deliver- 
ance of His people, but for the circumstance that " in the 
land of Goshen there was no hail." Such wanton^ and I 
must say presumptuous, interpretations of current events 
are not merely idle and useless, but in many ways 

* Ever yours, 



'Dublin: Sept, 13, 1849. 

' My dear Senior, Tours received, and highly satis- 
factory. You will perhaps have seen that we have lost 
the good Bishop of Norwich. 1 As a public loss, I think 
more of him than perhaps many others who knew and 
esteemed him. 

c A bishop, who in Galileo's time supported astronomy, 
would have saved many from infidelity. There is always 
a danger in such times that men should form an associa- 
tion between the Church, or religion generally, and oppo- 
sition to all reform and all advance. 

c Cholera is making frightful ravages both here and in 
London, much more than is publicly proclaimed. Poor 
Dr. Taylor was carried off yesterday. 

4 There is a good deal of blight in the tops of the pota- 
toes, but as yet very few of the roots have suffered ; and, 
though there have been heavy showers, the harvest, on 
the whole, is reckoned pretty good. But a good deal of 
land is out of cultivation, and the idlers are eating up the 
country. In fact, the Poor Law is producing just the effects 
we anticipated, making the famine permanent. There is 
no other cause that I know of why the country should be 
worse off now than it was ten years ago. 

c The Queen's visit is reported to have been mainly due 
to Lord Clarendon, and to have been rather deprecated 
by ministers especially. Sir G. Grey is said to have 
dreaded her visiting the schools, Nothing could Lave 
gone off better. She spoke to me, both at the time and 
two days after, of her great gratification at seeing the 
schools ; and a new building for training masters, and a 
new agricultural training school are to be named respec- 

1 Bishop Stanley; succeeded by Archbishop Whately's friend, Dr.' Hinds. 


tively after her and the prince, as a memorial of their 

; Will it not be necessary for the Whigs and Tories to 
combine against their common enemies the Eadicals ? 
Each is too weak separately. 

4 Will Austria ever dare, now, to employ Hungarian 
soldiers? and will she not be prostrate at the feet of 

'Nov. 2, 1849. 

c My dear Mrs. Arnold, I shall direct Parker to send 
you a copy of the French translation of the " Lessons on 
Worship." I have advised him to procure the " Edin- 
burgh Beview," for the sake of the first article. 1 

6 1 do not wonder that there should be persons who 
consider that a teacher of history has only to examine 
the pupils in some books they had been reading, and see 
whether they remember the date of each king's accession, 
and the locality of each battle. But, if the lecturer is to 
direct attention to the various influences 'on nations of 
various modifications of true and false religions, and to 
develop any of the workings of Divine Providence in 
human afiairs, then I do think any who regards the 
soundness of his religious views as a matter of no con- 
sequence, must have forgotten Hume and Gibbon. F. 
Newman, however, we are told, is a very pious man. 
And so he is, in a certain way of his own. As far as I 
can judge, from what I have read of him (for I have not 
gone through his book), his piety seems to consist mainly 
of a sort of self-adoration. His system seems to be that 
of " every man his own apostle." But he possesses two 
qualities which, to a large proportion of persons in the 
present day, are high recommendations inordinate self-, 

1 ' Reason and Faith : their Claims and Conflicts.' 


confidence and mystical obscurity. To me, I must con- 
fess, cautious modesty and perspicuity are greatly prefer- 
able. But there are many who give their admiration, as 
they would give their money to a highwayman, on loud 
and vehement demands. And I have heard the maxim 
laid down by somebody, earnestly maintained, that " a 
clear idea is a little idea." I am accordingly set down 
as a third-rate or fourth-rate kind of person by many, 
because I condescend to write intelligibly. But I am old- 
fashioned enough to admire Bacon, whose remarks are 
taken in and assented to by persons of ordinary capacity, 
and seeni nothing very profound ; but when a man conies 
to reflect and observe, and his faculties enlarge, he then 
sees more in them than he did at first ; and more still, as 
he advances further; his admiration of Bacon's profundity 
increasing, as he himself grows intellectually. Bacon's 
wisdom is like the seven-league boots, which would fit 
the giant or the dwarf, except only that the dwarf cannot 
take the same stride in them. 

* It is curious to observe how the brothers Newman, 
starting east and west, have gone so far that they have 
nearly met. Both have come to the conclusion that there 
is nothing of what is commonly called evidence for Chris- 
tianity ; the one resting his belief (if he has any) of that, 
and of the silliest monkish legends alike, on the Church ; 
and the other on the infallible oracle within him. 

* The disparagement of evidence among persons who are 
professed believers is characteristic of the present age. 
I have pointed out some of the many curious coincidences 
as to this in the parallels between Hurne and the " British 
Critic," and the "Edinburgh Eeview" and Coleridge. 

c Such a notion as that of Coleridge is, I conceive, doing 
incalculable mischief, on account of the large admixture 
of truth in it ; for error and poison are seldom swallowed 

^ T - 62] TO MRS. ARNOLD. 155 

undiluted. It is true that internal evidence is a great 
and an indispensable part of the foundation of faith ; and 
hence he makes it the whole (as I have observed in the 
last edition of the "Evidences"), and makes each man's own 
feelings the sole test of what he is to believe. And there 
are some very good people who, though they do not them- 
selves feel all evidence for Christianity (as P. Newman 
says) " crumble away under them," yet regard it as a 
great triumph of their religion that it should so recom- 
mend itself to the inward feelings of those who hold that 
no reason can be given for their hope, that they yet do 
believe it. But if my tenants were to deny that I had 
any legal claim to my rents, and call my title-deeds mere 
waste paper, but to offer to hand me the money as a free 
gift, because they thought me a worthy man, I should 
decline the compliment ; because next year they might 
think I only deserved half the sum, and the year after, 
perhaps, none at all. And so with Christianity. If a 
man believed the truth of it merely because he likes it, in 
the first place, another, who does not like it, may, by the 
same rule, reject it ; and secondly, everyone who does 
call himself a Christian will receive just such portions of 
the religion as please him, and reject the rest. He will 
consider this Apostle as mistaken in one point, and that, 
in another, and Jesus Christ Himself as faulty in so and 
so ; and in short he may believe much less of the Gospel 
than a Mahometan does ; and yet forsooth his so-called 
belief in Christianity is a great triumph to it ! though he 
is not taking the Gospel for his guide, but making himself 
the guide and ruler of the Gospel It is like the worship 
in the cave of Domdaniel of an idol made by the wor- 
shippers. But still he is called a Christian ; just as the 
Mayors of the Palace called themselves subjects of the 
rois faineants. When will men get free from the thraldom 
of words ! 


c I have been as tedious as a king. But I am writing 
about matters connected with what seems to have been 
marked out as my own especial province to combat the 
prevailing tendencies of the age. I was in reality the first 
writer of the " Tracts for the Times ;" for my " Eomish 
Errors" might well have been so entitled ; and it came 
out before the storm burst which I had seen gathering. 
And I have also observed, and fought against, the ten- 
dency in the present day to discard all moral reasoning, 
and to encourage the practice of making one's opinions 
on all moral and religious questions a matter of taste. A 
person who was conversing with one of my daughters 
said once : " Oh, you had that from your father ; I re- 
member it in some of his works." " Perhaps so ; but 
I have given you my reasons for it ; and if it is true, and 
the proof of it sufficient, it has a claim to reception on its 
own account." " Oh, your father is an eminent man in 
his own way ; but I prefer different views." 

* All this I consider as characteristic of the age. Men 
did indeed formerly reason on little and ill ; but they 
professed and attempted to reason; they sought, if they 
did not always find, some rational ground for their con- 
clusions; and though no doubt often biassed by their 
feelings, they did not, as now, avow and glory in this. 
The evidences of Christianity again were contemned ; but 
it was by avowed unbelievers ; not, as now, by persons 
professing a veneration for Christianity, and even a 
belief in it. In short, it is an age not particularly perhaps 
of disobedience to logic, but of open rebellion against it. 
So I have unfurled my standard, and mustered a respect- 
able minority. 

c Ever yours affectionately, 
C E. W. 

'P.8. I need hardly say that I have inflicted all this 

^ET. 62] TO Dft. HINDS. 157 

upon you with a view to have your opinion of my ideas. 
You are not accustomed perhaps to have so much defer- 
ence paid to your judgment as I should consider you 
entitled to. But Mrs. W. and myself, though we feel 
bound not to be led implicitly by anyone, should feel 
that we were neglecting one of the talents committed to 
us if we did not avail ourselves of our intimacy with you 
by listening attentively and with deference to your 

To Bishop Hinds. 

'Nov. 7, 1849. 

c There is on its way to you, through E., a 
MS. which I shall beg you afterwards (at your leisure) to 
forward, as directed, to Mr. Rogers, the reviewer. 

6 He is a very modest and candid man. I suggested as 
an improvement on his illustrations of faith and reason, 
that the anchor of faith, however strong, must be cast in 
the right place and on good holding-ground, which reason 
supplies. He admitted this as an improvement. See 
Hebrews vi. 19. 

' I also remarked that the will and determination to 
adopt the major premiss is the work of faith ; the minor 
(so and so is well established) belongs to reason. 

* In this also he concurs. 

; Yours ever, 

<B. W.' 

< Dec. 10, 1849. 

4 My dear Hinds., I should like to hear how your 
consecration and bishop's sermon came off; and also 
some particulars of that correspondence with your op- 
ponents, of which something has appeared in the papers. 

4 Your refusal to sign any declaration dictated by a 
self-constituted authority was very well expressed. I am 


not sure, however, that I should not have administered, in 
very calm language, something of a more decided rebuke 
of the absurdity as well as impertinence of the applica- 
tion. I think I should have said that, to impute to 
me views which to myself appear at variance with those 
of the Church, is what everyone is bound in Christian 
charity and in gentlemanly courtesy to abstain from, and 
is an imputation which it would be both lowering oneself 
and also vain to reply to, since a man who plays the 
hypocrite for thirty years would be likely to do so still. 
But as for views at variance with what somebody else con- 
ceives to be those of the Church, it is a thing which though 
one may regret, one cannot avoid. If I could express 
myself so that no person could possibly differ as to my 
meaning, I should do more than, notoriously, has been 
done, either in our Church's formularies or in Scripture. 
But to attempt not only to accomplish this, but to make 
my meaning acceptable to all persons, including those who 
take different and even opposite views of the doctrine both 
of the Church and of Scripture in many points, this would 
be a palpable absurdity. And I think I should have 
concluded by asking them to reflect how they would feel 
and act if five or sis different parties were to call on 
them to sign a list of Articles drawn up in conformity 
with the views of each respectively/ 




Family anxieties of tlie Archbishop Illness of his son Accom- 
panies his family on their journey to Nice, hut leaves them at 
Paris Letter to Mr. Senior Letter to Lady Oshorne on Epicu- 
reanismLetters to Mrs. Hill on literary matters Letters to 
Bishop Hinds on the Baptismal Question Letter to Mr. Senior 
on his Review of ' Lewis on Authority in Matters of Opinion' 
Spends part of the summer with his family at Cromer Miss Anna 

Gurney His friendship for Mrs. Hill Letter to Mrs. Arnold 

Letter to Mrs. Hill Letter to a Friend Letter to Bishop Hinds 
on his Address to his Clergy. 

THE year 1850 opened with much trial to the subject 
of this memoir, not only from sickness in his family, 
but from other causes known and shared only by 

The precarious health of his son obliged him to leave 
a curacy in England to which he had been recently 
ordained, and try a winter in a warmer climate. Accom- 
panied by a sister, he started for Nice in December, 

1849 ; the Archbishop accompanied his children as far as 
Paris, but his journey was a hurried one, and early in 

1850 he was again at his post. 

' Feb. 1, 1860. 

c My dear Senior, It strikes me that there is much 
wanted an article on National Education. It might be a 


review of the " Minutes of Council," our Irish Reports, 
and a whole host of pamphlets, including the appendix 
to my last Charge. I find that is traversing Eng- 
land, and disseminating, and gaining credence for, his 
misstatements. And there is much excitement and discus- 
sion prevailing relative to the English schools also. In 
Ireland the Eoman Catholic agitators are assailing the 
Board almost fiercely as the ultra-protestants. And there 
is also a great opposition in the colonies to the introduc- 
tion, which Lord Grey is disposed to attempt, of our 

c Such an article would, I think, not only be interesting 
but needful, to meet the inquiry why none such appears. 
If you do not write it, cannot you set some one else to 

4 We have heard only incidentally of our children's 
arrival at Nice, their letters to us having apparently been 
lost. How they are, we are still in most painful uncer- 

< Ever yours truly, 


To Lady Osborne on the Opinions of the Epicureans. 
(She Kad written to ask Mm on the subject.) 

< Dublin : Feb. 28, 1850, 

4 1 have never read, nor do I know of, any work written 
by an Epicurean, except Lucretius. And as for all that 
has been written about them, and about the other philo- 
sophical sects, you may easily find people who have read 
three or four times as much as I have. 

* But as most of the ancient philosophers were Tractites, 
having a "double-doctrine," it would be rash to decide 
what they really thought. 

* Perhaps I might say with Hobbes, "If I had read as 


much as some men, I should be as ignorant as they." 
Certain it is, that I have met with persons who know by 
heart much more of Plato and Cicero than I do, who 
have not found out, first, that they really believed nothing 
of what they taught of future rewards and punishments ; 
secondly, that the immortality of the soul which they held 
was practically equivalent to annihilation. In like manner 
Pope and others, who had all the heathen mythology at 
their fingers' ends, were so ignorant of it after all as to 
imagine that the Pagans worshipped the same creator 
with us, only under the name of Jove. 

6 1 have not yet read much of 's sermons. 

But I have been reading a paper of his in the " Irish 
Ecclesiastical Gazette" on the 23rd Article, which he, 
I think, expounds rightly, though he might have com- 
pressed all he had to say into half the space. But he 
attributes to Burnet (on the 23rd Article) and to me, 
a doctrine which I do not think either of us can be 
fairly considered as maintaining: viz. that the Article 
excludes from the English Church all who hold the 
necessity of episcopal ordination, and who do not admit 
that one ordination is just as good as another. I myself 
have no doubt that among our reformers there were 
differences of opinion on this point, and that they intended 
to exclude neither.' 

The following letter is to a much valued correspondent, 
with whom he had recently become intimate : 

To Mrs. Hill of Cork. 

< March 26, 1850. 

6 Dear Mrs. Hill, I do not quite recollect whether you 
have any of my works. I will send you either the whole, 
or as many as may be deficient. You may return them 



on the 30th of February. The cost to ine of such a gift 
to any one not likely to be a purchaser, is next to nothing ; 
and, accordingly, Dr. West is allowed to give them 
away to such persons at his discretion, as from himself. 
But I do not ordinarily give copies as " from the author," 
for fear of giving offence to those omitted. The line that 
I draw is, to give to those who have in some way assisted. 
And your pretty book of selections brings you within the 
category of having done something. 

c You do not mention the Proverb copies at the end of 
" Sullivan's Spelling Book. 55 If any periodical you are 
writing for would take them they are at your service, as 
he has no copyright in them. 

* The apophthegms I was speaking of would, I should 
think, all go into two or three octavo pages. Perhaps 
if you were to add to them some others from different 
authors, you might make a collection which would be 
acceptable to some periodical. Several of Bacon's 
" antitheta " (selections from which I have printed at the 
end of the Ehetoric) would be jewels in such a collection, 
if so translated (which is not easy) as to lose none of 
their force. 

Macaulay's writings would furnish several. If you 
should undertake any such collection for the amusement 
of your leisure, or for any other purpose, you will find 
that some passages will require to be a little altered in 
expression to make them intelligible apart from the con- 
text, e.g. (in S. V. on the Shepherds at Bethlehem) 
" When the illumination from heaven, the rays of 
revelation, failed to shed full light on the Gospel-dispen- 
sation, they brought to the dial-plate the lamp of human 
philosophy." I have published nothing, and hardly 
written anything, on language, except what is to be found 
in the Logic (including the Easy Lessons on Reasoning) ; 

JET. 63] TO MRS. HILL. 163 

but, in fact, Logic, as treated by me, relates altogether to 
language ; as I am a zealous Nominalist, and reject all 
the stuff that so many talk about " Ideas." I dare say 
you have heard the story of a lady who had had very 
little education, but was anxious to improve herself, and 
borrowed instructive books of a learned gentleman, who, 
despising female intellect, lent her Locke's Essay, as a 
joke; and when she returned it asked her what she 
thought of it; she replied, "that there seemed to her 
many very good things in it, but there was one word she 
did not clearly understand, the word idea (as she pro- 
nounced it, which by the way, is just as we do pronounce 
It " not id^a " in the original Greek) ; he told her it was 
the feminine of " idiot." My remark on the story was 
that I quite agreed with the lady ; and, moreover, that I 
verily think neither the learned gentleman nor Locke 
himself understood in what sense he used the word, any 
more than she, only that she had the sagacity to perceive 
that she did not.' 

To the Same. 

< Dublin: March 29, 1850. 

* The " bush " is supposed by all commentators to have 
been the commonest bush in the Arabian Desert, the 
dwarf palm. It is now naturalised in some parts of Spain, 
Whether this is the origin of its- branches being an em- 
blem of victory, or whether it was merely that it is a fine- 
looking branch of a common shrub, is a doubtful matter, 

* The Polynesians use a plantain leaf as a flag of truce. 
But the idea of the phoenix is very ingenious, and worth 
considering. Now for another question: Can you con- 
nect a bay horse with a bay tree ? 1. As in Ireland, the 
substitute for a palm-branch is a sprig of yew ; and in 



England, a sprig of willow with its catkins ; so in Italy, 
the substitute for a palm-branch was the "laurus" 
the bay-tree. 2. Now the Greek for a palm-branch is 
" baion " (which is in the Greek Testament, where " they 
cut down branches from the trees," &c.)- And 3. The 
Latin for baion is " spadix ;" which is also 4th, used for a 
bay-horse (Virgil's Georgics), from the colour of the young 

'As for the cases, I have often remarked that the 
genitive, denoting the source from which anything arises, 
is used when oux attention is directed primarily to our 
own feelings; and the accusative, denoting the object 
acted on, when our attention is called to the effect pro- 
duced on another. When you strike your hand gently 
on the table you say, " I feel the table ;" when strongly, 
you say, " I feel pain in my hand from the table. 5 ' Now 
sight is the faintest sensation, and the most vivid per- 
ception. The Greeks therefore spoke of sight as acting 
on the thing perceived, and all the other senses as giving 
a sensation from the object. So also $iXo>, to love, governs 
an accusative case ; we seem to be acting on the object ; 
but Ipav or ep a<rfia*, to " be in love," " to suffer love," 
governs a genitive. 

e Mr. Sullivan, in his nest edition, is to insert another 

Silver gilt will often pass 
Either for gold, or else for brass. 

With the comment that some men who, at the first 
glance, give the idea of something very superior indeed, 
rather beyond what they really are, ultimately are either 
underrated or overrated, Your remarks on Apophthegms 
occurred to me in my sermon to-day, in which as often 
I had summed up the substance in one sentence : We 


must " watch " as if all depended on our own vigilance, 
and we must " pray " as if nothing depended on it. 

6 Very truly yours, 


To Bishop Hinds on the' Baptismal Question. 

1 Dublin: April 1, 1850. 

c If by " baptism for the remission of sins " it be meant 
that all Adam's descendants are doomed to punishment 
in the nest world for his sin, unless they are made mem- 
bers of the Christian Church, then surely that practice 
(of infant baptism) is right; and also the baptism by 

6 But as you know (in the Essay on imputed righteous- 
ness), I do not see any grounds in Scripture for supposing 
that anyone is liable to punishment after death for any 
sins but his own. And, therefore, is not baptising the 
infant savage, like presenting him with the title-deeds of 
a valuable estate, with a foil knowledge that, whether he 
die young or grow up, he will never be able to read them 
or claim the property ? 

6 Again, it is generally admitted by both parties that 
the baptism of an adult is accompanied with the grace of 
regeneration if the sacrament be rightly received, and 
not otherwise ; not if there be a want of repentance and 
faith. But though no benefit accrues to the unworthy 
recipient, may he not (to his own condemnation) have 
been really regenerate in the sense of being enrolled in a 
society gifted with certain spiritual privileges, though he 
does not think of availing himself of them ? Just as a 
man may be truly made a freeman of some city, or 
graduate of a university, though he may never use his 
rights. As we shall certainly both of us have to write 


on the subject before long, I throw out what occurs to 
rne, with great desire that you should do the same. I 
was thinking of making a reference to that essay and 
those sermons, as saving me a great part of the discussion. 
I fear Parker is impenetrable, and will rather be killed 
secundum artem than try any novelty. I have talked to 
him several times. 

4 Yours ever, 


: April 16, 1850. 

ft My dear Senior, I have received the " Edinburgh," 
and read your Article. 1 I can't help doing so when I 
know of one, though the superior vigour of your style is 
apt to make your colleagues seem flat. So also with the 
authors reviewed, though they may be what would read 
well when not thus contrasted. E. g. your extracts re- 
mind me of glass beads set in gold. 

c As for what you say of the impaired authority of the 
supporters of what it would be unpopular to oppose, I 
need not say I concur in it, having in several places made 
the same remark. And this (which is all that is needed 
for your purpose) may be extended to other cases. E. g. 
I know of several who are believers in mesmerism, " but 
secretly, for fear of the Jews." And as I know not how 
many more such there may be, this impairs the authority 
of the professed disbelievers. 

* But when you speak of theological literature as 
"protected," do not even the examples you give dis- 
prove it? Many men may, indeed, be deterred from 
writing against the prevailing religion by dread of odium ; 
but if any one hopes to escape odium in writing for it, 

1 Upon < Lewis, On Authority in Matters of Opinion.' 

-Eft- 63] TO ME. SENIOB. 187 

he is likely to be disappointed. If lie defend the pecu- 
liar tenets of his own Church, he will have half of its 
members against him, besides all those of other Churches. 
And if he write in defence of Christianity generally, he 
will be more assailed by Christians than by infidels. Look 
at the parallel columns (to which I might have added 
many more) at the end of the Logic. Even at this time 
there is a strong body of Roman Catholics (besides Pro- 
testants) pressing the Education Board to suppress the 
"Lessons on the Truth of Christianity," which the Com- 
missioners put forth several years ago. And Warburton 
was assailed more by Christian than by Antichristian 
opponents. He was like Samson, whom the Israelites 
bound hand and foot and delivered into the hand of the 
Philistines, " And he snapped the cords as a thread of 
tow is broken when it toucheth the fire." 

c There is also this additional penalty against writers 
on the side of religion, that they are denounced (as you 
have remarked of Hampden and me) as traitors to their 
own cause. The defender of the doctrines of his Church 
is stigmatised as heterodox. The defender of Christianity 
as impiously raising doubts and "unsettling" people's 
minds. IIa<r^s*v 8s xax&$ *XP^ V " 7r> syhp&v ouosv 
as/K, but to be assailed by one's own brethren is more 
trying. Now he who supports his own views on geology 
or politics is, indeed, liable to be opposed, but not by 
those on his own side. 

fi I think you might have added, therefore, that those 
who do brave obloquy by advocating unpopular views> 
ought to have a corresponding weight attached to their 
authority on all points. And I think this is in a consider- 
able degree the actual result. 

4 Yours ever, 

E. W/ 


< April 22, 1850. 

; My dear Hinds, I know you have little time either 
for business or for relaxation. I at least mean, however, 
that the enclosed should corne under the ktter head. 
Should you find it, after reading the first three or four 
stanzas, to be of that description which men and gods 
can't endure, you need go no farther ; but if you like it, 
it will be rather an amusement than a toil to you to 
suggest any improvements that may occur to you. If 
you should think well of the verses, what would you think 
of their being printed at the end of the " Evidences," 
having been suggested by the perusal of the last two 
Lessons ? 

; Bishop Wilson, in talking of the Regeneration contro- 
versy, remarked that it is extravagant to refer to the 
Creed " one baptism for the remission of sins " as decisive 
of the whole though he afterwards seemed to admit 
that, to a member of a Church which baptises infants, it is 
pretty nearly decisive. I suggested, and he concurred 
with me, that, in most questions pertaining to the Gospel 
dispensation, the first tiling to be done is to look at the 
Law, considering that from that the first preachers of the 
Gospel would naturally take their notions, wherever they 
were not specially directed otherwise. 

c 1. When a sojourner Gentile wished to partake of 
the Passover, &c., "let all his males be circumcised;" 
and then his family became adopted Jews. Hence, surely 
a man and his children would all be baptised (unless the 
contrary were enjoined) on his embracing Christianity,- 
and would thus be adopted as members of the people of 
God under the new dispensation. 

2. c When any Jew or proselyte, whether circumcised 
as an infant or as an adult, failed to take advantage of 

M^ 63] TO DK. HINDS. 169 

liis privileges as one of Grod's people, he would be exhorted 
not to become an Israelite but to walk worthy of his 
calling to return to the Lord, &c. ; and so also the early 
Christians would call on the careless members of the 
Church not to become regenerate saints, &c., but to 
awaken, to seek for a renewal, &c. 

'And the parallel might be carried, I think, fairly 
through many more points. 

'But the advocates of baptismal regeneration labour 
under this difficulty, that they represent regeneration as 
two different things to an adult and to an infant. 
The adult, they say, is regenerated only if he is a 
right recipient if he have that deep repentance and 
full faith which are required, and which are fol- 
lowed by the immediate actual enjoyment of the sanc- 
tifying influence of the Holy Spirit on his heart and 

6 To the infant, incapable of being a moral agent at all, 
most would only make " regeneration" an offer and pro- 
mise of all this hereafter a right of admission to the 
treasury of divine grace, supposing him hereafter to apply 

< Now, supposing all this correct, it is plain that rege- 
neration is two different things to the infant and the 

6 It is as if I defined " inheriting an estate " to mean, in 
the case of an adult, a man's actually entering on the 
enjoyment of the property, taking possession of it, and 
spending or otherwise disposing of the revenue [so also, 
becoming a freeman of a corporate city, &c.] ; and as if I 
decided that if he neglect thus to use and enjoy the 
property, he is not to be said to have inherited it. Now, 
an infant cannot, in this sense, " inherit an estate," but, if 
at all, in some different sense. 


c But if I define inheriting an estate to consist in a 
person having a legal title to it bestowed on him, and his 
becoming a freeman his name being entered on the roll, 
&c., then there is but one sense in which this is predi- 
cated of an adult and of an infant ; and he who, either 
through negligence if an adult, or through incapacity if 
an infant, fails to avail himself at once of the advan- 
tage acquired, may be admonished to seek, not to ac- 
quire, a new possession, but to make use of what is already 

6 Now which of these views is the right, or is either of 

6 Tours ever, 


fi P.S. Will people be found to pay 3Z. per acre for 
land in this settlement ? ' 

Part of the summer of 1850 was spent at Cromer with 
his family, where he formed an acquaintance with one 
whose rare powers of mind rendered her peculiarly 
capable of entering into his the late Miss Anna Grurney 
of North Bepps* None who have enjoyed the privi- 
lege of her society will readily forget it ; and the Arch- 
bishop's intercourse with her, brief as it was, was much 
enjoyed by him, and was kept up by occasional corre- 

Another acquaintance, renewed this year, ripened into 
a friendship which contributed much to the interest and 
pleasure of his later years namely, with the late Mrs. 
Hill of Cork, whose high qualities of mind and heart were 
such as to recommend her peculiarly to the Archbishop. 
With no one, perhaps, at this period of his life, did he 
carry on a more intimate and unreserved correspondence. 


She was able to assist in many of Ms literary labours, and 
wrote many papers from his suggestions ; and their inter- 
course by letter was only broken by the illness which 
ended in her death. 

1 October 6, 1850. 

c My dear Mrs. Arnold, " What in the world can have 
possessed the Archbishop that he sends us a parcel of 
haws?" Now, guess! Do you give it up? They are 
some of the fruit of the red-flowering hawthorn which 

dear budded with her own fair hands. They are sent, 

however, not merely to show how well it has flowered, 
but in case you and she have a niind to try the experi- 
ment of sowing them, and trying what will come. I have 
been trying several such experiments, and should follow 
them up if I had leisure ; for the subject of Varieties, both 
of plants and animals, is particularly interesting to me. 
Among other things, it is connected with the question 
whether all mankind are of one species. The two 
extreme opinions are, 1st, that of those who teach 
that negroes, Europeans, Tartars, Eed Indians, &c., are 
distinct species; and 2nd, that of Lamarck and the 
" Vestiges of Creation," who hold that men are descended 
from apes, and those again from cockles and worms ; 
and between these there are very many shades of 

4 1 have sown the seeds of the white black-currant and 
the white variety of the woody nightshade, and all of them 
as many as have flowered have come true. On the 
other hand, I have sown berries of the Florence-court 
yew (which the botanical books speak of as a distinct 
species), and all that have come up as yet have been 
common yews. 

c One thing that has, till lately, been an obstacle to 
experiments of this kind, is, that with many trees the 


seedling must be a good many years old before it flowers, 
so as to show what it is ; but this is now got over. If 
the young seedling is grafted on a bearing branch of a 
tree of the same species, it will flower and fruit speedily ; 
so that there are now many new apples, plums, &c. 5 to 
be had at the nursery gardens, which were raised from 
the seed only a very few years ago. I have some haw- 
thorns thus grafted with seedlings from the red-flowered, 
which I hope will flower next spring. 

4 Haws usually lie in the ground a whole year before 
they come up ; but they (and the same with the hips of 
roses), if mashed up in water with some meal, or anything 
else that will ferment, and so left for several weeks, will 
be so softened that they will, many of them, come up the 
first spring. 

.' One day, while waiting for the train at Windermere, 
on my way from Foxhow hither, I was attracted by a 
very fine wild rose-bush of the deep-red kind, close to the 
station ; and I pulled up a sucker and brought it home, 
and (though this was in June !) it was so good as to grow, 
and I have now two plants of it. 

; Did they tell you of our excursion to see the charcoal- 
works? It was very interesting. I had known two years 
before how well plants will grow in peat-charcoal, having 
tried it ; but I was astonished at the neat contrivance for 
charring, and they sell it at 35s. per ton I I have bought 
a ton, to try it in my few fields. If the thing succeeds as 
it has promised, it holds out a prospect (barring Poor- 
laws) of regenerating Ireland, and, by-the-by, a good 
deal of your part of England too.' 

The following is to Mrs. Hill, who was at this time 
engaged in a work undertaken at his suggestion. 


< Dublin: Nov. 15, 1850, 

c It may seem strange that I should tMnk of drawing 
you off, in any degree, from the work you are about. 
But there is a work wanted (not, by-the-by, altogether 
unconnected with it) which 1 have not time for, nor any 
of the (few) clergy and others who would be qualified for 
it, and towards which I could furnish hints. 

4 The public, especially in England, are in a great fright, 
and great anger ; and I dread their terror and rage taking 
a wrong direction. If the people of London, &c., should 
take to pelting priests and burning chapels (as in 1780), 
or if any indecent demonstrations of alarm or resentment 
should occur, this will cause a strong reaction towards 
Komanisiiu And this is to be apprehended the more, 
because the Tractites, and some of their favourers in high 
station, are seeking (in order to clear themselves) to hound 
on the mob, and aggravate their rage against the Pope, 
for sending officers to take charge of the recruits whom 
they have been enlisting for him. 

c Almost any publication on the subject, of any merit, 
besides many of none, would be likely just now to have a 
sale. And it would be an important public service to 
turn the alarm and indignation towards the right quarter 

c I would send you some hints, if you think it worth 
while, from which you could judge whether you could 
work them up in a popular style. Sometimes I have 
thought of the form of an Address to the Protestants of 
the Empire, sometimes of the form of a dialogue. But 
every writer will do well to follow his own taste as to that 

C A great work is a thing I have never undertaken. 
Any one, on examining the formidable array of ray 
volumes, would find that all the most considerable have 
grown out of sermons, lectures, &c., which I was called 
on to deliver, and which I then published with some 


additions ; and any work purporting to be a " refutation 
of so and so," or an " answer to such a one," would be 
quite at variance with the general character of my works. 
I am an armourer rather than a warrior. I have manu- 
factured powder and ball, and leave you and others to 
make them up into cartridges and fire at the enemy.' 

Extract from a Letter to a Friend. 

c You are quite right in disregarding misrepresentations. 
It has always been, as you well know, my practice. I 
mean what are properly called misrepresentations, arising 
from malicious design or inexcusable carelessness. If any 
one chooses to impute to me, in report, something I never 
said, in some work which perhaps he has never opened, I 
leave the error to correct itself. 

c But misapprehensions, such as a man might innocently 
fall into through deficiency of learning or of logical acute- 
ness, I feel bound to guard against as well as I can, and 
to correct, if they do arise, whenever I am able. This is 
what I feel bound to, both in justice to my own character 
and to the public. 

c Now, allow me to suggest that on this principle I 
should feel myself called on, were I in your place, to pro- 
duce a work on the evidences of our religion. Of course, 
I do not mean that every Christian minister is bound to 
publish such a treatise, but that circumstanced as you are, 
it may fairly be demanded from you. 

6 A man may conceivably believe some conclusion as 
firmly as his neighbours do, though on quite different 
grounds. He may think, and may have laboured to prove, 
that the reasons on which they believe are fiitile ; and he 
may have reasons of his own which he thinks better. But 
then he is bound, if the matter be one of importance, 
publicly to state those reasons; having endeavoured to 


remove their belief from what he regards as an unsound 
foundation, he ought to place it in some other. Then 
(and then only) he will have cleared himself (whether his 
reasons are thought satisfactory or not) from the suspicion 
of insincerity and inconsistency. But if he neglect to 
take this course, he cannot complain of misrepresentation, 
since he will in fact have been misrepresenting himself/ 

< Dec. 21,1850. 

c My dear Hinds, Your admirable Address l seems 
not published for sale as a pamphlet. I think it should 
be ; at any rate, I shall be glad of five or six dozen copies 
to distribute. 

c West will have sent you a copy of my letter to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury. The primate thought it ex- 
cellent, and when he and I agree, we must be right. I 
was the more induced to write it by a letter from Lord 

, in which he speaks of Ireland having always had 

an unbroken succession of Eoman Catholic bishops (which 
is a strange ignorance of history), and of the necessity of 
" the Church of England disconnecting itself at this crisis 
from the Irish Church." 

6 While Ireland was an independent kingdom, the sub- 
stitution there of a Eoman Catholic establishment for a 
Protestant might not have endangered that in England. 

But if this is done (and Lord 's expression prepares 

the way for it) in a part of the United Kingdom, the next 
step called for may be that Liverpool or all Lancashire 
shall change its establishment, on account of the numbers 
of Eoman Catholics there, and so on. 

4 What we, the Irish Protestants, have to do is, not to 
try to aggravate the rage in England, but to implore that 

1 Reply to an Address from the Clergy of Norwich Diocese on what was 
called the Papal Aggression. 


we may be kept in the same boat ; that is our only chance. 

I can't say I much like the tone of Lord 's letter, in 

the early part. Neither resentment nor fear should ever 
be avowed, except in action. If we apprehend an attack 
on a fortress, instead of wringing our hands and scream- 
ing with terror, we should strengthen the fortifications. 
If an enemy appears before it, let us not scold him ; but 
if weak, let him alone ; if formidable, cannonade him/ 




The Papal Aggression Publishes the ( Cautions for the Times ' 
Correspondence with the Archbishop of Canterbury on the Papal 
Aggression Letter to Mrs. Hill Letter to Miss Crabtree Letter 
to Dr. Hinds on the Marriage Laws Letter to Lady Osborne 
Letter to Mr. Senior on the late French Revolution Letter to 
Lady Oshorne on Good and Evil Angels Letter to Mr. Senior on 
the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill His Suggestions for a Universal 
Coinage Father Ignatius His Interview with the Archbishop 
Letter to Mrs. Arnold on the State of Ireland Letter to Mrs. 
Arnold on her Proposal to answer the 'Creeds of Christen- 
dom' Attends the Session Harassed by Family Anxieties 
Letter to Mrs. Hill on the Spread of Mormonism Letter to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury on the Gorham Controversy Letter to 
his Son-in-Law. 

THE year 1851 was memorable for the excitement caused 
by the subject to which the last letter of 1850 refers, 
namely, the c Papal Aggression.* The Archbishop was 
anxious to point out to all concerned, that the real danger 
lay, not in the irritating bravados of the Church of Borne, 
but in the quiet and secret labours of her emissaries to 
win the confidence of individuals, and to undermine simple 
faith in the Scriptures. To open the eyes of the public to 
this less noticed and lateht evil, was the object with which 
the 'Cautions for the Times' were commenced; they 
were most of them not actually written by the Archbishop, 
but composed under his directions, with his retisal and 
minute superintendence. 



The Bishop of Oxford had sent him a copy of the 
protest made by the clergy of his diocese against the 
4 Aggression.' The Archbishop's answer to this letter 
was as follows : 

Archbishop of Dublin's Answer to Letter (and Protest} of 
Bishop of Oxford on the Papal Aggression. 

< Dublin: Feb. 1,1851. 

* My dear Lord, I have to acknowledge your favour 
of January 30, accompanied by a copy of the protest of 
your clergy against the proceedings of the Pope. 

' It would be superfluous for me to express iny con- 
currence in the denial of the claims and censure of the 
peculiar doctrines of the Church of Borne, a subject on 
which I have written and published so much within the 
last thirty years. 

4 And as for the present particular occasion, the Ad- 
dresses to the Archbishop of Canterbury and to the Queen, 
from the Irish prelates (which were drawn up chiefly by 
the Archbishop of Armagh and myself, and signed by all 
the bishops), sufficiently express our views on the most 
important points. 

c Tour Lordship will observe that in those documents 
we earnestly deprecate the introduction of any legislative 
measures for the protection of the Church in England, 
exclusively of Ireland, as a violation of the Act of Union, 
and fraught with danger to both countries. 

c That an adherence to this principle will prevent any 
penal enactments at all is my conviction, for no adminis- 
tration is likely to propose any that shall extend to 

6 A zealous and far-sighted Eomanist would, I conceive, 
rejoice at any enactments against the Church of Rome 
for England exclusively. They would afford a pretext 


for raising the cry of "persecution," without the least 
risk of their being enforced, like firing at a mob with 
blank cartridge, which enrages without repelling ; and 
they would give plausibility to his Church's claims in 
this country, without practically weakening its cause in 

' In most of the speeches, pamphlets, addresses, &c. 
that I have seen on the subject, there is a confused blend- 
ing together of three quite distinct subjects : (1.) The 
claim of the Eornish Church to universal supremacy. 
(2.) The peculiar doctrines and practices of that Church; 
and (3.) The appointment of bishops denominated from 
districts in England, in place of Vicars- Apostolical. 

c The third alone is the novelty. The others are just 
what they have long been, and yet they are often con- 
fusedly mixed up with what is said of the third. And all 
three are, in themselves, quite independent of each other* 
For (1.) The Church of Borne might conceivably have 
reformed (and many at the time cherished this hope), at 
the Council of Trent, a multitude of abuses, and yet 
might still have retained its claim to be the Universal 
Church. (2.) It is possible to retain most of the peculiar 
doctrines and practices of the Church of Eome, without 
acknowledging any supremacy of that Church, as was in 
fact done by Henry VIIL, and is done by the Greek 
Church. (3.) To appoint bishops over particular dioceses 
is what is in fact done by the Scotch Protestant Episcopal 
Church, which repudiates both the claims and the doc* 
trines of Rome. 

' Some would admit that, supposing the Eomish Church 
to be pure, and its claims to supremacy well founded, the 
step taken by the Pope would have been unobjectionable ; 
and consequently is in itself unobjectionable. Others 
seem to think it would at any rate have been an infringe^ 

M 2 


ment of the royal prerogative. And some again, seem 
I cannot understand how to hold both these opinions 
together that the procedure would have been legal, and 
politically right, but for its connexion with theological 


4 In reference to the protest of your Lordship's clergy 
permit me, with all respect, to suggest a doubt as to one 
passage of it, where it is declared to be their conviction 
that the doctrines and practices of the Church of Rome 
would be condemned by the judgment (could that be 
obtained) of the " Universal Church/' 

6 The experiment indeed is not one that any one can 
expect to see tried ; but each man will be likely to form 

his own not unreasonable conjectures, as to the result 

of such a trial, if it were made. And I apprehend, the 
conclusion most would come to on this point would be 
such that the Romanists would be but too happy to join 
issue thereon. 

' Strictly speaking, the Universal Church (on earth) must 
comprise all Christians, and the majority of these have no 
original and natural right none except by express com- 
pact to dictate to the minority. The decision of Christian 
men, like the verdict of a jury, must be that which they 
all agree in. By law, the decision of the House of Com- 
mons is that of the majority of members present ; of the 
House of Lords, of the majority of those present in per- 
son or by proxy. But where there is no law laid down 
on the subject, the decision of fifty-one men in a hundred 
against forty-nine, ought not to be called the decision of 
the hundred. 

4 Now it may be said, " If all Christians disapprove of 
the Romish doctrine and practice, how comes that Church 
to exist?" or if it be assumed which is an entirely 
groundless assumption that the majority are to represent 

Ms. 64] TO MRS. HILL. 181 

the whole, and to be accounted the Universal Church, it 
may surely be said, " The Eoman Catholics actually are a 
majority ; and moreover, those of the Greek Church would 
vote in favour of the far greater part of the doctrines and 
practices of Borne. There would therefore be an over- 
whelming majority in favour of Eomish doctrines and 

6 It is melancholy to reflect but so the actual state 
of the case is that if we go to decide questions by col- 
lecting votes (i. e. by an appeal to human authority) the 
Protestants must be outvoted.' 

The following letter was sent to his friend and literary 
assistant and employee Mrs. Hill, with a copy of the 
'Lessons on Morals;' another of that series of 'Easy 
Lessons/ which he considered as belonging to the most 
important and difficult class of his works. 

It was his rule to give copies of his work to all those 
who had in any way helped him, either in copying, 
making indexes, offering suggestions, or in any other way ; 
and no one was ever more ready to acknowledge such 

< Dublin: Feb. 4 ; 1851. 

c My dear Mrs. Hill, I am obliged to send you this 
in conformity with my rule of presenting a copy to every 
one who may have, more or less, contributed. And in 
this I have adopted a suggestion of yours. 

c This little, very little book, has been in hand con- 
stantly for between two and three months ; during which 
I never passed a day (for that I find an essential rule) 
without doing something to it. It is true I have been of 
late unusually busy ; else I might have got through it in six 
weeks. But then, on the other hand, fall three-fourths 


was already written, in the form of sermons, and I had 
only to arrange and retouch. I mention this to show how 
absurd it would be for me to undertake a large original 
work, requiring many books to be consulted, and the 
whole to be composed from the beginning. 

c That little tract the " Lessons on Eeligious Worship," 
though merely a compilation, cost me six months of in- 
cessant work. 

4 Original works must be left to those who can com- 
mand unbroken leisure ; if at least they would produce 
anything really valuable. 

c Believe me to be, 

c Tours very truly, 

6 BD. DUBLIN".' 

To Miss Crab-tree. 

'Feb. 13, 1851. 

c It is painful and disheartening to observe how much, 
in times of excitement, most men fall below themselves. 
They gather together in meetings, and are then like half- 
kindled firebrands, which heaped together soon kindle 
each other into a blaze. Then they pour forth speeches 
and resolutions according to the dictates of feeling and 
not of reason ; and ever after, all their ingenuity is em- 
ployed in defending and justifying what they have just 
said and done, in order to avoid what a man generally 
regards with more shame and dread than anything else ; 
confessing himself to be wiser to-day than he was yester- 
day. Hence if you judge a man from what he appears 
in such cases, you will perhaps greatly underrate him. 

* But the worst of it is, this kind of paroxysm often 
affords advantage to enemies greatly inferior on the whole 
in general ability, and in goodness of cause ; e. g. a 
Eoman Catholic of very moderate common-sense might 


reply to what you lately saw urged, the " ingratitude'* 
of the Roman Catholics for the removal of restrictions 
(which they repay by persisting ia claims which they 
never abandoned, and which are an essential of their creed), 
" Why, if you conceded no more than could be done con- 
sistently with the public safety, you did nothing but bare 
justice, and have no claim to thanks ; but if you conceded 
something inconsistent with the public welfare, you are 
fools for your pains, and must of course expect that fresh 
attempts will be made to take advantage of your folly." ' 

To the Same, with some Copies of No. I. of the ' Cautions for 

the Times.' 

< Feb. 22, 1851. 

. . c I dare say several good men who have 
been petitioning for legislative protection without saying 
what, and leaving it to government to adopt such measures 
as they in their wisdom may see fit, would be shocked at 
the enactment of penal laws ; and do not perceive that if 
none such be enacted, it is no thanks to them. 

6 One of these days I shall publish a curious document 
to show how trusting to legislative protection paralyzes 
exertion. In this diocese, the whole time the penal laws 
were in force, though the Protestant population must have 
greatly increased, in the general increase not a church was 
added, except one or two in the City, by Act of Parlia- 
ment. They trusted to the penal laws. The Eoman 
Catholic priests were active and successful in spite of those 
laws. Then, when these were abolished, the Protestant 
Church began to bestir itself. In ten years seven new 
churches were opened ; in the next ten years eleven ; in 
the next fourteen ; in the next eighteen ; and so on, up 
to this day ; and still there is a demand for many addi- 
tional ones I When will people learn from experience P* 


To Bishop Hinds on the Marriage Laws. 

'Dublin: Feb. 20, 1851. 

4 My dear Hinds, When it is that a desirable measure 
is advanced, and when retarded, and when neither, by 
bringing it forward in Parliament, must be judged of by 
intelligent persons on the spot. 

c In either of the two former cases, the right course is 
obvious. In the third case, how much trouble and, per- 
haps, obloquy it is worth while to encounter for the sake 
of protesting against a wrong, and asserting a right prin- 
ciple, and clearing one's conscience, must be determined 
by the nature of the case. I have more than once come 
forward to advocate some important principle, or to 
protest against some bad measure, with a full knowledge 
that I could not succeed, except in clearing myself. 

c The opposition to Lord St. German's bill, which is, it 
seems, so overpoweringly strong, is founded chiefly, as far 
as I can judge, on misapprehension. And whether this 
misapprehension be or be not incurable ; and, again, 
whether it is more likely to be remedied by bringing 
forward the bill, or by abstaining, I cannot undertake to 

' The misapprehension I mean is, that almost all the 
advocates of the restriction, and a large proportion of 
those who are for removing it, seem prepared to join issue 
on the question " whether a marriage between a brother 
and sister-in-law is or is not a suitable, desirable, proper 

c lf you will ask the ninety-nine of every hundred 
women, who, as you say, are opposed to the bill, what 
are their sentiments thereon, I think you will find ninety 
of them taking for granted that that is the question ; and 
that those who approve of such marriages ought to vote for 


the bill, and those who disapprove thereon ought to vote 
against it. 

4 Now this is, according to my view, not the question, 
and it is a point on which I decline giving any opinion. 

c This, however, I ani ready to declare ; that if any one 
should consult me as to the desirableness of a marriage 
where there was a very great disparity of age, or of rank, 
or where there was a taint of hereditary disease on either 
side, I should pronounce against such a marriage. But 
Heaven forbid we should have laws to prescribe the 
relative ages of parties who are to marry, or to require 
so many quarterings on each side like German nobles 
or to have the parties examined by a jury of surgeons, 
like horses for sale ! 

6 My principle is that the presumption is against all 
restrictions. Some we must have. But the burden of 
proof lies on those who advocate either the imposition or 
the continuance of any restriction. We are not bound 
to show that everyone who is left to judge and act for 
himself will decide and act first in the way that the 
majority of his neighbours would think best ; but the others 
are bound to show some great and palpable evil that 
would in such and such a case result from leaving men 
free. I am no friend to late hours, or to carelessness 
about fire, or lavish feasting and dress ; but I do not vote 
for the old curfew law, or for laws prescribing how many 
dishes of meat a man may have on his table, &c. 

'Then, as for the Mosaic law, there again I decline 
giving any opinion, because I cannot bring myself to be- 
lieve men serious in bringing forward arguments about 
that till I find them themselves conforming to that law. 
That consistent procedure would alone entitle them to 
a hearing. And that is what they therefore may fairly be 
challenged to. This would be irepiTeiwtw TO 


* But if they say this is part of the moral law of 
Moses, how can we in any case judge of that but by the 
light of reason ? And when the very question is about a 
point of morality, to resort to the Levitical law is a most 
palpable begging of the question. " Such and such a 
thing is immoral because it is forbidden in the moral law, 
and that it is so is proved because it is immoral ! " If 
then the Levitical law (and the same may be said of the 
canons of foreign churches and councils) be not binding 
on us, it is better to waive all questions about it ; unless, 
perhaps, to make these two remarks : 

4 (1st) That anything distinctly enjoined in that law 
ought not to be pronounced in itself, universally and 
necessarily, criminal ; and the marriage, under certain 
circumstances, of a brother and sister-in-law was enjoined 
in that law. 

c (2ndly) That the Levitical law is no guide for our legis- 
lation, even in cases where all admit that morality is con- 
cerned ; e. g. no one doubts that gluttony and drunken- 
ness, and disobedience to parents, are moral offences, yet 
no legislature has (in conformity with the Mosaic code) 
affixed the penalty of death to them. 

6 Waiving then the irrelevant questions of what mar- 
riages are suitable and desirable, and of the Mosaic law 
and foreign canons, let people be brought to the discussion 
of the true question ; which is> whether a sufficient public 
benefit from the restriction can be proved, to justify the 
abridgment of a man's liberty? Whether the evil of 
leaving all men to judge for themselves in this point be 
greater than that of meddlesome legislative interference 
with domestic concerns. 

6 It savours of puerility and of barbarism to be for 
always keeping men in the leading-strings of legislative 
injunction and prohibition. " There ought to be a law to 


make men. do this, and to prevent their doing that I " is 
just what occurs to an intelligent and well-disposed child 
of twelve years old. 

* We have been told in discussion on this subject, that 
" men must learn to control their inclinations." There is 
one inclination which it would be well for members of 
parliament to control the inclination to over-governing, 
the lust of legislation, and of imposing or keeping up 

' If the opponents of the bill can be brought to confine 
themselves to the real question to the making out a 
sufficient case to justify an abridgment of liberty I 
think many of them will themselves perceive that their 
cause has very little to rest on. 

* " There would arise a scandal," they say, " at a sister- 
in-law residing in a widower's house, if they were allowed 
to marry ; but none at all as long as a marriage is quite 
out of the question : viz. unnatural by Act of Parliament ! " 

4 1 can't believe that in either condition of the law any 
scandal would arise among people of any sense of decorum, 
and as for those who are dead not only to virtue but to 
shame, they would be out of the reach of the law. But 
whatever little danger there is of scandal, is greater now. 
If some gossiping neighbours suggested that Mr. A. was 
likely to marry Miss B., because she was taking charge of 
her deceased sister's children, the rumour would soon 
wear away when it was found they did not marry when 
they might. But if the marriage is illegal, then an attach- 
ment might be suspected, such as might tend to illicit 
intercourse. And the sister-in-law would feel it much 
more a matter of delicacy and doubt to reside with the 
widower. But I don't think any decent people would 
incur suspicion in either case. It is plain, however, that 
the more shocking and atrocious is any act, the less likely 


are tolerably respectable persons to incur the suspicion of 
it. Now, undoubtedly, to have illicit intercourse with a 
sister-in-law would be doubly atrocious, when the parties 
are left at liberty to niarry if they will. And it is, there- 
fore, less likely to be suspected if the law were altered, 
than as it stands. 

6 As for legislating with a view to guard any possible 
jealousy between husband and wife, we should surely 
have enough to do if we were to attempt that ! 

4 A man, or a woman either, had better be at once 
prohibited from any second marriage ; or, perhaps, from 
marrying any one he had ever seen before his first wife's 
death! Eor it might be argued "he may become 
acquainted after his marriage with some lady who he 
thinks would have suited him better than his actual wife ; 
and if this be suspected, jealousy may arise I " Now in the 
case of sisters, it is worth observing, that a man is in most 
cases acquainted with the whole family, and singles out 
of all the sisters the one he prefers. So that this is 
precisely the case in which jealousy is the least likely to 

* There appears to me, therefore, a total failure in all 
the few attempts that have been made to support this 
restriction on the true grounds. But the advocates of the 
bill have often to their loss been seduced into arguing 
a different question, on which, though they may be very 
right, they are not so triumphantly and clearly in the right. 

4 They should reiterate that the question is not " whether 
a man should or should not contract such a marriage," 
but whether each should be left to act in the way that 
he thinks best, or whether the minority should be 
oppressed by the majority, and compelled to conform with- 
out any sufficient cause, to the opinion of another, in their 
own private concerns !" 


c That minority, though it be such, is considerable and 
respectable. Lord Campbell, indeed, says in one of his 
books, in a note, that it is pleaded in behalf of these 
marriages that they are common ; and the same may be 
said of bribery and cheating. 

c I cannot say I ever heard such a plea urged ; though 
I cannot prove that it never was* t What I have heard 
urged, and I think fairly, is that such marriages are 
common among worthy, respectable, well-conducted 

c Certainly experience proved for a century and more 
before the Act of 1835, that the evils to society now 
apprehended are chimerical for there was till then no real 
prohibition of such marriages* 

c They were nominally illegal ; but at the expense of a 
little trouble the law was evaded ; and, I believe, was 
never enforced. At any rate, it is quite certain that at 
that time, and long before, such a marriage was not looked 
upon as a thing quite impossible and out of the question, as 
much as between brother and sister. It was well known 
that those marriages might and did not seldom take place, 
and yet no such evil results to society as men are 
now dreaming of, ensued. Those dreams are refuted by 
experience as well as by reason.' 

To Lady Osborne. 

'Dublin: March 4, 1861. 

c One would really wonder at the number of people, 
not wanting in intelligence or knowledge, who have 
yielded to the seductions of Tractisin or Bomanism, were 
it not that one may see the habit in so many others also 
of laying aside common-sense in matters pertaining to 
religion, and thinking it a duty to do so. 

6 What is found in revelation is what we could never 


have learnt or conjectured by reason ; else there would 
have been no need of any revelation. And this most true 
and evident proposition they confound with another, i. e. 
that we ought not to use reason in deciding what it is 
that revelation does teach. This is compared by Locke 
to a man's refusing to use his eyes, because he has been 
supplied with a telescope. 

c And may it not be that some also have accustomed 
themselves to tamper with truth, and impair their devoted 
reverence for it till they have gradually lost the power of 
distinguishing it at all, and Grod has " sent them a strong 

' Is it not possible that some may have been trained in 
the notion that it is allowable and right to join a party 
with many of whose principles you do not concur, and 
much of whose conduct you disapprove, on account of the 
increased efficiency they may give you the powerful aid 
in carrying out some objects that you do approve ? And 
when you have once allowed yourself to do this, it is not 
easy to stop. You will proceed to (1) wish, (2) hope, (3) 
believe, that those you are acting with are right through- 
out ; and then you obtain the consolation of a thorough- 
going conscientious conviction, having fashioned your own 
conscience to suit your convenience and inclination. It 
is thus that Dean Swift instructs the cook to have dinner 
ready exactly at the appointed hour by putting the clock 

< March 18, 1851. 

c My dear Senior, I wonder to hear you talk of going 
to Trance. I hope it is a sign you consider the insurrec- 
tionary Jacquerie as nearly put down. 

* The revolution did not surprise me. I only wondered 
some such, stroke, on one side or the other, did not occur 
sooner. I do not know enough of the state of things to 


form any judgment as to the right and wrong ; but my 
impression was pretty much what you describe Lord 

c " Kings," says Burke, " will be tyrants from policy 
when subjects are rebels from principle." 

* The description of the Corcyrean sedition in Thucy- 
dides is so exact a description of what is now realised, 
that I wish you would look over it to refresh your 
memory. You will observe, I think, only one difference, 
that, while in Greece there were only two parties, in 
France there are more ; and, when this is the case, the 
strongest party may have a majority opposed to it, which 
is a temptation to use the more violent means for keeping 
its power.' . . . 

To Lady Osborne, in Ans-iver to a Letter asking various 
Questions about good and evil Angels, and also on the 
Romish Practice of Invocation of Saints. 

< Dublin.: March 23, 1851. 

4 It was urged that the invocation of saints which I 
imderstood you to have reprobated, not on the ground of 
its being unscriptural, but of its intrinsic absurdity 
implies nothing more incredible than a certain doctrine 
generally held by Protestants, which you, thereupon, give 
up. Now, when thus driven from your moorings, there 
is no saying whither you, or at least some others, may 
be drifted ; for I would undertake to produce (as several 
Eoman Catholics have done) arguments that should ap- 
pear at least plausible, and would be to many convincing, 
to show that such and such things which we censure in 
the Eomish system axe not at all more at variance with 
what we should expect and reasonably conjecture, and 
not more hard to be reconciled with our notions of the 
Divine nature than the doctrines of the Incarnation, thq 


Atonement, &c> ; and when my opponent had either given 
up these, or admitted that the Kornish doctrines might 
be true, I would proceed to some other point, and so lead 
him on step by step, to become Socinian, Eationalist, 
Deist, Atheist, or else Eoman Catholic ; and this kind of 
process is continually going on. A large portion of those 
who listen to an ingenious Eoman Catholic disputant, 
from whom they fancied themselves quite safe, are by 
this course converted to Eomanism; while probably a 
still larger proportion become infidels. 

4 Now, I go to work in a far different way. If anyone 
suggests to me that perhaps those many millions of pious 
Christians, who have departed during eighteen centuries, 
are made ministering spirits by the Most High, along 
with millions more of angels created long before ; and 
that the Yirgin has all these placed under her control as 
Queen of Heaven, and that she gives them directions, and 
receives from them reports of aU that passes in the Chris- 
tian world, and intercedes for her worshippers with her 
Son I reply, not by setting forth any antecedent impro- 
bability or alleged impossibility in all this ; I do not urge 
that it is beyond the reach of omnipotence, or that it is 
what I cannot reconcile with my own notions of the 
Deity; nor do I pretend that the Gospel which I do 
receive is a scheme which I could have conjectured, or 
that it contains nothing strange and startling ; but I ask 
for Scripture proof. " What you tell me," I say, " is not, 
indeed, what I could not believe if revealed to me ; but 
it certainly needs a revelation, and I will not believe it 
without. Show me, therefore, the passages in which the 
apostles are recorded as practising and enjoining the 
invocation of the Virgin," &c> 

c I lately heard from France of a priest who met the 
ordinary objections against transubstantiation by saying 


that we know nothing at all of substance, all that our 
senses inform us of being the attributes, which yet we 
never believe to be the very substance, for we do not 
consider snow to be whiteness and coldness^ &c., but a sub- 
stance which has those properties ; and why may not the 
Almighty, if He sees fit, cause one substance to assume 
the attributes of another? And I was asked what I 
should reply to this. I answered, that> if Christ and His 
apostles had expressly declared this, I should believe that> 
in some sense or other, quite unintelligible to me, the 
substance of bread was changed ; but that since it is plain 
the disciples did not so understand Him, either at the 
time or afterwards, but spoke of the sacramental bread 
expressly as bread, I cannot doubt that He was under- 
stood, and meant to be understood, as using just the same 
kind of figure by which He had (just before) called Him- 
self a door, and a shepherd, and a vine. 

c ln short, I always cast anchor on the Scriptures, 
which is common ground to both parties. I never pretend 
to say that the Eomish doctrines are to be rejected on 
such and such philosophical grounds, but simply because 
they are such as we should be sure to have found plainly 
revealed if true ; and instead of finding this, we find plain 
proof that they must have been quite unknown to the 
apostles and their hearers. The very authority, therefore, 
which they (the Eoman Catholics) acknowledge is brought 
against them ; and this I regard as the most decisive, and 
also the most safe (indeed, the only safe) mode of pro- 

< Dublin : March 27, 1851. 

c My dear Senior, Ministers, you will see, have (in the 
Commons) carried their bill 1 by a large majority ; not, 
however, of real well-wishers, but of persons, I conceive, 
* The Ecclesiastical Titles BilL 



who hope to gather the pear as soon as ripe. No doubt 
Lord John's most absurd letter to the Bishop of Durham 
was the immediate cause of most of the disturbance and 
perplexity. But I think the remoter cause was the 
haughty and insolent tone of the papal Bull. All who 
vindicate the measure itself speak of its intrinsic reason- 
ableness, but say not a word in vindication of the arrogant 
assumption of the language. True it is, a Eoman Catho- 
lic must think that the Pope has a right to supreme 
dominion over all Christians. And it is no less true that 
a Protestant thinks that that Church has grossly deformed 
and corrupted Christianity. But the Eoman Catholics 
don't like to be openly and bitterly reproached as cor- 
rupters of religion. And they should therefore consider 
that Protestants do not like to be spoken of as rebellious 
heretics. I suppose, however, that if anyone tells them, 
as Decius does Cato 

A style like this becomes a conqueror ! 

They will answer as Cato does 

A style like this becomes a Roman 1 

Still they ought not to wonder that if they choose to spit 
in a man's face, he should knock them down. 

'Some intelligent persons, however, strongly suspect 
that the Bull was purposely made as insulting as possible 
for the very purpose of provoking a quasi-persecution ; 
with a full confidence that they would be safe from any- 
thing like penal laws being really enforced, and with a 
hope that a plausible cry of persecution being raised, 
would produce (as I think not unlikely) a reaction in 
their favour. I have been exerting myself to quiet men's 
minds so far as to prevent anything of violence being 
resorted to ; and also to prevent what the " Times " is 


labouring to bring about a separate legislation for 
England and for Ireland ; than which, nothing could more 
favour the cause of Eepeal. 

'That article in the "Edinburgh" which I alluded 

to is written by a Mr. 3 who holds an office in the 

castle, and who has published some things before. 

* There is a most amusing blunder in it, for which he is 
getting well derided. He writes a great deal about the 
eminent services of the Roman Catholic priests without 
any (intentional) allusion to the Protestant clergy, who 
certainly did exert themselves, even beyond their means, 
during the famine ; but among these priests he gives a 
conspicuous place to a Mr. Moriarty, who happens to be 
not only a Protestant, but one who has a very large 
congregation of converts.' l 

In the midst of these higher and grave interests, the 
Archbishop was always ready to turn his mind to any 
scheme of practical utility, in whatever department. And 
at this time he drew up and sent to the managers of the 
first Great Exhibition, the following "Suggestions for 
a Universal Coinage," a plan which had occurred to his 
mind many years before. 

Suggestions for a Universal Coinage. 
'The most selfish man should, on national grounds, 

1 *The language of Archbishop Whately, especially in a charge about this 
time, at once condemning the views of the framers of the Ecclesiastical Titles' 
Act for England, and condemning the government for not extending it to 
Ireland, was signalised by Lord Monteagle amongst others as an instance 
of eccentricity and inconsistency. Whether his doctrine on this subject was 
practical or not, it was based on a principle which had taken very deep root 
in his mind ; that all exceptional legislation for Ireland was to be depre^ 
cated, however plausible the arguments for it, as tending directly towards 



prize any advantage to himself not the less from its being 
an equal advantage to his neighbour. And so the most 
narrow-minded patriot ought to seek a benefit to his 
country not the less from its being an equal benefit to 
other countries. But long rivalry and hostility have bred 
such associations that men often regard with indifference 
or aversion what may benefit their own country if it give 
no superiority over other nations, but benefits them 
equally. If the Exhibition of 1851 shall tend to do away 
such feelings it will have done great service. The advan- 
tage of a uniform currency for all the world need not be 
dwelt on. The trouble, and often fraud, occasioned by 
having to change all one's coins in going from one State 
to another, and the continual fluctuations in the rate of 
exchange for instance, between the franc and the sove- 
reign are evils which no one is unaware of. The 
Spanish dollar has in many countries approached 
somewhat to a common currency, being received freely in 
many places unconnected with Spain ; on account of its 
known purity of metal. 

'The additional requisites for a current coin that 
should be nearly universal, would be : 1st. That it should 
have no indication of Nationality, so as to awaken national 
jealousies by appearing on the face of it, to be anywhere 
a foreign coin. 2ndly. That it should be as far as pos- 
sible conveniently measured by the known coins or 
weights of many countries. Srdly. That it should have 
some inscriptions intelligible to as many different people 
as possible. 

' Now Troy weight is in very general use throughout 
the world. And, accordingly, an ounce Troy of silver 
duly stamped, would be in most places nothing strange ; 
moreover, it is not very remote from many of the coins 
or moneys of account of many states. It approaches near 

T. 64] 



to the English crown, to the Spanish dollar, to the Portu- 
guese rnil-re, to six francs French, and to definite numbers 
of several other coins. It should be inscribed, not with 
the name and arms of any state or sovereign, but with 
its designation as an ounce ; together with the time of its 
being struck. It should be of a somewhat purer silver 
than the existing standards ; suppose 34 parts of silver to 
2 of copper. 

c And both sides might be covered with inscriptions in 
various languages, denoting the equivalent in the exist- 
ing moneys of the respective nations something in this 
way : 

Of course" the most elaborate care should be taken in the 
execution of the die, and if the State which first issued 
such a coinage should declare it to be a legal tender 
(without superseding however the non-current coin) and 
should denounce penalties against impairing or forging 
suet coinage, it is likely that other nations would, one 
by one, follow the example, to the unspeakable benefit 
of all the parties concerned. Of course it would be 
easy to issue at the same time half-ounces or quarter- 
ounces, one-tenths and one-hundredths. 

'If some public-spirited individual concerned in metal- 
works would try his skill in producing and exhibiting a 
specimen of such a coin (which might be inferior metal) 
for exhibition in 1851, he would at any rate gain deserved 


repute for himself, and might be the means of bringing 
about a great benefit to all the world.' 

It was at this time that the Hon. and Rev. G. Spencer, 
who had become a monk in the Eoman Catholic church 
under the name of " Father Ignatius/' was making a kind 
of progress through the United Kingdom, with the view 
of exhorting all Christians, of whatever communion, to 
engage in earnest prayer for unity. He visited Dublin in 
April 1851, and held a long conversation with the Arch- 
bishop, notes of which were taken down by one of his 

Notes of an Interview between the Archbishop of Dublin and 
the Honourable and Rev. George Spencer (Father Ignatius) 
at the Palace 9 on Wednesday, April 9, 1851. 

c Mr. Spencer called upon the Archbishop at about 
three o'clock in the afternoon, and was shown into the 
parlour, where there were present with his Grace 
his domestic chaplain, Dr. West, two of his examining 
chaplains, Mr. Mason and Mr. Dixon, and his agent, 
Mr. Carroll. Mr. Spencer was dressed in the costume of 
his order, which consists of a loose gown of coarse dark 
cloth, secured round his waist by a leather belt, and 
meeting close round his throat ; over this was a short 
cloak of the same material and colour. On the left 
shoulder of each was a badge apparently of tin, painted 
black, of the form of a heart surmounted by a shamrock. 
On the heart was printed in white letters, " Jesu Christi 
Passio," and on the shamrock was a cross. He had a 
brass crucifix, probably a reliquary, hanging by a small 
iron chain from his belt ; and he wore a peculiarly shaped 
hat, with a very broad brim turned up at the sides, and 
a round crown. la stature he is rather below the middle 
size, his countenance is more of the Celtic than of the 

-r- 04] PATHEE IGNATIUS. 199 

Saxon character, and his features resemble on a small 
scale those of the celebrated O'ConnelL His voice is 
feeble and undecided, and his accent slightly nasal. In 
manners he is mild and courteous. 

c After the usual salutations had been interchanged, the 
Archbishop remarked to Mr. Spencer that he had called 
upon a day of the week when he would be always sure 
of finding him at home and attended by his chaplains, 
" for," said his Grace, " these gentlemen are all, my chap- 
lains, though they are not, all my chaplains." 

6 " I see," said Mr. Spencer, taking his seat, " that you 
have not forgotten your Logic." 

' " Talking of Logic," said the Archbishop, " you know, 
I suppose, that my work on Logic has been prohibited 
by the Pope?" 

4 Mr. Spencer professed ignorance of the circumstance. 

' " It has then," said the Archbishop, " and I have been 
variously congratulated and condoled with by my friends 
on the occasion. There is nothing in the circumstance, 
however, to cause me any surprise, except that the Pope 
should have considered the work of sufficient importance 
to be formally prohibited, as I never either intended or 
professed to exclude from it controverted points. You 
know, I suppose, that Dr. Cullen has also condemned the 
book, and has stated that my object in writing it was to 
corrupt the minds of the Catholic youth ? " 

4 Mr. Spencer was not aware of the fact. 

c The Archbishop then informed him that Dr. Cullen had 
brought forward the charge in a letter addressed to his 
(Dr. Cullen's) clergy in December last " The work, how- 
ever," pursued his Grace, " was written originally for the 
use of my pupils in Oxford, and was published for the 
sake of any who, with my name on the title-^ge, might 
desire to read it In books which I write for IKe use of 


schools where education is given to children of different 
religious persuasions, I follow of course a different plan. 
In these I abstain from all points of controversy ; but in 
my other works, the only rules I lay down for myself in 
reference to such points are not to misrepresent the 
opinions or statements of those who differ from me, and 
not to speak uncharitably of them. And I wish that 
Mr. Cahill, of whom you were just speaking," said his 
Grace, turning to Mr. Dixon, " would observe the same 
rules. You have heard, I suppose," continued the Arch- 
bishop, addressing his visitor, " that Mr. Cahill has been 
publishing sermons and letters containing the grossest 
misrepresentations of the actions and intentions of the 
government and of individuals, and calculated to inflame 
and exasperate in the highest degree the minds of the 
ignorant people into whose hands these publications will 

* Mr. Spencer deprecated imputing to Mr. Cahill the 
intention of producing the effects which his Grace had 
anticipated from his pamphlets. 

c To this the Archbishop replied, that of course we should 
be very cautious in imputing a bad motive to any person, 
where a reasonable doubt could exist as to his intention, 
but that this was not the case in the present instance ; for 
the avowed object of Mr. Cahill was to excite the in- 
dignation of the Irish people against the English govern- 
ment, and he sought to effect this object by making 
statements respecting individuals which he must have 
known to be false. Thus he accused Mr. Drummond of 
having not only spoken disrespectfully of the Virgin 
Mary, but having also applied to her epithets applicable 
only to the most abandoned of the female sex. " Now," 
said the Archbishop, " though I am very far from desiring 
to defend Mr. Drummond, though I think his speech a 


most unfortunate one, and though I heartily wished he 
had been at the bottom of the Bed Sea when he made it, 
yet, as they say even a certain black gentleman should 
receive his due, it must be admitted that Mr. Druminond 
was not guilty of the charges brought against him by 
Mr. Cahill." 

' Mr. Spencer said that he had read Mr. Drummond's 
letter, in which that gentleman had, 'as he conceived, ex- 
culpated himself by stating that he had not meant to 
speak disrespectfully of the Blessed Virgin, and that he, 
Mr. Spencer, felt that credit should be given to Mr.' 
Drummond's statement. 

' The Archbishop replied, that it did not require a know- 
lege of the letter to prove that Mr. CahilTs charges were 
unfounded. No newspaper had reported Mr. Drummond 
to have used disrespectful language of the Virgin Mary, 
much less to have applied to her the epithets referred to' 
by Mr. Cahill, although they all condemned or lamented 
his speech, and described the dissatisfaction excited by 
several passages of it which they reported, and which 
were certainly bad enough. 

' Mr. Spencer replied, that for his part he must confess, 
that when he first read Mr. Drummond's speech, he 
thought he had spoken disrespectfully of the Blessed 

' "How?" said the Archbishop, "the only allusion he 
made to the Virgin Mary was, to speak in a tone of con- 
tempt of some relics ascribed to her, and, as he believed, 
without sufficient evidence. Would you think I spoke' 
disrespectfully of you, if I spoke contemptuously of some 
letter which I believed and pronounced to be a forgery 
and falsely ascribed to you ; or would you accuse me of 
speaking disrespectfully of our Lord, if I said that I did 
not believe the holy coat of Treves to have been His, 


and that even if it had, I did not think it should be made 
an object of adoration?" 

c Mr. Spencer did not seem disposed to continue his 
defence or apology for Mr. Cahill, he preferred passing 
on to the object of his visit, which was to make some 
remarks on a letter he had received from Dr. West, 
relative to the subjects discussed at a former interview 
which he had with the Archbishop, and in which he 
sought to press upon his Grace's attention the importance, 
at the present crisis, of all serious persons making a com- 
bined effort for the promotion of Christian unity. He 
said that he fully concurred with the opening remarks in 
this letter on the importance of making truth the first 
object in all our pursuits, and that he also admitted the 
justice of the observation made by the Archbishop and 
repeated by Dr. West, that different persons entertain 
very different notions of Christian unity; some, for in- 
stance, holding that it implies submission to a central 
government and a visible head of the church, while 
others believe that it is of a purely spiritual character. 
He felt, therefore, the force of the objection, that while 
persons hold such contradictory opinions as to the nature 
of unity, it is impossible for them to be united in their 
pursuit of it; but it occurred to him that his original pro- 
posal might be so modified as to evade this objection. 
He thought that all might unite in praying that Gocl 
would promote among mankind, by such means as seemed 
best to His infinite wisdom, unity in the truth as it ap- 
peared to Him. 

' To this the Archbishop replied that such a petition was 
equivalent in point of fact to the second clause in Our 
Lord's Prayer, " Thy kingdom come ;" that, moreover, as 
Mr. Spencer must know very well, we are in the habit of 
offering up a petition in one of the prayers of our daily 


service, that " all who profess and call themselves Christians 
may be led into the way of truth, and hold the faith in 
unity of spirit, in the bond of peace, and in righteousness 
of life," and that we thus show that we are not insensible 
of the importance of that unity in the truth which Mr. 
Spencer was now advocating, nor negligent in praying 
for its promotion among mankind. 

* Mr. Spencer admitted that all this was true. He re- 
membered, moreover, that on one occasion when he 
waited on the Bishop of London, his Lordship had called 
his attention to a prayer for unity in the service appointed 
for the day of the Queen's accession, which embodied 
almost all the Scripture phrases relative to the subject. 
Still he desired that greater prominence should be given 
to the topic at the present time, both in our prayers 
and exhortations. He believed it to be one of paramount 
and vital importance. " When a great people," said 
Mr. Spencer, " like the English and Irish are disunited 
on a subject in which they take such an interest as that 
of religion, they cannot be united in the pursuit of any 
political or social object." 

c The Archbishop replied that he fully concurred with 
all Mr. Spencer said as to the desirableness and impor- 
tance of unity in the truth, and the evils of disunion. 
That the only point now at issue between them appeared 
to be the best mode of attaining to this unity. Mr. 
Spencer seemed to think it should be sought directly ; he 
(the Archbishop), on the contrary, thought it should be 
sought through truth. " For," said the Archbishop, " it is 
obvious that if any number of persons, individually, hold 
the truth in its integrity, they will all agree and be united 
in their views of it. The best mode, therefore, of pro- 
moting unity in the truth is to promote the dissemination 
of truth. Truth is one ; all who hold the truth will be 


at one. And so, if we desire to promote among children 
at school that unity and harmony which result from 
mutual forbearance, &c., the most effectual way of gaining 
our object will be to press upon every child individually 
the duty of exercising those feelings of charity, toleration, 
and forbearance. This is in fact the only practical way 
of seeking to attain the end we have in view. If we seek 
to attain it directly by pressing upon the children the 
importance of being united, the evils resulting from dis- 
union, &c. 5 the most turbulent in the school, the most 
intolerant, and the least forbearing will heartily assent to 
the justice of our observations, and will immediately pro- 
ceed to inculcate and enforce a unity which shall consist 
in subjection to themselves ; and thus our attempts to 
promote unity will end in increasing dissension. No; 
the right way is to press upon each individual child the 
duties of forbearance, toleration, and charity ; and this is, 
in fact," continued the Archbishop, " the course adopted 
in the schools in connexion with the National Board. 
There are nearly five thousand of these schools through 
Ireland, giving instruction to nearly half a million of 
children ; and in every one of them is hung up a card, 
containing what are called general rules, the object of 
which is to inculcate upon the children the duties which 
I have so often referred to of forbearance, &c. The best 
way then," said the Archbishop, " and in fact, as I have 
shown, the only way, to promote unity in the truth 
among men is to impress upon them the duty and the 
necessity of their individually seeking after truth, and 
embracing it when found, and of being tolerant, forbear- 
ing, and charitable towards all who differ from them in 

4 The Archbishop then dwelt upon the importance of 
cultivating a love of truth for its own sake, and of form- 

-^ET.64] PATHEK laNATIUS, 205 

ing such a habit of mind as shall lead its professor to 
embrace any opinion, however contrary to his prejudices, 
which he may be honestly convinced is true, and to reject 
any, no matter how congenial to his tastes or sentiments, 
or how strongly supported by authority, if it were proved 
to him to be false. And the Archbishop professed him- 
self always ready to act by this rule. 

c Mr. Spencer seemed startled. He inquired whether 
his Grace held all his opinions thus loosely ; whether for 
instance, he regarded as a doubtful and unsettled point 
the inspiration of the sacred Scriptures. 

* The Archbishop replied that Mr. Spencer appeared to 
misunderstand him. He did not mean to say that his 
opinions on such points as he had examined and made up 
his mind on were wavering or undecided. He meant 
that having embraced the opinions which he held because 
he believed them to be true, he was ready to renounce 
them if they were shown to be false. While he held 
them, he was of course convinced of their truth. He 
would explain his meaning by an illustration. Mr. Spencer 
was probably acquainted with the different methods in 
which type was set up for printing. It was sometimes 
cast in stereotype plates, sometimes arranged in moveable 
forms. The latter was just as steady and solid as the 
former, and possessed this additional advantage, that if 
any word or passage was found to be incorrect, it could be 
altered and corrected : this was impossible in stereotype 
plates. In these if an error was detected, there was no 
means of remedying it. " Now," said the Archbishop, " I 
hold iny opinion in moveable forms and not in stereo- 

6 He said he would give an example. About five or six 
years ago he had preached an ordination sermon on the 
subject of the prevailing tendency in the human mind to 


desire an infallible guide in religious matters. In this 
sermon he had dwelt upon the fact that when St. Paul 
was taking leave of the elders of Ephesus at Miletus, 
under the impression that he should never see them again, 
and warned them of the dangers which threatened them 
and their flocks, he yet never once alluded to the existence 
of any infallible guide, of any visible head of the Church 
on earth, St. Peter or St. Peter's successor at Eome, An- 
tioch, or elsewhere, to whom they should have recourse 
in their difficulties, and. by adherence and obedience to 
whom they should keep themselves and their people from 
error. From this the Archbishop had concluded that St. 
Paul did not know of the existence of any such guide. 
He could not on any other supposition account for the 
Apostle's silence on such a subject at such a time. And 
he felt the more strongly convinced that this view of the 
matter was correct from the circumstance that, although 
Dr. O'Connell of Waterford had undertaken to reply to 
this sermon, yet he left this point, the prominent one in 
the discourse, unnoticed. u Still," said the Archbishop, 
" if you, Mr. Spencer, or any member of your church, can 
give any satisfactory account of the Apostle's conduct on 
this memorable occasion consistent with the views of the 
Church of Eome as to the existence of an infallible and 
visible head of the Church on earth, I am open to con- 
viction ; I am ready to change my opinion on the sub- 
ject, when it is shown to be erroneous." 

4 Mr. Spencer, however, was evidently unable to furnish 
any such explanation. He appeared restless and uneasy 
from the moment the Archbishop introduced the subject 
of infallibility. He rose from his seat, and his good 
manners alone prevented his leaving the room before his 
Grace had finished speaking. As soon as he concluded, 
however, he briefly remarked that Dr. West had kindly 

-dEi. 64] TO MRS. ARNOLD. 207 

forwarded him a copy of the sermon to which his Grace 
had been alluding, and without making any comment 
upon it, said that having now disposed of the business in 
reference to which he had taken the liberty of waiting 
upon the Archbishop, he would beg leave to withdraw. 5 

The following letter to Mrs. Arnold throws more light 
on the then state of Ireland, and especially of the suffer- 
ing clergy. The little book alluded to in it, 'Paddy's 
Leisure Hours in the Poor-house,' is a tale illustrative of 
the effects of the Irish famine and Poor-law, written by a 
friend, and published under his patronage, which at the 
time excited much interest, from the truthful and vivid 
manner in which the facts of the case were brought for- 

( Dublin: April 15, 1851. 

* My dear Mrs. Arnold, The second part of No. 5 of 
the " Cautions" I do not send you, as it does more good 
to have it ordered at a shop ; so I only notify to you, and 
beg you to make known its being out. But I have ordered 
for you the new edition of " Paddy's Meditations," with 
an. addition which I think excellent. I trust you will 
promote the sale of this also, if you can, as any profit 
from it will go to the starving clergy of Ireland. Our 
funds for their relief are nearly exhausted ; but their dis- 
tress is far from being at an end. Several have to pay, 
out of a Binall income, eight or ten or twelve shillings in 
the pound for poor-rate, and withal they have not the 
satisfaction of seeing the poor relieved. The workhouses 
are crowded with paupers doing nothing, while the fields 
are lying untilled, from the capital which would have 
employed labourers having been abused in keeping men 
idle. The paupers are like Pharaoh's lean kine, who ate 
up the fat ones, and yet were still as lean as ever. 


6 Miss , the friend of Jane's friend, Mrs. , 

is much pleased with numbers three and five, but does 
not like two and four I suspect from the very circum- 
stance that makes those the greatest favourites with most, 
the familiar illustrations. There are persons of minds so 
constituted that I am convinced many of our Lord's para- 
bles would seem to them (if seen for the first time, and 
without knowledge of the author) extremely indecorous. 
They cannot distinguish between comparing together two 
things or persons, and comparing the cases or transactions 
relating to those things ; and thence would suppose it 
affirmed that Christians are actually like fishes, or fig-trees, 
or sheep. 

* And again, if any fallacy or folly which has been con- 
nected with religion is ridiculed, they cannot distinguish 
this from ridicule of the religion itself ; as if they were 
to deem it an iujury to a tree to clear away the lichen 
and moss, and other parasites that had overgrown it. 

c And again, there are some whose organ of veneration 
seems to be concentrated on words instead of things. 
Such a person is not scandalised at F. Newman's saying, 
with most decorous gravity, that our Lord was a faulty 
character ; but when a piece of modern history is nar- 
rated in the style of our authorised version of Scripture, 
for the purpose of showing how open it would be to the 
kind of cavils with which sacrecl history has been assailed, 
this is regarded as horrible profanation ! I could not but 
compare this whimsical inconsistency (as it seems to me) 
to the conduct of the people of Hawaii (Owhyhee), who 

murdered Captain Cook, and cut his body to pieces, but 

regarding him, as it seems they did, as a being of superior 
order carried about with them pieces of his bones as a 
kind of amulets, which they regarded with superstitious 
veneration. You may show this to K (I beg pardon, 

^ET. 64] TO MRS. ARNOLD. 209 

Mrs. Forster), as I know she does not mind my speaking 
ray mind freely.' 

The c Creeds of Christendom/ by Mr. Greg, had just 
appeared ; and many were naturally anxious to see this 
attack on Christianity answered by an able hand. Mrs. 
Arnold wrote to the Archbishop, mentioning the earnest 
wish expressed by Mr. Graves, a clergyman in her neigh- 
bourhood, that he (the Archbishop) should undertake this 
task himself. The following is his answer : 

'April 26, 1851. 

c My dear Mrs. Arnold, After reading the enclosed, 
please to forward it. 

6 1 am honoured by Mr. Graves's belief that I am 
capable of answering Mr. Greg, but I trust he is mis- 
taken in thinking that no one else could, for it does not 
answer to have many irons in the fire. Men sometimes 
make the same mistake as to their powers and their time, 
that many do as to their income. I have known a man 
who thought, and truly, that he could afford to keep 
hounds, and that his income jrould admit of a fine con- 
servatory ; and that he might sit in Parliament ; and that 
he could keep a house in town, and give fine parties; but, 
like many others, he attempted all, and was ruined. In 
like manner, some are tempted to engage in this and that 
and the other work, from feeling conscious that they 
could accomplish any one ; and so they leave them all 
unfinished, or so ill-done that they had better have been 
left alone. 

; I, in particular, have less work in me than many others, 
and my only chance of doing anything well is though I 
cannot exclude interruptions, yet to be very careful not 
to attempt too much. It may seem strange to many that 



those little volumes of lectures most of them ready 
written, as sermons took me, in merely preparing for 
the press, about four months' incessant work; I mean that 
I never let a single day pass without doing something to 
them. And the little tract on religious worship, which 
was almost entirely a compilation, took me, in like manner, 
six months ! 

' I am now engaged with the " Cautions ;" l that is, in 
merely giving suggestions from time to time, and revising. 
If anything in Mr. Greg's book should seem to call for 
notice in the " Cautions," we will see about it. But 
if, in addition to all my unavoidable official business, I 
were to turn aside from the "Cautions," and enter on 
some new field, the result would be that I should fail 
in all. It is vain for me to set up for an " admirable 

The Archbishop was now in parliament, but not at- 
tending very regularly. 2 He was residing near London, 
and much harassed by family anxiety and sickness. 

1 The compilation entitled 'Cautions for the Times.' 

9 He spoke, however, this year rather more frequently than usual ; on 
the hill for removing the disqualification of the Jews, on transportation, 
and on the projects for the revival of convocation as to which he always 
abode by the opinion, that a regular government for the Church was de- 
sirable, but a clerical convocation most objectionable. Speaking- of the 
assumption that the party calling for its assembly was the most numerous 
he told, after his manner, the following story: 'He was informed once 
that a violent opposition existed in a particular parish to a proposed altera- 
tion of a road, at which he was veiy much surprised, because the alteration 
was conducive to public convenience. In order to ascertain the real opinion 
of the inhabitants of the district, he sent to each house a black bean and a 
white bean, with directions that those who were opposed to the alterations 
should return a black bean, and vice versa. The return was twenty -nine 
black and three hundred white beans. Yet the twenty-nine black beans 
called themselves "the parish j" and it was hardly necessary to say that 
they made twice as much noise as the three hundred white beans,' 


The following is to Mrs. Hill, who had asked him as 
to the truth of some report she had heard of a remark 
he had made on desultory tendencies of mind : 

'Nov. 23, 185L 

c My dear Mrs. Hill, Very likely I did say what you 
report, though I have no recollection of it. 

c Certainly I should not recommend mathematics as 
the remedy. Though one might naturally expect that the 
fault of mere mathematicians would be an over-rigid 
demand for demonstration in all subjects, I have found 
the fact to be the reverse. They generally, when they 
come to any other subject, throw off all regard to order 
and accuracy, like the feasting of the Roman Catholics 
before and after Lent. With them, mathematics is 
" Attention ! " and everything else " Stand at ease 1 " 

* The defect of mathematics as an exclusive or too pre- 
dominant study is, that it has no connexion with human 
affairs, and affords no exercise of judgment, having no 
degrees of probability. 

' On the comparison between that, and what is called 
moral reasoning, you will see some remarks in the dis- 
sertations appended to the "Logic;" and, in the "Bhetoric," 
you will see remarks on the importance of imagination in 
the study of history, which are, as far as I know, not to 
be found elsewhere. 

* Do you know anything of the Mormonites ? They are 
an increasing sect in some parts of England, especially 
about Leamington, where a servant of ours picked up 
some of their tracts and became a half convert. The 
ground is ready ploughed for their seed by such writers 
as are noticed in " Cautions," xi. and xii., and by those 
who act on their principles. 

6 1 want some one to write a little tract to open the eyes 

p 2 


of the poor people in England, in a style and of a shape 
and size suitable to them ; but I myself, and all those I 
have been accustomed to employ, have their hands more 
than full for a good while to come. I wish you would 
try your hand. I can get you the materials viz. the 
Morrnonite tracts, and the true history of the rise of the 
sect ; for it has been well described, and the matter well 
investigated for the upper classes, but not so as to reach 
the lower. The poison is retailed in the streets in 
halfp'orths, and the antidote is to be had only in large 
casks. Do pray try. 1 

c Yours truly, 

c Bo. DUBLIN/ 

To the Archbishop of Canterbury in reference to the Bishop 
of Exeter's Proceedings in the Gorham Controversy. 

'Dublin: Nov. SO, 1851. 

c My dear Lord, In ordinary circumstances, I should 
deem it impertinent to come forward unasked to give an 
opinion on the proceedings of one of my brethren ; but 
the censure which some clergymen of another diocese 
have presumed to pronounce on your Grace, in a tone of 
no small arrogance, makes it, I think, not only allowable, 
but a duty for me to return my thanks for the firm, 
temperate, and dignified protest which your Grace has 
put forth in reply. 

'The brevity and the forbearance of what you have 
said is the more to be commended, because no one could 
have called it unreasonable if your Grace had strongly 
rebuked them for having studied the Articles so little, or 
to so little purpose. 

1 This trial was afterwards made lj Mrs. Whately, in a little tract OD 
Mormonism, which had considerable circulation. 


* My views on the subject are expressed in pp. 151-2 
of the little tract I take the liberty of transmitting, in 
case your Grace should not have been acquainted with 
the publication. 

4 These little tracts are drawn up in a popular form, 
with a view to extensive circulation among the people, 
by one of my chaplains, with my assistance and supervi- 
sion ; and their very low price has even already enabled 
some who think with me on the subjects in question to 
disseminate them pretty widely, though not near to the 
extent that the present crisis requires. 

4 1 might have added to the passage just referred to, 
that the Eubric prefixed to the Ordination Service is 
utterly misrepresented by those who pretend to find in it 
what they have vainly sought for in the Articles. Our 
reformers are evidently vindicating their own practice, 
not laying down a rule that is to bind all men ; and they 
vindicate themselves from any suspicion of introducing 
any novelty by an appeal to the precedent, which, they 
assert, may be established from Scripture and ancient 
writers. They do not pretend that Scripture alone would 
be sufficient for this ; and, therefore, if they are under- 
stood to be laying down a dogma as to one of the 
essentials of salvation, they must be regarded as grossly 
contradicting their own article on the sufficiency of 

fc But if any Church should determine (which it would 
undoubtedly be competent to do) to re-establish such 
an order as the Deaconesses (or "widows"), and 
should state, as a justification, that "it appears from 
Scripture and ancient writers that such female mi- 
nisters were appointed in the apostolic age and 
long after," would anyone in his senses consider 
this as amounting to a denial of the character of a 


Christian Church to any community that had not 
deaconesses ? 

'Yet such an interpretation is exactly such as some 
persons put on our Eubric ! ' 

To his Son-in-La&v, Charles Wale. 

* Dec. 20, 1851. 

6 My dear Charles, I am greatly alarmed at the 
tendency I see in some good and (generally) sensible 
persons towards a reaction, in favour of anyone who will 
but join in denouncing Tractism. 

4 The revolutions, past and present, of France, are 
instructive (to those who have ears to hear) on the subject 
of reactions. A long and galling tyranny had so embit- 
tered every mind against kings and nobles, that they were 
ready to throw themselves unsuspectingly into the arms 
of any who did but deny and oppose them. By-and-by, 
the excesses of terrorists, socialists, red republicans, &c., 
became so shocking that the people were ready and 
appear now to be so to trust anyone who will but 
assume despotic power, and preserve order at any cost. 

c Much the same is our case now in religious and eccle- 
siastical matters. Many, even of those who have had 
opportunities of availing themselves of the experience and 
good judgment of candid and intelligent men, seem 
resolved to throw away all these advantages, and to trust 
implicitly to those who are but of the opposite party to 
the Tractites. Anything said by them even by those 
who have proved themselves careless of truth is at once 
believed, without seeking for evidence or listening to it. 
Anything said against any of these, however well authen- 
ticated, is at once set down as a falsehood or as the result 
of prejudice ; for this last word is most in the mouth of 
those who are in reality under the influence of the thing 

64] TO HIS SON-IN-LAW. 215 

a " prejudice " being, in reality, a judgment formed with- 
out evidence. 

fr And thus I see people throwing themselves into the 
arms of a party, and even conscious of doing so, but 
satisfying themselves that at least this party is not so bad 
as the opposite, and that at least they do not avow decep- 
tion; but "many sell stinking fish who do not cry it," 
though it is reasonable to conclude that it is sold by those 
who do cry it. ' 




Visits England The family circle at Redesdaie Letter to C, 
"Wale Letter to Lady Osborne on the f Sisterhoods' at Ply- 
mouth and Devonport Letter to Dr. Hinds on Oxford University 
Commission Report Letter to Miss Crab tree Opening of the Cork 
Exhibition Letters to Mrs. Hill on various siibjects His interest 
in Protestant Missions to Ireland Letter to Mr, Senior on the Con- 
versions from Romanism Memorandum on Mr. de Yere's Pamphlet 
Mr. Senior visits the Archbishop His Journal Letter to Dr. 
Hinds Letter to Miss C. Extract of a Letter to a young writer 
Letters to Mr. Senior Xotes on the Persecution of the Madiai 
Letter to Dr. Hinds Letters to Mr. Senior. 

Is the early part of 1852 lie paid a short visit to 
England, but the rest of the year, with the exception of 
his regular visitation tours, &c., was spent at Eedesdale, 
where his daughter and her family were again their 
guests. During a great part of the seven following years, 
much of their time was spent under the Archbishop's 
roof, and this was to him an increasing source of comfort 
and pleasure. In his son-in-law's society he had the kind 
of intercourse he most enjoyed and valued ; that of a 
discerning, right-judging, and intelligent companion en- 
tering into all his pursuits, and fully sympathising in the 
high moral tone of his mind ; while his grandchildren, as 
they grew up around him, were sources of continued 
pleasure and interest. Naturally fond of children, his 


delight in these little ones was a prominent feature in his 
declining life ; his tenderness and affection for them, and 
interest in their sports, were such as could hardly have 
been looked for in one so habitually absorbed in matters 
of the highest moment. 

To the children of his son he showed no less constant 
affection and kindness ; the eldest was for a considerable 
time an inmate of his family, and treated as an adopted 
child ; and when at a later period, these children were 
all permanently established under his roof, his interest in 
all their pleasures and concern for their enjoyment and 
comfort was manifest. 

To Charles Wale. 

'Dublin: Feb. 15, 1852, 

* I need not say how fully I concur in what you 
say about party. It cannot be too often and earnestly 
urged ; for I find many men, and more women, not 
wanting in intelligence, and what is more, who have seen 
and bitterly experienced the evils of party, who are led 
by that very circumstance to throw themselves into the 
arms of a party, merely because it is the opposite of that 
which is the immediate object of their dread ; just as 
if experience of military science should induce some 
simple people to invite an army to rescue them. " For 
my part," says a poor woman in the Tales of the Genii, 
" I think all women are rebels, for they all plunder us 

4 It is wonderful and shocking to perceive how those 
who are calling on men to throw off popish thraldom will 
submit, and try to force others to submit, to popes of 
their own ; and how the disregard of truth, the narrow 
and uncharitable bigotry, and the bitter persecuting 


spirit which they loudly censure in Roman Catholics, they 
will at the same time approve in their own party.' 

The following letter to Lady Osborne explains itself. 
Much interest was excited at this time by the newly- 
published disclosures as to the working of the * Sister- 
hoods ' at Plymouth and Devonport. 

< April 19, 1852. 

c My dear Lady Osborne, Have you read Mr. Spur- 
relTs pamphlets, and Miss Campbell's, on Miss Sellon's 
establishment, and her answer ? They are very curious 
and important documents. You may be very sure I am 
fully aware that the High Church party are quite as ready 
to persecute when they get the upper hand, as the Low 
Church. Both are men. And both parties are equally 
aware how utterly I am averse to every party. And it 
is quite true, as you observe, that the one will do every- 
thing in the name of the church-formularies, as the other 
does in that of the Bible. In truth, however, neither 
party makes either of these the real standard, but. their 
interpretation ; which may chance to be very different 
from yours OT mine. The one is ready even avowedly 
to understand our formularies " in a non-natural sense ; " 
and the other set down everyone, however well-read in 
Scripture, as "not knowing the Gospel," who does not 
adopt their views. And it may be added, that as they 
adopt virtually the Eomish notion of an infallible inter- 
preter of Scripture to whom everyone must submit his 
own private judgment, on pain of being set down as hete- 
rodox (only substituting their party for the Pope of Eome), 
so they are equally ready with the Eomanists to resort to 
Tradition when there is no Scripture to their purpose. 
For they appeal to (an alleged) tradition of the apostles 


having transferred the commands relative to the Sabbath 
from the seventh day of the week to the first a transfer 
of which certainly Scripture gives no hint, but rather 
contradicts it. Still they have this advantage over the 
opposite party; that they really do encourage everyone 
to study Scripture, bitterly as they revile him if he does 
not adopt their interpretation of it ; and a man is thus 
enabled to have a chance, at least, of detecting any errors 
in the system he may have been taught. The opposite 
party as is set forth in one of the " Cautions " do cer- 
tainly lead men to neglect, and ultimately avoid the 
study of Scripture.' 

1 May 29, 1852. 

4 My dear Hinds, I have been devouring your Eeport. 1 
It is an admirable one, and though too good to be at once 
fully carried out, I cannot but hope it will produce an 
effect, in some points, even independently of any legis- 

4 You seem to have had a great hankering after Senior's 
proposal for a Government nomination of Heads, though 
you shrank from decidedly recommending it. I think 
you might have hit on a compromise by recommending 
something like the Oriel mode. Every fellow is at liberty 
to name whom he pleases, and the Lord Chancellor to 
choose from among them. I believe, indeed, that in 
practice they have always contrived to agree, so as to 
leave the Chancellor no choice. But the elections have 
been, I know, very different from what they would other- 
wise have been. Provost Eveleigh was elected, by a small 
minority, against an unfit man whose supporters knew 
that the decision would be likely to go against them. 

1 That of the Commissioners to inquire into the State of the University of 


That election at Lincoln, would not, under sucli a rule, 
have taken place. 

6 1 rather wonder you so readily acquiesce in the fraud 
(for it is no other) of the degrees of M.A., B.D., &c. It 
is the more a fraud and the more a disgrace to the 
University, since at the London University M.A. does 
imply a severe examination. 

4 The same censure applies to Dublin University, and I 
am thinking how we can mend the evil. Perhaps it might 
be allowed to each professor to give, on reception of a 
small fee, a certificate to anyone of having attended his 
lectures, and passed (on paper) a satisfactory examination 
in them ; and then, three such certificates (in such and 
such specified courses) might be accepted as equivalent 
to an examination for degree ; and if a man had only 
one of these certificates, or had them from some other 
course, this would still be a benefit to him as far as it 

<WMt do you think? 

' If you have time to look at that little tale I mentioned 
("Early Experiences" Grant & Griffiths, Paternoster 
Eow), I should like your opinion on a short discussion in 
it of daily services in church ; at which discussion some 
are scandalised. 

; The services were no doubt designed by our reformers, 
who, indeed (most unfortunately), have no special service 
for Sundays. But, then, in the days when so few could 
read, domestic worship and private reading of Scripture 
could not have been so general as they might be now. 

c If there were daily service in church, in those cases 
only where the minister's other duties would be equally 
weU performed, it would be so far well (I mean as far as 
regards the minister). But there is surely a great danger 
that the mere mechanical performance of a duty (by the 


clergyman), which requires neither learning nor ability, 
nor sound judgment, nor assiduous care, nor anxious re- 
sponsibility, should seduce those who are, in mind, indo- 
lent, to substitute this for labours which call for all those 
qualifications ; that the mere turning of the handle of a 
barrel-organ should be found easier though more mono- 
tonous work, than qualifying oneself for the part of a 
good musician.' 

To Miss Crabtree. 

'Dublin: June 15, 1852. 

c I wish you would try your hand at a little parable 
for young folks ; I and my assistants are too busy with 
other things. You have often observed, I dare say, the 
cabbage-caterpillar (and perhaps others) that had been 
pierced by the ichneumon-fly. It goes on quite sound 
and thriving throughout its larva-life, feeding till the 
time conies at which it should become a pupa, and then 
a butterfly (psyche, the soul, as the Greeks called it); 
and then the ichneumon grubs come out, and leave an 
empty skin, having fed merely on the enclosed embryo- 
butterfly. How many of our fellow-creatures seem to be 
in an analogous condition ! 

6 TOIJ might throw this into a little dialogue between a 
parent and child. l c Ever yours, truly, 


In this year the Cork Exhibition was opened. A course 
of lectures was delivered in the pavilion of the Exhibition 
building, and the Archbishop was requested to deliver the 
inaugural lecture of the series, on Tuesday, June 29, 1852. 
The subject of the lecture was c Popular Education,' and 
in it he took pai$s to confute the favourite eoinmon- 

1 A dialogue on this subject, though not "by the lady addressed, did after- 
wards appear in the ' Leisure Hour/ 


places about the danger of ft a little learning/ and to 
point out the fallacy of the assertion at that time put 
forth strongly by the Eonian Catholics that all depart- 
ments of secular education should be under the direct 
control of religious teachers. 

Mrs. Hill had made some objections to the tone of 
some of the late 6 Cautions for the Times.' The letter 
suggested the following answer : 

< August 29, 1852. . 

* My dear Mrs. Hill, You may easily conjecture how 
earnestly we have been appealed to by those who are not 
exactly Tractites, but of somewhat High Church principle. 
" True, the Tractites have some of them gone much too 
far ; but they have done on the whole great good, by pro- 
testing against irregularity and insubordination, and fana- 
ticism and schism. Let your censures be confined, to those 
who are causing disorders in oiu" Church such as must 
end in its overthrow, and thus remove the strongest bar- 
rier against popery as well as against infidelity. Men 
who, after obtaining orders in our Church, seek every 
opportunity of hurling defiance at its authorities and ordi- 
nances ; who are ready to exchange pulpits with self- 
ordained tinkers and cobblers for the purpose of opposing 
or converting papists, but who end in making converts to 
the Darbyites and the Plymouth Brethren and Irvingites ; 
who show their Christian charity and meekness by assum- 
ing to their party the title of ' evangelical,' calling every 
one a * Socinian,' who does not adopt exactly their 
opinions; who presume to take on them the character 
of inspired prophets, calling everything they put forth a 
suggestion of the Holy Spirit, and without in words claim- 
ing infallibility, denouncing all who do not agree with 
them as c not knowing the Gospel ;' men who declare that 
6 God's people ought not to feel any uneasiness on account 


of their sins, since it is God that suffers his people to 
commit grievous sins in order to humble them, and who 
all the time regards them with no diminished favour ! ' 
these and avowed infidels are the persons on whom your 
censures should be poured, but spare the maintainers of 
Church principle ! " 

4 Thus it is that you will always find the rats crying out 
for mercy to the rats, and destruction to the mice ; while 
the mice say kill the rats, but spare the mice. If we 
were to listen to such suggestions from both sides (and 
this would be more fair than to listen to one, and to be 
deaf on the other ear), we should spare all faults of all 
persons. But if we listen to the voice of truth and jus- 
tice, we shall spare none. And I think you will perceive, 
on reflection, how much strength is added to our censure 
of High Church faults, by our. censuring the opposite also. 
It is then seen that it is the love of truth and not party- 
spirit that influences us. And we shall be proved to be 
opposing error, not because maintained by such and such 
persons, but because it is error. You will also, I think, 
readily understand that it is not from thinking lightly of 
your judgment, and that of others who deprecate our pro- 
cedure, that we are incited by your disapprobation to act 
the more decidedly and earnestly in the very way you 
deprecate. On the contrary, the more widespread and 
deeply rooted any views are which we cannot adopt, and 
the more they prevail among sensible and well-disposed 
people, the more we must exert ourselves against them. 
The greatest compliment to an invader's power is to 
submit to him at once ; the next greatest is to raise as 
powerful an army as possible to resist him strenuously* 

6 Very truly yours, 



Mrs. Hill was at this time planning an article on 
American slavery, apropos of ; Uncle loin's Cabin.' 

* < Sept, 14,1852. 

c My dear Mrs. Hill, It is of little use to write on such 
a subject convincingly to all except the holders of slaves, 
and those connected with the system. And these will 
escape if you leave them (as the author of " Uncle Tom " 
has) a loop-hole. 

c Indeed, it is very easy to gain the approbation of those 
who are already of your opinion, and so very difficult to 
change anyone's opinion, that one is sometimes tempted 
to doubt whether it is of any use at all to write, except 
for fame or profit. 

c I received a letter the other day from an old friend, 
a man not at all below the average, relative to the 
" Cautions ; " great part of which he highly approves, but 
utterly dissents from what is said of Apostolical Succes- 
sion. And so doubtless it is with ninety-nine in a hundred 
of the readers ; each approving of what coincides with 
his own previous conviction, and rejecting what does not. 
If I could think that forty of the four thousand readers 
of the " Cautions " had been led by them .to change any 
opinion, this I should account a rare success. You yourself 
are above the average both in intelligence and candour ; 
yet I don't know that there is a single point on which I 
have altered your views. Where, then, I have sometimes 
said to myself, is the good of writing at all ? 

4 1 believe it really does produce an effect in time, 
whether for good or for evil. 

c Anything falling in the way of a mind that is on that 
point, fallow not pre-occupied with any decision, or 
wavering may instil, or keep out, much that is either 
useful or noxious, as the case may be. And this I con- 

JET. 65] TO MRS. HILL. 225 

ceive is nearly the whole real effect of writing, as far as 
concerns propagation of doctrines. 

* Tours very truly, 


Mrs. Hill replied by mentioning several distinct in- 
stances in which the Archbishop's arguments had led her 
to change her mind. His answer follows : 

'Dublin: Sept. 18, 1852. 

c My dear Mrs. Hill, To you I need not say what I 
have said in the Charge, that I value not a man's pro- 
fessing truth which is not truth to him. And my intimacy 
with Dr. Arnold is alone a sufficient proof of my practical 
toleration. But what I wish you to keep in mind is that 
the vehemence of my opposition to anyone's views is no 
mark of my thinking lightly of him, but the reverse. 

4 1 had no idea I had altered your views on so many 
points. But you are no rule for the generality. 

6 As a general rule, the water from the engine should 
be poured on the places adjoining the conflagration, but 
which are not yet on fire. 

6 It is a very curious fact that you advert to, of our 
unequal sympathy with physical and mental suffering* 
As for the inflicter, he may sometimes not perceive the 
pain he is giving ; but often he does, and delights in it. 
But the bystanders, perhaps, do not so fully enter into 
the sufferer's feelings. It is remarkable, again, that to 
insult and triumph over bodily weakness is always repro- 
bated as the basest cowardice ; but not so if it be natural 
weakness of understanding. 

* Query : Is there not something besides sympathy in 
the, case of physical suffering, that kind of nervous 



shudder which makes some people faint away at the 
description, of wounds ? And may not this partly account 
for your phenomenon ? ' 

Mrs. Hill was inclined to shrink from the task her 
correspondent had proposed to her. She urged the Arch- 
bishop rather to undertake the work himself. 

< Sept. 27, 1852. 

c My dear Mrs. Hill, Every sermon costs me as much 
time and labour to write as to furnish the matter and 
subsequent corrections for six or seven. And I have 
more business to occupy my time and thoughts than you 
probably suppose. When you see me lounging about the 
garden and pruning a rose-bush, you probably suppose 
that I am thinking of nothing else ; when, perhaps, I am 
in fact deliberating on some weighty matters on which I 
have to decide. And all the time I can spare from duties 
which I have no right to neglect, is absorbed by the 
" Cautions." You, I dare say, would advise me to drop 
the " Cautions," and turn iny mind to other matters. 
But though this advice might be right in itself, I should 
be very wrong in following it against my own deliberate 
judgment. I have undertaken a difficult and painful 
task, which appears to me of great importance; and 
having put my hand to the plough, I must not look back. 
Since inspiration has ceased, I do not see what fuller 
assurance anyone can have, that God wills him to do so 
arid so, than Ms own judgment resulting from deliberate 
and prayerful reflection. His decision may not be in- 
fallibly right. If he could be sure of that, he would be 
inspired. But it must be right for him to follow the best 
guide Providence has vouchsafed him. God made the 
moon as well as the sun ; and when He does not see fit 

^Ei- G5 ] TO MBS. HILL. 227 

to grant us the sunlight, He means us to guide our steps 
as well as we can by moonlight. 

4 1 dare say you will not write the article as well as it 
conceivably might be done ; but the question is between 
that and nothing. If by the subject being such as a 
" powerful and practised hand ought to deal with," you 
mean merely that it deserves that, I agree with you ; but 
not if you mean that a slight and imperfect notice would 
be worse than none at all. 

c But you have, in the letter I enclose to you, nearly 
all the materials needed for a very useful article. It only 
needs hammering out. I send you also an American 
paper, lent to me, from which I would suggest your ex- 
tracting the whole of the attack on Mrs. Stowe, as a 
proof that they are very angry and much alarmed, and 
have no answer except vituperation. For they cannot 
and do not attempt to deny that all she relates may take 
place every day. You might also notice the narrative of 
a man's cropping his slave's ears off, in which it is implied 
that no amount of flogging would have been censured. 
Indeed, how could it? unless every slave had to be 
brought before a magistrate, who should allot the due 
amount of punishment, and see it inflicted. 

6 1 hope this will find you at home and recovered. 

4 Yeiy truly yours, 

<Bi>. DUBLIN.' 

The following letter to Mr. Senior, on the subject of the 
conversions from Boinanism, which were at this time 
attracting a large share of public notice in Ireland, shows 
that the Archbishop was no uninterested spectator of the 

As much misapprehension has existed as to the part 
he took with respect to Protestant missions in Ireland, 

Q 2 


it may be needful to add a few words of explanation 

It has often been alleged, and much too hastily assented 
to, that the Archbishop was opposed to controversy, 
especially upon the subject of the distinctive doctrines of 
Eomanisin. One who was intimately acquainted with 
him for many years writes : 4 1 am not greatly surprised 
that such an impression should have prevailed to a con- 
siderable extent. I can recall the time when I was 
myself influenced by it. I should think it was partly 
caused by the limited sale of his " Origin of Eomish 
Errors," compared with the great popularity of most of 
his other works, the decided manner in which he openly 
expressed his disapproval of certain " controversial dis- 
cussions," which had taken place ; and the frequency with 
which he was in the habit of quoting the proverb : " No 
sensible person thinks of catching birds by throwing 
stones at them." But that it was not controversy per se 
to which he objected, but only the manner and spirit in 
which it was often conducted, there is overwhelming 
evidence to prove. In fact, I cannot help saying that I 
look upon Archbishop Whately as one of the most decided, 
extensive, and varied controversialists of the present 
century. The work already referred to, " The Origin of 
Eomish Errors," was published before he became Arch- 
bishop of Dublin. I Have often heard him express his 
regret that he had been persuaded, against his own judg- 
ment at the time, to adopt that title, as it gave an in- 
adequate idea of the design of the book, in which he traces 
not only Eornish errors, but unsound religious doctrines 
and practices generally, whether heathen or so-called Chris- 
tian, to the corrupt tendencies of our fallen nature. In 
1847 he preached as a sermon, and subsequently published 
ip. an enlarged form, his most able and conclusive essay. 


"The Search after Infallibility." In 1852-3 lie pub- 
lished " Cautions for the Times," as a check to the Home- 
ward tendency of the higher and intellectual clashes ; and 
about the same time he furnished to the " Catholic Lay- 
man," in a series of articles, the admirable tract for the 
unlearned, " The Touchstone, with Answers/' containing 
a complete reply to the Eoman Catholic publication of 
that name. At the same time he was extremely unwill- 
ing to have his name mixed up with the proceedings of 
any societies of an avowedly proselytising character, lest 
he should thereby seem to sanction some matters of detail 
of which he did not quite approve. But that he did not 
object to the general principle and objects of such societies 
is proved by the fact that he licensed for divine worship 
the Mission Church in Townsend Street; and so lately 
as in the year 1856 lie gave, through my hands, 50J. to 
each of the two principal organisations for direct missions 
to the Eoman Catholics of Ireland " The Irish Society," 
and the "Society for Irish Church Missions." The evidence, 
however, which seems most conclusive in this matter, is 
that which rests upon the fact that he was one of the 
original founders of the " Society for Protecting the Eights 
of Conscience in Ireland" in 1850; and continued to 
take an active part in all its proceedings until his death ; 
that society having been formed for the express purpose 
of meeting and neutralising the bitter and wide-spread 
persecution excited in Ireland by the success of the opera- 
tions of the two reformation societies above mentioned, 
I can bear testimony as well as yourself to the warm in- 
terest which he manifested in the progress of the religious 
movement, at the same time that he exercised his charac- 
teristic caution as to the manner in which the temporal 
aid administered by th'e " Conscience Protection Society" 
was to be applied; viz. that it should be simply for 


the protection of those who, from an honest conviction 
of the falsity of Eomanism, had openly separated from 
its communion, and not as an inducement or temptation 
to any to profess what they did not conscientiously 
believe.' 1 

It was also with his full knowledge and sanction that 
his son-in-law, for whose judgment he had the highest 
value, was, whenever resident in Ireland, an active and 
efficient co-operator in the work of Protestant missions. 
The influence Mr. Wale exerted in the mission dormitories 
and training-schools for boys and young men is remem- 
bered and felt to this day. The Archbishop was ever 
ready to allow grants of his works to be made to their 
libraries; and these volumes have been studied by the 
Scripture readers and youths training for teachers with 
an eagerness and diligence hardly to be equalled in many 
schools of a higher class. 

And how precious and tender a memory of two others 
of the family, now also ; bidden up higher,' is interwoven 
with the Eagged Schools and the 6 Bird's Nest' for desti- 
tute little ones, all who remember them well know, for 
they * being dead yet speak/ 

It may not perhaps be out of place to allude here to a 
circumstance which occurred between four and five years 
later, and which has been represented in such a way as 
to give rise to much misapprehension. In a parish in the 

1 *The accusation that e Dr. Whately was habitually opposed to contro- 
versy,* if ever made, was a singular charge against one of the most active and 
hardy controversialists of his time. But this much is true, that he had a great 
dislike to see the "weapons of controversy, particularly in favour of causes in 
which he felt an interest, wielded by the hands of the ignorant and self- 
confident, to the serious damage of their own party, if not of truth. Aad 
no doubt, in his outspoken way, he had often made free with the perform- 
ances of these mischievous auxiliaries in such a manner as to render him 
subject to misrepresentation.* 


immediate environs of Dublin a branch of the Irish Church 
Mission Work was carried on for some time. Serious 
charges against the agents employed there, and against 
the society itself, were formally brought under the Arch- 
bishop's notice in the latter part of the year 1857 ; and it 
has been alleged, that in consequence of what occurred 
upon that occasion, the Archbishop desired the agency of 
the society to be removed from the parish. This is by 
no means a correct statement of the facts. A lengthened 
investigation of the charges took place in the Archbishop's 
presence. Several witnesses were examined on both 
sides ; but none of the charges against the Irish Church 
Missions were proved so as to draw from the Archbishop 
a verdict or decision. At the conclusion of the proceed- 
ings, however, the Archbishop said that the fact of the 
incumbent of the parish (who was also present) being dis- 
satisfied with the state of things, was sufficiently decisive 
as to the necessity for discontinuance of the operations of 
the Mission in the district, in conformity with the funda- 
mental rules of the society. The agency was accordingly 
withdrawn at once, without, however, affecting in any 
way its working in other parts of Dublin. 

c My dear Senior, I know a great deal of Mr. Greg, 
but I did not know those were his articles. I thought- 
the one on France had been yours. It is very good. I 
know his article on Socialism, which is very good ; and I 
know the general outline of his " Creeds of Christendom." 
He writes well (as is the case with many men) on any 
subject where he is not run away with by enthusiastic 
feelings, and then very absurdly. The peculiarity of him 
is, that his is anti-religious enthusiasm. 

* He takes as representatives of the creed of Christendom 


two or three individuals, whom almost all, even of their 
, admirers, consider as very crotchety, whimsical, and 
singular in their views views which are not adopted by 
as many individuals in the world as there are millions of 
Christians; and no one else is to have^any voice at all, 
and no one is a competent judge, moreover, of the question 
who has been brought up a Christian ; it must be decided 
by those alone who have rejected Christianity, or never 
heard of it. And so, by choosing his jury and his wit- 
nesses as suits him best, he obtains whatever verdict he 
pleases ! 

c It is somewhat remarkable that I am never noticed 
(so far as I know) by any antichristian writers, either as 
affording any specimen of what the religion is, or as a 
defender of it. 

c Tours ever, 


The following memorandum, on a pamphlet published 
about this time by a Kornan Catholic gentleman of high 
station and influence, ascribing the conversions which 
were taking pkce to bribery, may find a place here, as it 
treats of a subject already mentioned. 


4 1 agree with Mr. de Vere on most points, 1 as I have 
always thought so; but two points I except against 
strongly : Erst, He has read Bishop Hinds with attention, 
and quotes from him whenever it suits his purpose ; but 
he does not at all meet what he says of the peculiar 
difficulty of dealing with Eoman Catholics from their 

1 This agreement refers to another subject canvassed in the pamphlet 


owning allegiance to a spiritual head who is also an inde- 
pendent temporal sovereign ; so that the tendency which 
every religious body has to encroach occasionally on the 
civil power cannot be so readily and effectually checked 
as when the body or person to whom they owe spiritual 
allegiance is, like John Wesley, or Johanna Southcote, or 
Mr. Irving, a subject of the state, or even of some other 
state. The Pope is, in all questions of the kind that may 
arise, judge in his own cause ; and this has always, in all 
states, Eoman Catholic or Protestant, occasioned peculiar 

C I acknowledge it is not easy to meet what Bishop 
Hinds says on this point. Perhaps the only course for 
Mr. de Yere to take was, boldly to deny that the Bornan 
Catholic hierarchy ever did interfere, or claim any right 
to interfere, in civil concerns, 

6 But who can be expected to believe this, in the face 
of such a multitude of indisputable and notorious facts ? 
He might as well have said that everyone knows no rivers 
ever overflow their banks ! 

fe Secondly, He speaks of apparent conversions, effected 
by direct or indirect bribery, as being the general if not 
universal rule. As far as my knowledge goes, and I 
have made a most rigorous scrutiny, nothing of the kind 
has ever occurred. I do not, however, undertake to prove 
a negative. There may have been such cases that have 
not come to my knowledge ; but what he gives us to 
understand that such is the general character of the 
conversions that have taken place I know to be utterly 
the reverse of truth. 

* And as a large portion of the Protestant clergy are 
not favourably disposed towards me, I am at least on 
that side an unbiassed witness. . . . But though the 
first deviser of a calumnious falsehood deserves the most 


blame, I must protest against those who lend their aid 
to the circulation of calumnies without inquiring and 
ascertaining the truth. 

c Most of his points are very soundly reasoned ; but his 
arguments will have less weight than they merit, partly 
from his having put forward two statements so easily dis- 
proved ; partly, and much more, from his being suspected 
of a bias, and therefore regarded with distrust by those 
who are little competent to judge of reasoning by its own 
sole merits. 

c For this reason, the letters from the " Witness," and 
the pamphlet on " Papal Aggressions, how they should be 
met" (which advocate the very same practical conclusions 
as his), will have more effect. 

4 One thing, however, towards his object he might do 
more effectually than any Protestant to procure from 
the Eoman hierarchy a formal condemnation of all perse- 
cution, a censure of all who have written in praise of 
Queen Mary and the Inquisition, and of all those bitter 
persecutors in Ireland of the Protestant converts. 

6 This would go far towards softening the animosity of 
a great number in England. 

*I am not for repaying intolerance in kind ; but many 
are, and ever will be. 

c P.S. I trust no coercive legislative measures will be 
adopted against Eoman Catholics ; but if I were a zealous 
Eoman Catholic, there is nothing I should anticipate with 
so much joy. As for any danger of penal laws being 
enforced in England in the nineteenth century, that is out 
of the question. It is only like firing blank cartridges, 
which just allows people to complain that " they have 
been fired upon," without doing them the smallest 

c And nothing would be more likely to create a reaction. 

. 65] ME. SENIOR'S JOUKNAL. 235 

The breaking of chapel windows, and even the violent 
speeches made lately at public meetings, have done great 
service to the cause of Eomanism. 

'It has nothing to fear in England at this day, except 
from calm discussion, enlightenment of the people, and 
study of the Scriptures.' 

At this time the Archbishop received a visit from Mr. 
Senior, during which much interesting conversation 
passed, which was recorded by Mr. Senior in a journal 
he was in the habit of keeping whenever he was staying 
from home. Some extracts from the pages of this journal 
may find a fitting place here. 

Extract from Mr. Seniors Journal 

< Oct. 8, 1852. 

* We posted to Eedesdale, Archbishop Whately's country 
place, about five miles from Dublin, nearly opposite to 
Kingstown Harbour. Nature meant the road to be an 
open terrace, between the sea and the mountains. Man 
has made it a dirty lane, twisting between high walls. 
Almost all the country near Dublin is cut into squares, 
each with its wall without and its fringe of trees within, 
merely ugly in summer, but damp and unwholesome in 

6 We talked after dinner about Puseyism. I asked if it 
was prevalent in Ireland ? 

4 " Not so prevalent," answered the Archbishop, as in 
England ; but it exists. I was told that we should escape 
it that, as we have the real thing, we should not adopt 
the copy but I was sure that it would come. Ireland 
catches every disease after it has passed over England. 


Cholera caxne to us after you had had it, so did the potato 
rot, so did Puseyism." 

c " I am inclined," I said, " to think that it is diminishing 
in England." 

4 " Diminishing," said the Archbishop, " in its old head- 
quarters, Oxford, but increasing in the country parishes. 
The tidal wave, after it has begun to ebb in the ocean, 
still rises in the bays and creeks. Those who were taught 
Puseyism fifteen years ago, are now teaching it in their 

4 " I heard the lessons read," said " by a young 

Puseyite, and they were mumbled over, so as to be 
scarcely intelligible." 

c " I heard, or rather did not hear them read in the 
same way in Margaret Street chapel," said . 

c " What is the explanation of this ? " I said. " The 
Puseyites cannot wish to show disrespect to Scrip- 

* " I do not pretend," said the Archbishop, " to be 
master of all the details of Puseyism ; but its general 
theory is, religion by prosy. The priest is not only to 
pray, but to believe for the laity. To them the raw Bible 
is dangerous. They ought not to receive it until he has 
cooked it. The lessons ought not to be read at all, or 
they ought to be read in Latin ; or, if they must be read 
in English, they should be hurried over, so as to let them 
give as little knowledge and do as little harm as possible." 

fi We conversed on the appointment of bishops by the 
ministry. The Archbishop said, that to choose them 
without reference to their opinions on the education 
question, was to send arms and ammunition to the Cape, 
and to be utterly indifferent whether they fell into the 
hands of the Queen's troops or of the Caffres. He had 
observed this to a leading statesman, who answered that 

/Er. 65] MR. SENIOR'S JOURNAL. 237 

this impartiality would give him a much wider choice. 
" I ventured/' said the Archbishop, " to doubt this." 

4 " Of course," I said, " if you mean, that, by ignoring 
the existence of the opposition between the friends and 
the enemies of mixed education, you will be able to select 
your bishop from among a larger number of clergymen, 
that is obviously true. I even believe that, if you were 
to select exclusively from among its enemies, you would 
find more clergymen to choose from than if you selected 
exclusively from among its friends ; but if your object be 
to choose from the fittest men, I do not think that con- 
sidering hostility to mixed education no disqualification 
will enlarge your field of choice in the least. If I had to 
point out the half-dozen best men in all other respects 
the men who, if there were no Education Board, would 
be the fittest for promotion I should have to take them 
all from among the friends of mixed education." I do not 
think, however, that I convinced him. 

c " I suppose," I said, " that you adhere to your old 
opinion as to the abolition of the Lord Lieutenancy ? " 

4 " I feel it," he said, " more strongly every day. ISTo 
friend to the Union, no friend to good government, can 
wish to retain that office. Those who hear that the Lord 
Lieutenant is kept at work all day, and perhaps laalf the 
night, infer that he must have much to do. I have served 
the office for months at a time. The Lords Justices, in 
the absence of the Lord Lieutenant, perform all his duties, 
except those connected with patronage and representation. 
They are not employed for three hours in a week. The 
Lord Lieutenant's days and nights are wasted on intrigue 
and party 'squabbles, on the management of the press and 
the management of 6 ftes; 7 on deciding what ruined 
gambler is to have this stipendiary magistracy, and what 
repealer is to be conciliated by asking his wife and 


daughters to a concert in short, on things, nine-tenths of 
which cannot be so well treated as by being left alone. 
The abolition of this phantom of independence is the first 
step towards the consolidation of the two countries. I 
must add, that, attached as I arn to regal government, 
yet, if we changed our sovereign every time that we 
changed our ministry, I had rather take refuge in some 
more stable form of constitution, though of an inferior 

c " Would you retain," I said, " the Irish Office ? " 
'" Certainly not," answered the Archbishop, "I would 
no more have an Irish Office than a Welsh Office. The 
bane of Ireland is the abuse of its patronage ; what Lord 
Eosse says of the stipendiary magistrates is true of every 
other Irish appointment. Fitness is the only claim that 
is disregarded ; this would be bad enough anywhere, but it 
is peculiarly mischievous in a highly centralized country, 
where the bureaucratic influence is felt in every fibre. 
Now the concentration of the Irish patronage in the 
hands of one or two persons resident in Ireland is favour- 
able to this abuse. The English public is accustomed to 
consider Irish appointments as things done in Ireland by 
Irishmen, and for Irishmen, with which it has no concern. 
It thinks it probable that, like everything else that is 
Irish, they are very bad, but does not hold that the 
English government is responsible for them. A Prime 
Minister or a Home Secretary would not bear the disgrace 
of the jobs which are expected from a Lord Lieutenant or 
from a Secretary for Ireland. He would both be subject 
to a less pressure, and would be better able to resist it. 

" In a country in which the aristocratic element is 
strong," continued the Archbishop, " we must submit to 
see men promoted in consequence of their birth and con- 
nexions ; in a country subject to parliamentary govern- 


raent we must expect to see functionaries selected rather 
to serve the party than to serve the public. It is only a 
government like that of Louis Napoleon that can give its 
patronage only to merit. But in Ireland a third element 
interferes to disturb all our appointments, that is to say, 
the religious element. It has been the principle of some 
viceroys to favour the Roman Catholics ; that of others 
to favour the Protestants, and I have heard of depart- 
ments in which the vacancies were filled from each sect 
alternately, and Papists and Protestants were disposed like 
the squares on a chessboard . . . We probably could not 
escape this abuse altogether if the appointments were 
made in England, but I think that there would be less 
of it." 

c " Do you find," I asked, " any marked difference be- 
tween your Eoman Catholic and Protestant inspectors ?" 

c " Not," he answered, " a marked difference ; the Protes- 
tants I think are rather the best I am told that in the 
higher departments of the public service the difference is 
marked, and that the Protestants are by far the best 
public servants, and I should expect it to be so. In the 
lower and middle classes the education received by the 
children of both sects is nearly the same ; but in the 
higher classes the Protestants have until now been 
educated, not well perhaps, but much better than the 
Eoman Catholics. Let us hope that the Queen's Colleges 
will remove this distinction, and place both classes on an 
equality, elevating each, but raising most that which is 
now the lower." 

c " Under any training," I said, " Catholicism must be 
unfavourable to mental development. A man who has 
been accustomed to abstain from exercising his reason on 
the most important subjects to which it can be applied, 
can scarcely feel the earnest anxiety for truth, the deter- 


rnination to get to the bottom of every question that he 
considers, which is the principal stimulus to improvement 
in the higher branches of knowledge. This does not 
apply to higher laymen in France or Italy, for they do 
not believe in the peculiarities of Catholicism, but it 
must always injure the minds of the English and Irish 
Catholics who do." 

* The Archbishop is president of the " Society for pro- 
tecting the Eights of Conscience." For some time a 
considerable conversion to Protestantism has been going 
on in Ireland. The converts are to be numbered by 
thousands not by hundreds. 

c I asked to what these conversions were to be attri- 
buted? What were the causes which had suddenly 
opened men's minds to arguments which had been 
addressed to them for years without success. 

c " The causes," said the Archbishop, " must be numer- 
ous ; it is not probable that I am acquainted with them 
all, or that I assign to those which occur to me their 
relative importance . . but I will tell you all that I know 
or conjecture, and I will also tell you what opinions are 
current. Many persons think that it is owing to the 
general diffusion of Bibles, Testaments, and Prayer-books, 
by the societies instituted for those purposes. But those 
societies have been at work for many years, and the con- 
vei*sions on the present scale are recent. Others believe, 
or profess to believe, that the conversions are purchased. 
This is the explanation given by the Eoman Catholics. 
An old woman went to one of my clergy and said : * I am 
come to surrender to your reverence, and I want the leg 
of mutton and the blanket.' c What leg of mutton and 
blanket ? * said the clergyman ; 4 1 have scarcely enough 
of either for myself and my family, and certainly none to 
give. Who could have put such nonsense into your head?' 


* Why, sir,' she said, < Father Sullivan told us that the 
converts got each a leg of mutton and a blanket, and as 
I am famished, and starving with cold, I thought that 
God would forgive me for getting them/ 

4 "But our society has for months been challenging 
those who spread this calumny to prove it. We circulate 
queries, asking for evidence, that rewards or inducements 
have been held out, directly or indirectly, to persons to 
profess themselves converts. Kot only has no case been 
substantiated, no case has been even brought forward. 
Instead of being bribed, the converts, until they are 
numerous enough in any district to protect one another, 
are oppressed by all the persecution that can be inflicted 
in a lawless country by an unscrupulous priesthood, 
hounding on a ferocious peasantry. Another explanation 
is, that it is owing to the conduct of the priests during the 
O'Brien rebellion. The priests, it is said, lost their popu- 
larity by exciting the people and then deserting them. 
The fact is true, but it is not enough to account for con- 
versions in many parts of Ireland which were not agitated 
by that movement. 

4 " Another theory is, that it is mainly owing to the 
different conduct of the Protestant and the Eoman 
Catholic clergy during the famine. The Protestant 
clergy^ literally shared their bread, or rather their meal, 
with their parishioners, without the least sectarian dis- 
tinction they devoted all their time, all their energy, all 
their health, and all that the Poor Law left them of their 
small revenues, to those who were starving round them. 
Their wives and daughters passed their days in soup- 
kitchens and meal rations. 

4 "The Eoman Catholic clergy were not sparing of 
their persons they lived, and a great many of them died, 
among the sick ; but the habit of that clergy is never to 

VOL. n. n 


give ; there is a division of labour between them and the 
laity they take faith, and the laity good works, at least, 
as fax as almsgiving is a good work. A great part of 
them, indeed, during the famine, had nothing to give ; 
they starved with their flocks, when their flocks ceased to 
pay dues. But others had means of their own, and many 
of those who took part in the distribution of the Govern- 
ment money or of the English subscriptions, helped them- 
selves out of the funds which passed through their hands 
to what they considered to be the amount due to them 
from the people. But no part of their revenues, however 
obtained, found its way to the poor. Their incomes were 
spent during the famine as they were spent before it, and 
as they are now spent on themselves, or hoarded till 
they could be employed in large subscriptions to chapels 
or convents. And this was not the worst. In many 
cases they refused to those who could not or who would 
not pay for them, the sacraments of their church. In 
ordinary times this may be excusable; a clergy unen- 
dowed and unsalaried must be supported by voluntary 
contributions or by dues. In so poor a country as 
Ireland voluntary contribution cannot be relied on. The 
priest might often starve if he did not exact his dues, and 
as he has no legal rights, his only mode of exacting them 
is to make their payment the condition on which his 
ministrations are performed. But during the famine 
payment was obviously impossible. When, under such 
circumstances, the sacraments which the priest affirmed 
to be necessary passports to heaven were refused, the 
people could not avoid inferring either that the priest let 
men sink unto eternal torment, to avoid a little trouble to 
himself, or that absolution or extreme unction could not 
be essential to salvation. 
fc "I believe that this explanation is not without its 

Mr. 65] MR. SENIOK'S JOUBNAL. 243 

truth, and that the influence of the Boman Catholic clergy 
has been weakened by the contrast of their conduct to 
that of ours. But I am inclined to attach more impor- 
tance to the acquisition by the Protestant clergy of the 
Irish language. Until within a few years Protestant doc- 
trines had never been preached in Irish. The rude 
inhabitants of the remote districts in Munster and Con- 
naught believed that English was the language of heretics, 
and Irish that of saints. The devil, they said, cannot 
speak Irish. 

'"About ten years ago, on my first visitation, after 
the province of Cashel had been put under my care, I 
asked all the clergy what proportion of their parishioners 
spoke nothing but Irish. In many cases the proportion 
was very large. ' And do you speak Irish ? ' I asked. 
4 No, my lord/ c I am very sorry to hear it,' I replied. 
* Oh/ the clergyman always said, ; all the Protestants 
speak English.' * That is just what I should have ex- 
pected,' I replied ; c under the circumstances of the case 
it would be strange indeed if any who speak only Irish 
were Protestants.' This sort of dialogue became much 
rarer on my second triennial visitation, and at my last 
there was scarcely any occasion for it. There are now 
very few of my clergy who cannot make themselves 
understood by all their parishioners, and I am told that 
the effect of this vernacular preaching is very great. 

* " The great instrument of conversion, however, is the 
diffusion of Scriptural education. Archbishop Murray 
and I agreed in desiring large portions of the Bible to be 
read in our National Schools; but we agreed in this 
because we disagreed as to its probable results. 

6 "He believed that they would be favourable to 
Romanism. I believed that they would be favoraable 
to Protestantism ; and I feel confident that I was right. 

B 2 


For twenty years large extracts from the New Testament 
have been read in the majority of the National Schools, 
far more diligently than that book is read in ordinary 
Protestant places of education. 

fc " The Irish, too, are more anxious to obtain knowledge 
than the English. When on the Queen's visit she asked 
for a holiday in the National Schools, the children sub- 
mitted to that compliment being paid to her, but they 
considered themselves as making a sacrifice. The conse- 
quence is, that the majority of the Irish people, between 
the ages of twenty and thirty, are better acquainted with 
the New Testament than the majority of the English are. 

4 " Though the priest may still, perhaps, denounce the 
Bible collectively, as a book dangerous to the laity, he 
cannot safely object to the Scripture extracts, which are 
read to children with the sanction of the prelates of his 
own Church. . . . But those extracts contain so much that 
is inconsistent with the whole spirit of Eomanism, that it 
is difficult to suppose that a person well acquainted with 
them can be a thorough-going Eoman Catholic. The 
principle on which that Church is constructed, the duty 
of unenquiring, unreasoning submission to its authority, 
renders any doubt fatal. A man who is commanded not 
to think for himself, if he finds that he cannot avoid 
doing so, is unavoidably led to question the reasonableness 
of the command. And when he finds that the Church, 
which claims a right to think for him, has preached doc- 
trines, some of which are inconsistent and others are 
opposed to what he has read in the Gospels, his trust in. 
its infallibility, the foundations on which its whole system 
of faith is built, is at an end. 

4 " Such I believe to be the process by which the minds 
of a krge portion of the Eoman Catholics have been 
prepared, and are now being prepared, for the reception 


of Protestant doctrines. The education supplied by the 
National Board is gradually undermining the vast fabric 
of the Irish Eoman Catholic Church. 

" Two things only are necessary on the part of the 
Government. One is, that it adhere resolutely, not only 
in its measures but in its appointments, in the selection of 
bishops as well as in making parliamentary grants, to the 
system of mixed education. The other is, that it afford 
to the converts the legal protection to which every subject 
of the Queen is entitled, but which all her subjects do not 
obtain in Ireland. Some of the persecutions to which 
they are exposed are beyond the reach of the law. It 
cannot force the Eoman Catholics to associate with them, 
or to employ them, or to deal with them. ... It cannot 
protect them from moral excommunication. To mitigate, 
and if possible to remedy, those sufferings is the business 
of our Society ; and I hope that, as soon as the public is 
aware of its necessity, we shall obtain funds enough to 
enable us to perform it. But good legisktion and good 
administration, good laws, good magistrates, and a good 
police, are all that is wanting to protect the converts from 
open insults, injuries to their properties, assaults, and 
assassination. This protection the State can give to them, 
and this protection they do not now obtain. 

' " I quite agree with Lord Eosse, that an improvement 
in penal justice is the improvement most wanted in 

*My brother and I walked with the Archbishop to 
Blackrock. We talked of the Education Board. 

* " A year ago," said my brother, " the country gentle- 
men of the north, who used to be its fierce opponents, 
were gradually coming round. They would prefer, 
indeed, a grant for Protestant schools, but, as that seemed 
impossible, they were beginning to support mixed educa- 


tion. The change of ministry, by reviving their hopes of 
a separate grant, has stopped them. They are waiting to 
see how the Government will act." 

c " In England," I said, " we believe that Lord Derby 
wiU not venture to propose such a grant. He cannot 
propose a grant for purposes exclusively Protestant with- 
out proposing one for purposes exclusively Catholic, and 
the Maynooth debate must have convinced him that such 
a grant as the latter he cannot carry." 

6 " What I fear," said the Archbishop, " is a measure 
which, though not avowedly sectarian, may be so practi- 
cally. I fear that a grant may be offered to any patron 
who will provide such secular education as the Govern- 
ment shall approve, leaving him to famish such religious 
education as he may himself approve. If this be done 
the schools in the Eoman Catholic districts will be so 
many Maynooths, so many hotbeds of bigotry and reli- 
gious animosity. Kbr will the Protestant schools be 
much better. The great object of the teachers in each 
will be controversial theology, and secular instruction, and 
even moral instruction, will be neglected. I believe, as I 
said the other day, that mixed, education is gradually en- 
lightening the mass of the people, and that, if we give it 
up, we give up the only hope of weaning the Irish from 
the abuses of Popery. But I cannot venture openly to 
profess this opinion. I cannot openly support the Educa- 
tion Board as an instrument of conversion. I have to fight 
its battle with one hand, and that my best, tied behind me. 

* " One of the difficulties," he continued, " in working 
the mixed system arises from the difference in character 
of the parties who have to work it Much is necessarily* 
left to their honour. If the patron or the master choose 
to violate the rules of the Board, he may often do so 
without detection. Our inspectors are too few to exercise 

.T. 65] MR. SENIOR'S JOURNAL. 247 

more than a partial superintendence, and too ill paid to 
be always trustworthy. Now I must say that the Pro- 
testants more strongly feel, or at least observe more faith- 
fully, the obligation of honour and of promises than the 
Eoman Catholics. The more zealous Protestants keep 
aloof from the system of mixed education, because it ties 
their hands. They cannot, without a breach of faith, 
teach in our schools their own peculiar doctrines; or, 
rather, they can teach them only at particular times and 
to particular classes ; they naturally wish to make them a 
part of the ordinary instruction ; they support, therefore, 
only schools of their own, where their hands are free. 

* " The zealous Eoman Catholics are less scrupulous ; 
their hands are free everywhere. With all its defects, 
however and many of those defects would be remedied 
by a grant not so grossly inadequate as that which it now 
receives we must adhere to the system of mixed educa- 

'"The control which it gives to us is not perfect, 
but it is very great, It secures the diffusion of an 
amount of secular and religious instruction such as 
Ireland never enjoyed before its institution, and certainly 
would not enjoy if it were to be overthrown ; and it pre- 
vents the diffusion of an amount of superstition, bigotry, 
intolerance, and religious animosity, I really believe more 
extensive and more furious than any that we have yet 

c " Would you support/' I asked, " Maynooth ?" 

c " I am not sure," answered the Archbishop, " that its 
original institution was wise. Mr. Pitt thought that the 
young priests were taught disaffection and anti-Anglicism 
at Douai, and he created for their education the most 
disaffected and the most anti-English establishment in 
Europe ; but, having got it, we must keep it While the 


grant was annual, it might have been discontinued ; now 
that it is permanent, to withdraw or even to diminish it 
would be spoliation. It would be a gross abuse of the 
preponderance in Parliament of tfce British members. 
We have no more right to deprive the Irish Eoman 
Catholics, against their will, of the provision which we 
have made for the education of their clergy, than they 
would have, if they were numerically superior, to pass an 
Act for the sale of the colleges and the estates of Oxford 
and Cambridge, and the application of the produce in 
reduction of the national debt. 

* " I hear," he said, turning to my brother, " that you 
reason somewhat in the same way respecting the Eccle- 
siastical Titles Act; that, admitting it to have been a very 
unwise measure, yet, now that it has passed, you would 
act on it. I agree with you, that to advance in order to 
retreat, to pass an Act and then to be afraid to enforce it, 
is very mischievous. But in this case we have to choose 
between two mischiefs; and I am convinced that to 
attempt to enforce the Act would be the greater 

* " And yet," I said, " you concurred in wishing the 
Act to be extended to Ireland." 

c " What I concurred in," said the Archbishop, " was 
not in wishing that such an Act should be passed for the 
British Islands, for I utterly disapprove of it, but in 
wishing that it should not be passed for England alone. 
I believed the Act, if general, to be a great evil, but a 
still greater evil if confined to England. It was saying to 
the English Eoman Catholics, You are weak and loyal, 
therefore we trample on you ; to the Irish, You axe strong 
and rebellious, therefore we leave you alone." 

* * To return," I said, " to Maynooth ; what is your 
impression as to the education there?" 

-Er. 65] TO DB, HINDS. 249 

c " I believe," said the Archbishop, " that it is very 
poor ; that little is studied except controversial theology, 
and that very imperfectly. Hercules Dickinson, a son of 
the poor Bishop of Meath, had a long discussion the other 
day with a Eoman Catholic priest. The priest maintained 
that if the authority of the Church was not infallible we 
had no certain guide; that the text of the Scriptures 
might be falsified; and that we could not rely on our 
Old Testament, as we do not possess it in the original 
Greek 39 ' 

'Nov. 7, 1852. 

c My dear Hinds, Your client, I suppose, never knew, 
and you had forgotten, that the Lords Justices have 
nothing to do with any appointments. We are left with- 
out the three great things that belong to the Lord-lieu- 
tenant : pomp, pay, patronage ; but we are charged with 
all the really important functions of government pertain- 
ing to his office ; and this occupies us, on an average, 
about one hour per week 

c I have sent the letter to Lord Eglinton, 1 in London 
(though I don't suppose it will be attended to), because 
he occupies just the place which the applicant supposed 
to be mine. 

c I see the difficulty which you advert to in extending 
the proposed Glossary to the Old Testament* 

< I will wait till your publication is out, and then re- 
consider the matter to more advantage. And now I 
want to consult you on a question on which some far from 

1 Lord Eglinton had become Lord-Lieutenant under the 
of Lord Derby, which lasted through this year. During the absence of ft 
Lord- Lieutenant the Archbishop of Dublin acted as one of the * Lords 


contemptible men are divided, and which is of no small 
practical importance in these days of conversions, viz. : 

* If a man, feeling bound to quit the Church of Borne, 
is convinced that he ought, if possible, to join some reli- 
gious community, on what principle ought he to make his 
choice ? 

6 1. It is admitted that establishment by law does not 
of itself constitute any claim on the conscience ; but 

*2. Some hold that he is allowed, and consequently 
bound, to join whichever may seem in his judgment the 
best the most adapted on the whole to promote the 
objects for which a Church exists, 

* S. Others say that he is bound to adopt (if he can with 
a safe conscience) the prevailing religion; to join the 
Church to which most of his neighbours belong, provided 
he is not convinced that it is un-scriptural ; even though 
he should think some other preferable. E.g, Suppose 
(to take a case actually put) there are two brothers, who 
have been both convinced that they ought to quit the 
Romish Church ; A. happening to be fixed in Scotland, 
and B. in England. A. thinks episcopacy and a liturgy 
far preferable to the kirk system, though neither is im- 
peratively enjoined or prohibited in Scripture ; and B. 
thinks exactly the opposite on these points ; yet A. is 
bound to join the kirk, and B. the Church of England. 

c 4. I presume (though this is only matter of inference) 
that the decision would be the same if instead of Scotland 
we were to put the province of Ulster, or at least some 
counties of it, in which Presbyterians greatly predomi- 
nate. And I don't see why the principle should not apply 
equally to some town or district in England or Wales, in 
which it might happen (as I believe there are such) that 
the Methodists *.g. or the Independents might be the 

^ET. 65] TO BE. HINDS. 231 

4 5. Eor in applying the principle, the question arises, 
" Who is my neighbour ?" The majority which a man is 
to follow is evidently not the majority in the empire, else 
the man living in Scotland (in the case put) would look 
not to Scotland, but to Great Britain and Ireland. 

c 6. The argument on the one side is, that since a man 
is authorised and bound to exercise his own best judg- 
ment as to the absolutely un-scriptural character of a 
Church, and to decide as well as he can what errors are 
sufficiently important to require separation, he is equally 
authorised and bound to decide as well as he can what 
is more and what less agreeable to Scripture and con- 
ducive to edification. If he is to judge what is good 
and true, and embrace that, and reject what is radically 
bad and false, absolutely, it should seem that he must 
be also bound to decide comparatively as well as abso- 
lutely. If he is to judge what is good, he is to judge 
what is better. If he is not allowed to adhere to what he 
thinks bad, instead of what appears to him good, neither 
ought he to embrace the worse in preference to what he 
thinks the better. 

* And it is urged that in entering the religious com- 
munity which he judges to be the best, he is not creating 
any schism; as a man is who wantonly or on slight 
grounds quits the Church he is actually a member of, 
merely from liking another better. It is admitted that 
he should separate from his Church only when he is con- 
vinced that it is fundamentally wrong. But, by supposi- 
tion, he has already separated from the Church of Eome 
on that very ground. A single man may choose one 
woman for his wife in preference to another, on grounds 
which would be far from justifying a divorce. 

6 7. On the opposite side it is argued that to have 
several distinct religious communities in any one locality 


tends to disunion among Christians, rivalry, and eventually 
hostility ; that everyone should seek to avoid and coun- 
teract such evils by acting in such a way that if all men 
did the same discord would be avoided ; and that on that 
ground he is to conform to the prevailing religion as 
long as he finds it not fundamentally wrong, even though 
there may be some other system which he thinks to be 
abstractedly better. 

c This is the best summary I can give of the pros and 
cons on this, which is likely to become with many an 
important practical question. 

* Yours ever, 


* P.S. When you have read No. 21, 1 will tell you my 
reason for asking your opinion of it. 

'Monday Evening, NOT. 8, 1852. 

* P.S. Through forgetfulness I directed my letter of to- 
day to Norwich, so I suppose you will get that and this 

4 Fitzgerald was authorised by me to put in any addi- 
tional observation ; and he has shown me what he added. 

6 It seems to me to have no bearing on the general 
question, unless he supposes me to be speaking of a man's 
right of seceding or not from the Church of which he is 
actually a member. But in the case before us this has 
been, by supposition, already done, and done on good and 
sufficient grounds. The question is what religious com- 
munity a man shall join who is at this moment a' member 
of none. 

6 The parallel, in reference to the case of civil com- 
munities, seems to me to be this : there are now hundreds 
of French exiles, of whom many probably are hopeless of 


any deliverance of France from the tyranny which has 
outlawed them ; if any of these can be naturalised either 
as British subjects, or as citizens of an American State, or 
of Prussia, &c. 5 are they, or are they not, free to choose, 
each for himself what State he shall become a citizen of? ' 

'Nov. 14, 1852. 

c My dear Miss 0., .... Not only are par- 
tisans accustomed to have the budget before for their 
neighbour's faults, and that behind for their own, but 
moreover several who do not belong to any party are 
for passing by all the faults (whose existence they do not 
wholly deny) of those who join with them in opposing 
what they regard as the worst extremes. Now to that 
plan I and my coadjutors object; 1 though certainly it 
would save us no small portion of censure. We remem- 
ber that it was not to Jews but to a Samaritan that Jesus 
set forth the superior claims of the Temple at Jerusalem ; 
and it was not to Samaritans but to Jews that He dwelt 
on narrow bigotry and national prejudice against Sama- 
ritans. It was to the Sadducees that He adduced an 
argument in favour of the Resurrection ; it was to the 
Pharisees that He addressed His censure of traditions, 
which had overloaded and overgrown the law. 

* It is true, as you observe, that there are not very many 
members of our Church who distinctly declare that every 
-one is to take up the Bible and make out a religion for 

himself from that, unaided; nor again, are there many 
who distinctly set up the Church and its formularies as 
superseding Scripture. 

* But when people dwell every day, and all day long, 
oil the " rights of labour," and the " claims to liberty," 

* In the' ' Cautious for the Times,* 


and the " duties of the capitalist" and of governments, and 
say little about any other rights and duties, it is usually 
found that people are gradually brought to be Chartists, 
and to doubt whether all rich men and all kings are not 
an incubus on society. And so also when (without dis- 
tinctly denying, any more than the others, any true poli- 
tical doctrine) any one dwells exclusively on good order 
and submission, &c. he will be likely to train men to a 
slavish or oligarchical spirit. And so it is in religious 
matters as well as in political. 

I did indeed know a man, well educated and intelli- 
gent, and believed to be sincerely religious, who used to 
maintain that it would be much better if all books on any 
religious subject were burnt, all over the world, except 
the Bible. And I assure you he was not without some- 
thing plausible to urge. He was a physician ; and I 
might have met him by a suggestion that inasmuch as 
teeth are undeniably liable to decay and to give pain, we 
should cut short all possible toothache at once, by making 
every one have all the teeth in his head drawn ; and a 
similar rule might be applied to other members, till one 
had reduced the human body to a torso. 

fc Of course all sermons and other oral instructions he 
would have equally prohibited, since it would be absurd 
to allow people to hear what they should be debarred 
from reading. 

c Just such a case as this, however, is not, I believe, very 
common, though perhaps less uncommon than some may 
think ; for if there had been but ope person in all England 
of this opinion, the chances would have been enormous 
against my meeting with that one. 

e But what we have had in view is, as we have said, 
those who undesignedly and imperceptibly lead others, 
and perhaps themselves, into an undue neglect and 


depreciation of something which they do not (or at least 
did not originally) mean to discard. 

c Very truly yours, 


The following is an extract from a letter to a 
writer of some promise, in whom he was interested : 

c [The Archbishop agrees with Mr. Senior, that " logic 
does not need a lengthened defence;" but thinks it would 
be "going too far to say that it needs none."] The 
Bishop of London e.g. speaks with great contempt of 
" what Oxford men call science ;" and I should think you 
would find few Cambridge men of his standing _ or ten 
years junior who do not hold the same tone. - 

6 There is a good deal of it in Macaulay ; and in Scot- 
land, though the juniors and some of the seniors value 
logic, you will find a strong majority of men, of forty-five 
years old and upwards, against it. See " The Forth British 
Beview." Perhaps the best way would be to make a 
short defence, with the air of one who is on the triumphant 
side, and who is allowed to speak with some scorn of 
objections that are nearly obsolete. 

* You may write to Mr. Senior, saying what I have here 
said, and so save my writing it to him.' 

' Bufclin: NOT. 24^ 1852, 

< My dear Senior, We are now alone, the Wales and 
also Pope having departed. 

6 1 have been occupied (the little scraps of time I can 
find) for about two months in drawing up " Easy Lessons 
on the British (institution," as a sequel to the money 

4 It is to appear first in a periodical called the "True 


Briton," and is to be a surprise on my ladies, who have 
not been told of it. It is excessively hard writing, though 
I trust it will prove easy reading. 

'Miss Edgeworth speaks somewhere of persons who 
" divide all mankind into knaves and fools, and when they 
meet with a sensible, honest man, don't know what to 
make of him." Thackeray answers that description. He 
draws the base and the bad with a vigorous pencil ; but 
he seems utterly incapable of even imagining a worthy 
person who is not a simpleton. I remarked long since 
that he considered mankind as consisting of only two 
classes the knaves and fools. 

' Tours ever, 


'Tuesday Morning, Dec. 7, 1852. 

My dear Senior, We want to know what is thought 
of the Budget. I should like to know also whether you 
have done anything with the letter from Italy. I under- 
stand, on pretty good authority, that a great sensation is 
excited in Italy by the efforts made on behalf of the 
Madiai, and that the English documents relating to them 
are eagerly though secretly circulated. I have been very 
hard worked, with a confirmation. Besides the general 
one, every other year, for the whole of the dioceses, I 
have one on the intermediate year (which is this) for 
Dublin city and suburbs. Now, here is a problem for 
you in statistical computation. I confirmed 1,150 : these 
were, with a few exceptions, from thirteen years old to 
eighteen ; now how, from this, to make a rough guess at 
the Protestant population ? The above number excludes, 
you will observe : 1. Nearly all adults ; 2. All children ; 
S. Protestant Dissenters (who, though much fewer than 
those of our Church, form several large congregations) ; 

JET. 65] - A PROBLEM. 257 

4. All those who were confirmed last year (of whom there 
are many between the ages specified); 5. All those whom 
the clergymen judged not quite prepared (and keep back 
for confirmation next year); 6. All those who are careless 
about religious duties, though nominal Protestants. 

* When all these are computed together, the Protestant 
population will appear to be much beyond the mere hand- 
ful some suppose it. But I remember that a good many 
years ago you had taken up the notion that nearly all the 
Protestant population of the south of Ireland was congre- 
gated in Dublin. The reverse is nearer the mark ; for, in 
most parts of Wicklow, the Protestant population is larger 
in proportion than in Dublin. And the same is the case, 
not generally in Kildare, but in some districts of it. Since 
the famine, the Protestant proportion has in most parts 
greatly increased, not so much by conversions (though 
of these there are several thousands) as by the greater 
emigration of Eoman Catholics. They go chiefly to the 
United States. And it is remarkable that (as is stated, 
and complained of by Eoman Catholic writers) the greater 
part of them quit their Church soon after their arrival, 
and so do the children of many of the rest. There even 
seems reason to believe that the whole number of Roman 
Catholics in the Union does not equal the number of 
Eoman Catholic emigrants from Ireland in the last twelve 
years. I can supply you with the computations if needful. 

'You may decorate part of your journal with some 
portions of this letter. 9 

Notes on an Article which had recently appeared in 
a Paper. 

6 It seems rather strange that a " Hater of tyranny** 
should be so fiercely enraged at that letter from Italy, 
considering that the writer is evidently an advocate for 

VOL. II. , S 


complete and universal toleration. No one surely can 
doubt that lie is for leaving religion between each man's 
own conscience and God ; and that lie would have every 
one allowed to hold and teach without violence, or 
insult, or sedition his own belief, whether it be in the 
opinion of the magistrates a right or an erroneous belief. 

4 But perhaps "Hater" limits his hatred to tyranny 
exercised against those who agree with himself, and 
adopts the principle laid down in the "Essays on the 
Church" (as quoted in the letter), that the magistrate 
does well in punishing those who teach a false religion 
and is not a persecutor. 

'This principle as is remarked in the letter would 
be readily acceded to -by all the persecutors in the 
world, since each professes to regard his own as the true 

fi As for the denial that the Madiai did violate the laws 
of Tuscany, the " Hater," when he becomes a little cooler, 
will perhaps perceive that this is nothing to the purpose ; 
for the letter-writer asserts nothing on this point except 
that the Grand-Duke would of course maintain that the 
law had been violated. And that he must do so is evident, 
since the Madiai were tried and pronounced (however 
wrongfully) to be guilty. 

4 The plea is indeed a worthless one, if the law itself 
is (as the letter evidently assumes) a cruel and unjust one; 
for, in that case, they ought (if they did violate such a 
law) to be immediately pardoned and the law repealed. 
But a persecuting ruler would, instead of repealing, enact 
such a law, if there were none already existing. 

'For the rest, amidst much vehement vituperation, 
there is not even an attempt to refute any one argument 
in that letter. And this may be considered as a strong 
presumption that no refutation can be found.' 

^2T. 65] TO DK. HINDS. 259 

'Dec. 12, 1852. 

4 My dear Hinds, I find some are much startled at 
hearing it said, as indeed I had said in my last charge 
also, that a translation is of the nature of a commentary 
is a kind of explanation of the sense of the sacred -writers 
and that punctuation also is another human help to the 
sense of Scripture. 

; We guarded 1 against its teing inferred that we are 
bound to take the word of any translator or editor, any 
more than of any catechist or preacher. We may derive 
assistance from the variorum notes in Maret's Bible, and 
in Bloomfield, without at all pinning our faith on them ; 
but folks are startled at the novelty of the language, 
though there is no really Dew sense attached to the word, 

' They will have it that nothing can be called a com- 
mentary which does not profess to give a full and 
complete explanation of all that the Bible contains. Now, 
a man is as truly a commentator who expresses his judg- 
ments as to the meaning, e. g. of the one word fw-raz/oerre, 
as one who undertakes to explain the whole meaning of 
all that the evangelists and apostles wrote, though he is 
not a commentator to the same extent ; but I should like 
your opinion on this. 

6 Exception is taken also against a passage in which it 
is said that the gift of the Spirit is not more a gift of 
Christ than the ordinances of a Church. It was not meant 
that both are equally important and valuable, but only 
that He has ratified whatever is " bound oh earth ; " but 
perhaps the expression was not well guarded. 
- 'The Education Board is between ourselves on its 
last legs. A majority of the Commissioners are for 
excluding books unanimously sanctioned by the Board 

1 He is speaking of the ' Cautions for tie Times.' ' 
S 2 


for general instructions from the District Model Schools, 
of which the Board itself is patron, thus proclaiming that 
we are either insincere in recommending those books, or 
else overruled by those who ought to have no voice in the 
matter. If they follow up this course which is greatly 
to be feared I must withdraw, and make pubhc my 
reasons ; and if I am followed as is to be expected by 
all those who are really friendly to the original principles 
of the system I don't see how the Board can continue^ 
nor can I guess what Government whether this or 
another can do next. But the choice will not be 
between the systems being continued or not, but between 
its being put out by an extinguisher, or dying away in 
fetid smoke, like a candle blown out. 

c Ever yours affectionately, 


< Wednesday, Dec. 22, 1852, 

c My dear Senior, They say here that a dissolution 
would unseat a great many of the Irish Eadicals. The 
late election was such a triumph of priestly influence as 
is not likely to recur. The riots at Stockport and the 
Ecclesiastical Titles Bill (commonly called " Lord John's 
leaping-bar," to afford exercise in jumping over it) 
caused an excitement, which has since died away a 
good deal. 

'I suppose a good many English members also would 
lose their seals, so perhaps the fear of a dissolution may 
do instead of an actual dissolution. " If you will let us 
stay in, we will let you stay in/' 

c I suppose I am to see an eleventh Lord-Lieutenant. 
How I do wish they would abolish it, and let Lord 
Chancellors be as fixed as Judges. 6 Yours ever, 


66] TO MR. SENIOK. 261 

'Dublin: Dec. 29, 1852. 

6 My dear Senior, I wish you would send to Bishop 
Hinds that extract of a letter from Italy, or a copy of it, 
telling him you had it from me ; and that if any provincial 
paper would be glad of something to fill their columns 
up during this lull of debates, they may insert it Is a 
dissolution now looked for ? If there is one, I shall be 
out of Parliament. They call the Ministry Lord - 's 
Christmas mince pie. 

c I wish they had retained - . "When the former 
refused to be Chancellor without a place in the Cabinet, 
they should have offered the same to his successor, both 
to mark that it was no personal slight, and also to put 
the office on the footing on which it ought to stand. The 
fewer removeable offices the better. 

* Tours ever, 
* ED. 



Letter to Mr. Senior on 'Transportation 'Publication of the 
* Lessons on the British Constitution' Letter to Mr. Senior on 
Thackeray's Novels "Withdraws from the National Education 
Board Letters to the Lord-Lieutenant relative to the Board 
Letter of Condolence to Dr. Hinds Letter to Mr. Senior Letter 
to Mr. DuncanLetter to Mrs. Hill Visits his Daughter in Cam- 
bridgeshire Letter to Mrs. Arnold Letter to Miss Gurney on 
the Jewish Emancipation Bill Letter to Mr. Senior on the Bill of 
Tests Return to Dublin Letter to Dr. Dauheny on Botanical 
Subjects Letter to Miss Crabtree Publishes the ' Hopeful 
T rac ts ' Letter to Mr. Senior Letters to Mrs. Hill His inner 
life Persecutions of Protestant Converts in "Workhouses Letters 
to Mr. Senior Letter to Mrs. ArnoldLetter to Dr. Daubeny 
Letter to Mr. Senior Letter to Mrs. Arnold Takes a prominent 
part in the Petition for Registration and Inspection of Nunneries. 

Itf the year 1853 we find his earliest letter to Mr> 
Senior on the again-revived subject of Transportation, 

The c Lessons on the British Constitution' were now 
appearing in a periodical, which, though short-lived, 
received much able support during its brief span of 
existence. They were afterwards published as the former 
series had been. 

'Jan. 4, 1853. 

c My dear Senior, I am glad to hear of the proposed 
abolition of transportation, though I suppose I shall die 
soon after, as the system was born with me, and I was 
sent into the world for the express purpose of opposing it. 
Here it is currently reported that the Ministers are bent 
on abolishing the Lord Lieutenancy, and appointing a 


vice Chancellor. The thing might have been easily done 
at the time it was attempted, if Lord John had not, as his 
custom is, publicly announced his design (just as he did 
with Harnpden's bishopric) long enough beforehand to 
give opponents time to muster their forces against him. 
There are many people who think it would be a great 
evil to cut off the expenditure of so much money on the 
poor tradesmen of Dublin. I have been accustomed to 
proceed by a reductio ad dbsurdum, for the benefit of 
those not versed in political economy. If this be a real 
benefit to some hundreds of labourers, with no counter- 
vailing loss or evil of any kind as a set off against it, then 
why not do more good of the same kind, by giving each 
mayor of every town in Ireland 20,000/. per annum, on 
condition of his spending it, and 2000?. per annum to 
each clergyman in like manner? It is a benefit which 
ought to be multiplied a thousand-fold. 

'Do you know of any better popular argument? I 
hope, in reforming Parliament, they will profit by that 
excellent article in the last "Edinburgh," and also do 
away with the vacating of seats by taking office. 

' Yours ever, 


1 Jan. 12,1853. 

c My dear Senior, I have read your article, as usual, 
with delight and instruction ; but I am the less able to 
judge, from not having been able to get through any of 
Thackeray's novels except " Vanity Pair." " Pendennis " 
I got weary of, and laid it aside; "Vanity Fair" I got 
weary of, too, but went through it. His characters are 
either so disgustingly odious, or else so mawkishly silly 
some of the characters are so unnaturally " inconsistent,'* 
viz. they are too good to be such fools as he represents 
them that I cannot take an interest in them. 


'If you were to serve up a dinner with top dish a 
roasted fox, stuffed with tobacco and basted with train 
oil, and at bottom an old ram goat, dressed with the hair 
on, and seasoned with assafoetida, the side dishes being 
plain boiled rice, this would give an idea of what his 
fictions are to my taste. You will see that I agree with 
your censures, as I do also with your commendations, 
only that I should make the former stronger, and the 
latter fainter. 

c What you formerly said about the " amusing " being 
preferable to the " interesting," I fully agree with ; but 
the amusement afforded by Thackeray is so mixed with 
disgust, that, as I heard an intelligent person say the other 
day, " I should never think of reading a page of his a 
second time." Now, Shakspeare and W. Scott, and Miss 
Austen and Mitford, &a, I can look at again and again 
with amusement* 

It was in this year that the events occurred which led 
to the Archbishop's final withdrawal from the National 
Education Board. Much misapprehension has existed 
with respect to the reasons which occasioned this with- 
drawal ; the letters which follow will best point out the 
motives which actuated him ; but a few words of expla- 
nation may not be out of place here. 

When the rules of the Education Board were first 
drawn up, the Archbishop had been far from expecting 
that extracts from Scripture would have been permitted 
in the regular lesson books, but they, as well as the c Easy 
Lessons on Christian Evidences ' drawn up by the Arch- 
bishop in 1837, received the distinct and full sanction of 
Dr. Murray, then Eoman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin. 

It is important to dwell on this point, because it has 
been alleged that Dr. Murray did not give his formal 


sanction, but only abstained from prohibiting it, and that 
this negative approval was taken as a deliberate and 
official sanction. This statement is sufficiently answered 
by recalling the rules of the Board with respect to books 
brought before them. 

No book could be placed on their list without the unani- 
mous sanction of all the members of the Board. If 
there was a dissentient voice the book was not placed on 
the list at all, therefore such a thing as a negative sanction 
was utterly impossible. The veiy rules of the society 
put it out of the question ; and thus the fact of these 
books beiijg placed on the list, and used in the schools, 
was a sufficient guarantee for their having had the sanc- 
tion of every individual member. 

Dr. Murray, to whose high character all who knew 
him, however differing from him in views, bore full testi- 
mony, never shrank from avowing his approbation of the 
works in question ; and this is proved by a letter referred 
to by Dr. Sullivan, in page 382 of the Eeport of the 
Committee of the House of Lords on Irish Education in 
1854. This letter, dated October 21, 1838, was addressed 
by Dr. Murray to all his brother prelates in Ireland, with 
one exception. In it he expresses the strongest approba- 
tion of the Scripture extracts, and adds, c They are so con- 
structed that they may be used in common by all the 
pupils. The notes, therefore, that are appended to them 
do not advocate the discriminating doctrines of any par- 
ticular class of Christians. It would be unfair in us to 
expect that a book to be used at the time of joint instruc- 
tion should unfold any peculiar views of religion. The 
sacred text which it contains supplies much of sacred 
history, and much of moral precept, with which it is 
highly important that all should be acquainted ; while 
the notes which are added are such as can give no 


just cause of offence to any other denomination of Chris- 
tians.' 1 

Such are Dr. Murray's views of the extracts, and the 
request made (with one exception) by his brother prelates 
that he would continue to act as commissioner (in reply 
to his proposal of resigning) did in fact commit them all to 
the same view. But when, at the death of Dr. Murray, 
a new primate was appointed, a change took place in the 
course pursued by the members of the Church of Borne 
as regarded the National Board. The lessons on Evidences 
and the Scripture Extracts were voted prohibited books, 
and the Eoman Catholic children and teachers forbidden, 
one and all, to use them. 

The Board on this resolved to meet specially to discuss 
what steps to take. The Archbishop intimated to them 
that he would take no part in the discussion, and even 
avoided attending the meetings till their decision had 
been made. 

The resolution to which the majority of the members 
came, was to take the obnoxious books off the list. The 
Archbishop con?idered this as virtually a breach of faith 
with the public. In the first instance, the Board might 
have decided as they thought best, as to receiving or 
rejecting any given work, and in such decisions he would 

T Archbishop Murray ever bore a generous and candid testimony to Arch- 
bishop Whately's merit. In the same letter in which he speaks of the 
Scripture extracts, he thus alludes to him : * No matter how he may differ 
from me in his religious belief, I am sure nothing that was not kind and 
liberal could come from that eminent individual 7 This testimony was the 
more striking, because all knew that Archbishop Whately was no neutral or 
lukewarm Protestant, nor one inclined to make light of the difference be- 
tween his views and those of the Church of Borne. It was as an honest 
and fair-minded opponent that Dr. Murray esteemed him. It may here be 
observed, that although through their life they were on terms of cordial good 
understanding and friendliness, their intercourse together was entirely official, 
and this by mutual agreement, each seeing that the course pursued was the 
most expedient under the circumstances. 


have acquiesced, even though differing in judgment from 
them as to details ; but having deliberately sanctioned 
these works, and used them for years, and many having 
been induced to place their schools under the Board on 
the strength of these very books, he felt they had no right 
to withdraw the sanction they had given. On this ground, 
and as a question of justice and straightforward dealing, 
he considered it his duty to withdraw his connection with 
the Board. ^ , x 

That this was a step not taken without much pain and 
mortification, no one who knew him could doubt ; but his 
personal feeling to the Board was so far from unfriendly, 
that he continued to pay the salary of a regular catechist, 
a clergyman of the Church of England, who attended the 
model schools in Dublin weekly, to give religious instruc- 
tion to the members of the Established Church, both 
pupils and teachers in training. And up to a few weeks 
before his last illness, he came himself from time to time, 
to see that the instruction was regularly and steadily given. 
He also continued to give Bibles and Prayer-books to the 
pupils and teachers in training, as he had done during his 
connection with the Board. 

His views with regard to the system can best be given 
in his own words, at page 166 of the Report already 
alluded to. He adds, 4 1 approve of the system as much as 
ever, and am as ready to carry it on, but I feel that I 
should be deserting it in the most disingenuous and the 
most mischievous way possible, were I to pretend to be 
carrying it on when in reality subverting it.' l 

1 It may be well to notice here, that the story which has recently "been 
brought forward, of the Archbishop's having manifested Hs displeasure 
against the Eesident Commissioner, the Eight Hon. Alez. Macdonnell, by 
deliberately omitting his name and title in addressing his letters, and 

directing to Macdonnell, Eso;., is entirely unfounded. The traljh is, 

that the concentratiye habit of mind 'which distinguished V fe to con- 


Both the Lord Justice of Appeal (The Eight Hon. F. 
Blackburne) and Baron Greene, who retired from the 
Board with the Archbishop, entertained and expressed the 
same view. The former, in his evidence before the Lords' 
Committee in 1856, says, 6 1 consider the expunging of the 
books from the list as a breach of faith,' and he gives 
this as the reason for his resigning. 

The Government subsequently caused the Board to 
draw up and insert among their fundamental rules the 
following one : * The Commissioners will not withdraw or 
essentially alter any book that has been or shall be here- 
after unanimously published or sanctioned by them with- 
out a previous communication with the Lord-Lieutenant.' 

It may be well here to insert the letters of the Arch- 
bishop to the Lord-Lieutenant relative to his retirement 
from the National Board, although they were not printed 
till the following year. They are taken from a printed 
4 Return ' of the House of Lords, April 11, 1854. 

From the Archbishop of Dublin to the Lord-Lieutenant. 

'July 5, 1853. 

4 My dear Lord, I have heard from Baron Greene 
that (as your Excellency is doubtless aware) he means to 
move next Friday that the Board should make and 
announce a formal decision on the points at issue. 

6 There seems good reason for his objection to leaving 
matters in their present state ; an anomalous state, which 
is unsatisfactory to all parties, since each must be dis- 
satisfied that their own views axe not fully and generally 
carried out. 

tinual forgetf ulness of etiquette and petty forms ; and the instance of careless- 
ness alluded to might have taken place, and often did, with his most intimate 
friends. No one who really knew him could for a moment suppose him 
capable of such a mean piece of spite* 


c I have to acknowledge also your Excellency's com- 
munication (which I should have replied to immediately 
but for the pressure of business), in which you suggest to 
me to reconsider the determinations I had formed. I 
thought I had sufficiently explained how fully, and with 
what anxious care I have, for many months, considered 
and reconsidered the subject. But perhaps I may have 
failed to express myself with sufficient clearness, or it may 
be that I have confused together in my memory what 
I have said to your Excellency and to the late Lord- 

c I may add, that I have also fully and frequently dis- 
cussed the subject with my most confidential advisers, to 
one of whom, the Bishop of Norwich, I took the liberty 
of referring Lord Aberdeen, as a person thoroughly ac- 
quainted with Ireland, and with the national system, and 
with my sentiments, and who could give any needful 
explanations orally much better than I could by letter. 

* Having the advantage of possessing intimate friends 
of eminent good sense and worth, I felt bound to consult 
them, and listen with deference to what they might say. 
I will not say, however, that I was prepared, in case of 
finding their views different from my own, to alter my 
course, unless they offered me stronger reasons than any 
I have ever heard. But I found them all fully agreed 
with me in thinking that no course is open to me, con- 
sistently with honour, but the one I have resolved on, 
and that a departure from it would be no less unwise than 

4 As for any personal motives, such as regard for my 
own ease or my own credit, no one can think me capable 
of being influenced, in the present case, by any such con- 
siderations, who knows but the half of the toil I have 
endured, and the obloquy and vexatious opposition I 


have encountered in the cause for above twenty-one 
years. And in any minor question I have always been 
ready to sacrifice my own views of expediency to the 
judgment of the other Commissioners. But I regard the 
present as a question, not merely of expediency, but of 
principle also. I consider it as not only one of vital im- 
portance to the public, but also as one on which good 
faith is at stake. And, doubtless, your Excellency would 
be as far from wishing as from expecting that I should 
take any course at variance with my conscientious con- 
viction of duty. 

; What leads some persons to take a different view from 
mine seems to be their confounding together two totally 
different questions ; that concerning the original adoption 
of some rule or some book, and concerning its removal 
afterwards. And yet no one would say that freedom to 
make, or refuse to make, a compact, implies freedom to 
break it ; that because a State is allowed to ratify, or not, 
a certain treaty, therefore it is allowed to violate a treaty, 
or to modify its conditions at pleasure ; that because a 
man might lawfully have remained single, therefore he 
may obtain a divorce whenever he thinks fit ! 

4 Whenever any rule or any book was proposed, if any 
one Commissioner objected to the whole or to a portion 
of it, I always at once acquiesced in its withdrawal. And 
in fact several parts of some of the books now in use were 
originally thus altered to meet the objection of a single 
Commissioner. If, accordingly, when some of the books 
now so much discussed were first proposed any Commis- 
sioner had said, " Although Archbishop Murray and all 
the other Commissioners have carefully examined this 
book, and pronounced it sound in doctrine, and suitable 
for united education, yet I think otherwise/' he would 
have been yielded to without even any remonstrance. 


c But when some books or some rules have been deli- 
berately sanctioned by the unanimous voice of the Com- 
missioners, and have been for many years appealed to in 
vindication of the system, and as a ground on which co- 
operation was invited and obtained, if, afterwards, this 
decision is reversed, and this sanction withdrawn, such 
a gross breach of faith could not fail to deprive for ever 
the Commissioners, and all other public men who may be 
parties to it, of all public confidence, and of all just claim 
to it. It would be vain to say, " We think this or that 
a matter of very small consequence." The answer would 
be: 1. It is plain you did not reckon it so when you 
brought it forward before the public as a strong recom- 
mendation of the system. 2. Who is to be the judge 
of the comparative importance of a certain innovation ? 
Tou ? The very party introducing it ? Why, every first 
encroachment is either in itself small, or is so represented 
by its authors. And 3. Why should we expect that the 
first step will also be the last? When once you have 
departed from an implied pledge to the public, what 
security is there that you will not introduce fresh and 
fresh violations of it ? Is it to be expected that you will 
go on following all the changes and conforming to all the 
variations of a Church which boasts of being unchangeable 
and united, but whose highest dignitaries pronounce that 
heterodox now which was in the judgment of others 
equally high quite orthodox some years ago ? 

c When, however, I speak of the ruinous effect on public 
confidence which I am convinced would result from the 
proposed innovations, I wish it to be distinctly understood 
that, even if I thought quite otherwise on that point, and 
saw a present worldly expediency in them, I should still 
feel not at liberty, morally, to be a party to them, I should 
feel this to be an abandonment of principle, But, as it is, 


I ani convinced that nothing would be gained very much 
the reverse by my continuing & Commissioner under 
such an abandonment of the system hitherto pursued. 
I approve the system as much as ever, and am as ready 
as ever to carry it on ; but I feel I should be deserting it 
in the most disingenuous and most mischievous way pos- 
sible were I to pretend to be carrying it oi\ when in reality 
subverting it. I should make the proceedings of the 
Board even more open to suspicion (if possible) than they 
would be without. For if a man is liable, as he -must 
be, to incur distrust and contempt for making unwar- 
rantable concessions, under a mistaken belief that he is 
acting rightly, how much more when it is known that his 
conviction is the very reverse ! All the influence I have 
possessed has been based on the general belief (partaken 
of by many, even of those most opposed to me in practice) 
of my firm and conscientious adherence to what I deli- 
berately judge to be my duty. If I were to come for- 
ward acting against that judgment, and which moreover 
is known to be my judgment, for the late proceedings 
are no secret,. I should forfeit all public confidence, and 
my support of any measure would be thenceforward 
utterly worthless. 

6 1 have endeavoured, at the risk of being tedious, to 
lay before your Excellency as plainly as possible the 
grounds of my convictions. And whether there shall 
appear to you sufficient grounds or not, at least you will 
perceive that with these convictions I cannot possibly 
swerve from the course I have resolved on. 

6 Believe me, &c., 


' Palace : July 21, 1653. 

c My dear Lord, When I received the favour of your 
Excellency's last communication, in which you inform 


me, in a perfectly courteous and friendly manner, that 
you do not take the same view of matters with myself, I 
was at first disposed to consider this as a sufficient and 
final answer ; for it is manifest that two persons cannot 
satisfactorily act together in carrying on any system whose 
views on some fundamental points comiected with the 
system are radically different. Tour Excellency is, by 
office, the head of the national school system, the Com- 
missioners being merely your agents ; and no one of them 
can properly retain that office whose views are opposed 
to those of the head of the department. I had accordingly 
declared, in appealing to your Excellency against the late 
decision of the Board, that if that decision was ratified by 
Government, either expressly or tacitly, I should consider 
myself as dismissed, and this ratification seemed to be 
implied in the words used by your Excellency. 

c But then, as there was reference made to a Cabinet 
Council that was shortly to be held on the subject, I 
thought this might mean that the decision of that council 
might possibly alter your Excellency's view, and I accord- 
ingly resolved to wait a few days longer before finally 
announcing my withdrawal. 

c I have received no communication since, and I find 
that a Cabinet Council did meet last Saturday, in which, 
considering the debate that was to come on on the 
ensuing Monday, I cannot doubt there was a full discussion 
of the Irish education question. 

6 Any further delay now would add to all the evils of 
the false position in which I find myself placed. I am 
naturally considered responsible for all the acts of a Board 
of which I am a member ; and that Board has passed a 
measure which I have protested against as an unjustifiable 
breach of faith with the public ; and, moreover, there are 
many hundred schools, of which the patrons will, if they 

VOL. II. . T 


follow my example or advice, refuse compliance with tlie 
order which, the Board will, I presume, proceed to issue, 
and will appeal to Government, and then to Parliament, 
for redress. 

' If it be contended that the Commissioners were in- 
trusted with a " power" to remove any books from their 
list, I shall not contend about a word, provided it be 
admitted (which I must ever maintain) that to do so is 
an abuse of their power, and one which it is plain was 
never contemplated by either the advocates or the op- 
ponents of the system. 

'The "full control over the books to be used," was 
always understood to mean that no book not sanctioned 
by the Commissioners should be used. But if there had 
ever been an idea of their prohibiting books which had 
been unanimously so sanctioned, the appeal to the books, 
as an inducement to join the system, would have been a 
mere fraud, and all the debates respecting them nugatory. 

* I shall not, under these circumstances, trouble your 
Excellency or Lord Aberdeen with any further discussion 
on the matters in question ; but on Tuesday next, if I 
receive no communication from Government to the con- 
trary, shall send notice to the Education Board that I am 
no longer a Commissioner, 

c I remain, &c., 


'July 24, 1853. 

* My dear Lord, I collect from your Excellency's letter 
to Baron Greene that you have been misinformed as to 
some important points. I have not seen him, and perhaps 
he may have explained those points. But I will taie 
the liberty at the risk of saying what is superfluous, of 


correcting the misstatements, as they are of much im- 
portance, which appear to have been made. 

' 1. You seem to have been given to understand that 
the eighth rule has hitherto been so acted on as to allow 
the objection of one child to exclude a book from the 
rest; and that Baron Greene's amendment goes to in- 
troduce a new practice. 

* This is contrary to the fact. If your Excellency will 
obtain from the secretary the correspondence of the Board 
a good many years ago with a Mr. Tattenham, you will 
see that the interpretation then (and always) given of the 
rule coincides with Baron G.'s view. Never has it been 
so acted on as to exclude a book in consequence of the 
objection of some children. Baron G.'s object was to 
prevent a threatened change ; a practical interpretation 
of the rule contrary, not only to reason, and to the known 
design of the framers, but also to their constant practice. 

' 2. I fully concur in the general proposition, and so I 
doubt not would Baron G., that " the Commissioners are 
not wrong in prohibiting the use, at the time of combined 
instruction, of a religious book which Boman Catholics 
believe to be inconsistent with the doctrines of their 

c This is a point on which all are agreed, and always 
have been. But your Excellency seems to have been 
given to understand that Baron G., or I, or some one 
else, have endeavoured to introduce such a book. 

fc But I wonder that any one should have ventured to 
throw out a calumny against us, which is so easily refuted. 
No book ever was, or could be, placed on the list of those 
sanctioned by the Board that had not obtained the appro- 
bation of all the Commissioners, Protestant and Eoraan 
Catholic. And, as far as the particular book in question 
is concerned, the " Lessons on the Truth of Christianity," 



so careful was Dr. Murray that he sent it to Borne to 
be submitted to the late Pope, who had it read to him in 
Italian, and pronounced it unobjectionable. [By the 
way, it has been translated into Italian since, by a priest 
at Florence, with the approbation of his diocesan.] That, 
therefore, as well as all the other books of the Board, is 
not "inconsistent with the doctrines of the Church of 
Kome," such as they were at least some years ago. If 
their fundamental doctrines have undergone such a change 
since, that that which was orthodox sixteen or twenty 
years ago is heterodox now, it cannot be expected that 
the Commissioners or the Government should follow all 
these changes. 

c 3. When your Excellency says that " no Commissioner 
ought to act as if the decision of the Board had been 
confirmed by Government," you seem to understand that 
a decision of the Board does not come into action at all 
till it has been so confirmed ; in short, that it is like a 
bill which has passed both Houses, and is waiting for the 
Eoyal Assent to become law. But the reverse is the fact. 
A decision of the Board takes effect at once, if Govern- 
ment does not interfere. Silence amounts to a ratification ; 
and therefore, if Baron G. defers his withdrawal while 
Government is deliberating, the decision will be acted on, 
and the evil (as he regards it) will be going on in the 
meantime ; and we shall be considered as responsible for 
the acts of a Board of which we are members. 

4 Now, this, I think, he will consider as the proposal of 
a truce on one side, and not on both ; it is as if an invad- 
ing army should propose an armistice while negotiations 
are pending, on the condition that we should lay down 
our arms, and they should proceed in their career. 

6 If the proposal were that the kte decision of the Board 
should be rescinded for the present, and that then his 


withdrawal should be deferred, though I do not say he 
would accede to this, at least it would have some appear- 
ance of fairness. But that he should recall his decision, 
and the Commissioners not recall theirs, does seem to me, 
I must say, anything but reasonable. 

c On this, however, and on any other matter of opinion, 
I cannot pronounce how far Baron Greene may concur 
with me* But as regards matters of fact, T have no doubt 
he will be ready to confirm all the statements I have 

4 1 remain, &c., 


c P.S. It may be worth while to correct one other mis- 
apprehension that has gone abroad. Baron Greene did 
not propose his explanation of Eule 8 as a substitute for 
that rale, but as (what I have here called it) an explana- 
tion of the sense in which it has always hitherto been 
acted on. 

c It was in his absence, and without his knowledge, or 
Mr. Blackburne's, that it was, through some blunder, 
entered on the minutes as a new rule.' 

< Palace: July 26, 1853. 

'May it please your Excellency, Pursuant to the 
communication made a short time ago, I have now to 
announce to Government, through your Excellency, and 
to the Commissioners, that I am no longer a member of 
the Education Board. 

c When I found myself under the painful necessity of 
appealing to your Excellency against the recent proceed- 
ings of the Board, which I regard as a departure from the 
existing system, such as we were not justified in making, 
I added, that if I obtained no redress from Government 
I should consider myself dismissed. 


' 1 have purposely avoided using the word " resigna- 
tion," lest I should be understood to have altered my 
views of the National system, and to "withdraw from it as 
no longer approving it. The ' t reverse is the fact. I am 
as much attached to the system as ever, and as ready as 
ever to carry it on ; and it is precisely because I do retain 
these views that I am driven to the present step. Feeling 
that the system, which has flourished for above twenty- 
one years, is virtually abandoned, and consequently that 
the office I have hitherto held is in reality suppressed, it 
would not be fair for me to deceive Parliament and the 
public by pretending to go on carrying out the system, 
which, in truth, is fundamentally changed. 

4 If I were to wait for the final determination of 
Government on the matters in debate, the decision of the 
Board in the meanwhile taking effect, I should be placed 
altogether in a false position. By withholding my decision 
to withdraw while the Commissioners do not withhold 
theirs, but carry it out in practice, I should be held 
responsible, and justly, for proceedings which I not only 
believe, but am known to believe, to be unjustifiable, 

c When I spoke of the Commissioners having exceeded 
their " powers," and of their having no " right " to pro- 
hibit books that have received the unanimous sanction of 
the Board, of course I was speaking of fair and equitable 
rights. As for legal rights, or obligations enforced by 
legal penalties, these were not in my mind. I am con- 
sidering what a man of honour would hold himself bound 
to do, or debarred from doing, in the faithful discharge of 
a public trust solemnly confided to him. I am well aware 
that a man may sometimes find himself so circumstanced 
as to have the " power," with legal impunity, to break 
faith with his neighbour, to disappoint reasonable 
expectations which he knows to exist, and has himself 


contributed to raise, to " keep the word of promise to 
the ear, and break it to the hope." 

* But to any one judging fairly it must be evident that 
" the full control over the books to be used " given to 
the Commissioners was always understood to mean, that 
no books were to be used without their unanimous sanc- 
tion, and that any book thus sanctioned was to be sup- 
plied to any school in connection with the Board, and 
might be used therein if the patron approved it. 

* That a book so sanctioned should be liable to be 
afterwards prohibited is what never was at all contem- 
plated by any of the Ministries which have supported the 
system, or by any Parliament that has voted grants to it, 
or by any Member of Parliament favourable or hostile to 
the schools. 

c This is plainly proved by all the debates, and they 
have been very numerous, that have ever taken place on 
the subject. 

6 In the debate lately, on a motion of Lord Clancarty's, 
and in every debate on the motion for a grant for the 
schools, and on many other occasions, reference has been 
made (both by advocates and opponents) to the list of 
the books sanctioned by the Board, ^"ever did any 
opponent come forward to say, " This is all a delusion ; 
we are wasting time in discussing the merits of these 
books, since some of them may probably be struck off the 
list next week, and some more the week after. The list 
of books is merely a bait to allure the over-trustful into 
placing schools under the Board, and as soon as the 
deception has succeeded, the books which had chiefly 
aided in it will be prohibited." 

6 And if any one had brought forward such a surmise, 
it cannot be doubted that it would have been repelled 
with indignation and disgust. 


fi This being the case, it is plain that to depart from the 
system in this point, and to introduce an innovation never 
contemplated by any one when the grants were moved for 
and voted, would be to divert the public money from the 
purposes for which it was granted ; and it is also a gross 
injustice towards the many hundred patrons of schools 
who were invited and induced to place them under the 
Board on the strength of an implied promise, fully under- 
stood by all parties, and acted on for twenty-one years, 
but which it is now proposed to violate. 

'When on various occasions attempts were made by 
some parties among Protestants to introduce for then- 
purposes such a " modification of the system " as would 
lia^e amounted to a subversion of it, I always strenuously 
opposed any such unwarrantable changes. I never would 
nor never will consent to break faith either with Eoman 
Catholics or with Protestants. 

6 And that the recent proceedings of the Board (even 
if not followed up, as I cannot doubt they will be, by 
further steps in the same direction) do amount to a breach 
of faith with the public, and involve a misapplication of 
the public money, is a conclusion which appears perfectly 
evident, both to myself and to all those confidential 
advisers, including some of the ablest and most upright 
characters in existence, with whom I have discussed the 

* I will take the liberty of suggesting, in conclusion, 
not as a Commissioner, but as a patron of a JNational 
School, that measures should be taken to secure at least 
the schools (amounting to several hundreds) which are 
actually using the books proposed to be discarded, from 
being deprived of the advantage they Lave hitherto 

' The patrons of these schools, if thus grievously 


wronged, mil be likely to bring forward their complaints 
in a manner which may lead to such contests as are much 
to be deprecated. 

6 1 have the honour, &c., 


In the midst of these turmoils, he found time to write 
to his old friend Bishop Hinds, on hearing of a domestic 

'Dublin: Feb. 1, 1853. 

c My dear Hinds, After what you had said in a former 
letter, I could not feel surprised or even sorry to hear of 
your good mother's departure. As for the sufferings 
previously undergone, it is hard to check the imagination 
so as to keep within the bounds of reason ; but I always 
endeavour to recollect in such cases that what is past and 
over, for ever, is no legitimate source of grief. The only 
thing which reason cannot get over in such a case the 
suffering of the good is only one portion of the one great 
difficulty, the existence of evil ; and when the suffering is 
such as to exhibit an edifying example of patient faith, 
one perceives, which is not always the case, one good 
brought out of evil. 

c Far more afflicting to all parties, except the patient 
herself and sometimes to her or him also is the piteous 
spectacle of decaying intellect, gradually reaching the 
point of complete dotage, and presenting for perhaps 
years an object of unmixed pain to those around. 

6 1 congratulate you and your sisters on having been 
spared everything of this kind. Pray God my family 
may be spared it too ! ' 

'Feb. 4,1853. 

4 My dear Senior, It is curious to find Lord John, of 
all people, saying that a Commission would bind Govern- 


ment to carry out its recommendations, he being the 
Minister who appointed a Poor Law Enquiry Commission 
for Ireland; and, on being dissatisfied with its report, 
employed you to criticise, and then brought in a bill quite 
at variance with both our judgment and yours. 

6 There is much to be said, both for and against the 
ventilating of any plans, in every case ; but the character 
of each plan makes a great difference. 

4 When there is some one distinct and complete measure 
contemplated, not admitting of modifications, then it is 
best to say nothing about it till the last moment. Thus, 
the appointment of Harnpden to a bishopric, and the 
abolition of the Lord Lieutenancy, should have been 
privately resolved on, and (without giving time to organise 
opposition) brought forward as things to be done at once. 

c Now, in both these cases he did just the reverse, and 
was defeated accordingly in one and harassed in the 
other ; but when there are very many details, there are 
strong reasons the other way. 

c True it is that the Eeform Bill did owe to suddenness 
and secresy its immediate success ; but did it not to the 
same cause owe its ultimate failure? For a failure it 
must be called, since in twenty years it requires a thorough 

4 Perhaps it would be best that, the Commissioners 
should be instructed to collect evidences as to the facts 
of the actual working of the present law, and to make no 
recommendations except where quite decided and unani- 
mous, else to state the pros and cons for each suggestion ; 
and then Government could not surely be at all com- 

4 Tours ever, 



It was about this time that he wrote the following 
letter of lively * chat ' to an old and valued Oxford friend, 
who had been the companion of many earlier and happier 

To Philip Bury Dunecm, Esq. 

< Dublin: Feb. 17, 1863. 

c My dear Duncan, I was glad to receive a few lines 
from an old friend, just forty-two years from the time of 
my first making acquaintance with him in a coach between 
Bath and Oxford. 

" Here you may see with vast surprise 
How spiders are devoured by flies." 

I suppose you reprint those verses with the latest additions. 
I suppose you have seen them with the additional couplets 
about the bower birds. By-the-bye, did you ever see the 
epigram which I sent to be inserted ? I do not know whether 
it was in the visitors' book of the Bavarian Valhalla ? * 

4 From Fitzgerald you have his respectful regards to 
his patron, and from me a recommendation to read, if 
you have not, his " Historic Certainties." Have you seen 
his edition of extracts from Aristotle ? There is an Eng- 
lish description prefixed, which deserves letters of gold. 
What you propose for Oxford may be effected there, and 
there only, when my suggestion, which I suppose you have 
seen in the evidence, of a preliminary examination, is 
adopted. For the o! n-oxW take a degree, with that 
amount of proficiency which may be fairly expected oi 
a lad of seventeen or eighteen, on entrance ; and this 
they would bring to the university, if we would insist on 
it. Thus they would begin their academical education 
where they now end it, and then all that you propose 
might easily be superadded, 

* P.S. Did you ever hear of the Cambridge tutor wic 

1 See the ( Miscellaneous Remains/ where this is inserted* 


rebuked a man who had quizzed him for continually 
introducing the expletive, " I say " 

" I say, they say, you say, I say, I say." 
< This rebuke is an English verse. Can you put it into 
a Latin or a Greek verse ? ' 

Again we find him urging Mrs. Hill to continue her 
anti-slavery labours. 

'Feb. 12, 1853. 

c My dear Mrs. Hill, You must get on now with your 
slavery article, or it will be thrown out to make room 
for some of the trashy theology and metaphysics which 
Mr. Eraser is dosed with. Some of his contributors are 
eccentric geniuses all but the genius, and they approach 
(to use their own language) " to the verge of unintelligi- 
bility." There is one who writes about " sevensomeness," 
in an article on the Sabbath, which he calls Sabaoth ! 
But there is in the last number a capital article on France. 

' Your article should be chiefly occupied 1. In doubts 
about the plan of redeeming slaves and sending them to 
Siberia, which I suspect is a plan for getting rid (like the 
crypteia of the Spartans) of the most dangerous to the 
slave system. 2. On the contrast between a poor hard- 
worked labourer in Europe, and a slave. The sense of 
wrong is a great aggravation of any suffering to one who 
has the feeling of a man. It is unpleasant in going through 
a wood to have boughs bang against one's face, and drops 
from the trees wet one ; but who feels this as he would a 
man's spitting in his face, and slapping him at pleasure ? 
True, many a slave has lost the feelings of a man; so 
much the worse ! 

" Wretch whom no sense of wrong can rouse to vengeance ! 
Sordid, -unfeeling, reprobate, degraded, 
Spiritless outcast I" 1 

3 See Canning's ' Knife Grinder/ 

^*. 06] LETTER TO MES. HILL. 285 

3. Suggest the greater profitableness of free labour, when 
fairly tried. 4. Bishop Emds's suggestion should be 
noticed, and the pros and cons briefly stated, 5, Some- 
thing about Abbeokuta and Sierra Leone, and the effects 
now being made to introduce agricultural industry into 
Africa. Better for all parties that cotton and sugar should 
be grown there (which succeed perfectly) and thence im- 
ported, than to cany away the negroes to cultivate them 
1,000 miles off. 

6 1 could write the article myself; and I could also do 
this, and I could do that, and I could do the other ; but 
that therefore I could do all the things that I am pressed 
to do, is a fallacy ; and if I were to wait till my advisers 
were all agreed which task should have the preference, 
I should do nothing at all. 

* I must inquire about that Jewish version of the Old 
Testament. I should like to know what they make of 
those points touched on in the "Tractates Tres;" 1 and, 
by-tke-bye, I should like to know what you think of the 
theories of those Tractatus. The Latin, is far from elegant, 
but not very hard to make out. 

'Those lines on Webster you might insert in your 
article, if they have not been published. I think you 
will give as " general satisfaction" as my would-be hang- 
man i. e. to all except the hanged.* 

In -April this year the Archbishop was staying with his 
daughter and son-in-law in Cambridgeshire. The letter 
he writes from thence to Mrs. Arnold gives a slight but 
characteristic touch of that delight in his grandchildren 
which was one of the solaces of his declining years. 

1 A little tract published in Latin on the Continent, 


( Saintfoins. Little Shelford, Cambridge : 
' April 6, 1853. 

'My dear Mrs. Arnold, In case your folks should be as 
dilatory as usual, I send you a " Caution," which you can 
dispose of if you have another copy. 

'You should inquire for the new edition of Mr. Cookes- 
ley's letter to me, and nay answer. 1 It is in the press, and 
is much enlarged. 

* I am enacting the part of a camel, and sundry other 
beasts of burden, to carry my grand-daughter on my back. 

' I trust you have come in for your share of this fine 
growing weather. 9 

He writes as follows to Miss Gurney, of North Bepps, 
with whom his daughter was at that time staying, on the 
Jewish Emancipation Bill of this year. 

'London: May 7, 1853. 

c My dear Miss Gurney, Many thanks for the seeds, 
which I have sent to Dublin ; and much more, for your 
kindness to my Jane. How much rather would I have 
been of your party, puzzling out etymologies, than amidst 
all the turmoil of London I 

'My speech was very meagrely reported, as mine usually 
are ; but, though my views differ much from those of 
most of the supporters of the bill, they do not differ at all 
from those I published (in a speech on the same subject) 
about twenty years ago, and again in my Charge of the 
year 1851. So that if you wish to see them fully set 
forth, you may look at those. 

* The supporters of the bill were, many of them, as 
lukewarm as its opponents were zealous, or we should 
have had a much better minority. But I plainly told 

1 On Miss Sellon and the 'Sisterhood/ at Plymouth, 


Lord A that, I hoped they would next time bring in 

a better bill, taking the bull by the horns at once, and 
sweeping off all religious disabilities. One might then 
say, consistently, that this is not from indifference to 
Christianity, but from a persuasion that all attempts to 
monopolise by law civil privileges for Christians, or for 
Christians of any particular communion, are contrary to 
the spirit of the Gospel, and tend to make Christ's a king- 
dom of this world. As it is, we are in a most absurdly 
false position, in many ways : 1. A Jew is admitted to 
the elective franchise. 2. Since to let a Jew take his seat 
when elected, would, it seems, unchristianise the legisla- 
ture; to admit a Roman Catholic must, by the same rule, 
unprotestantise the legislature ; and to admit a Dissenter, 
must unchurch it; and so on. 3. Since to remove the 
existing declaration would, it seems, proclaim indifference 
to Christianity, the retaining of it proclaims indifference 
to all but the name ; since there are men (and much more 
numerqus than the Jews) who are ready to call themselves 
Christians, and who themselves avow what they mean by 
it, as denying all revelation except the impressions on 
each man's own mind, and rejecting the chief part of the 
Gospel-history and Gospel-doctrines. Such are the fol- 
lowers of F. Newman and Greg. 4. We are proclaiming 
that the English people are so desirous of electing Jews, 
and the House of Commons (four different parliaments !) 
of allowing them to sit, that it is necessary for the House 
of Lords to throw out this bill, in order to show that we 
are a Christian nation I 

c And yet, after all, this honour to Christiaidty (!) is 
bestowed only by a side wind, and accidentally ; for, the 
declaration was never designed as a religious test, but as 
a declaration of loyalty; but it so happened that the 
wording of it proved an obstacle to Jews taking their seats. 


c Well, therefore, did Lord say that logical con- 
clusions and reasoning must be laid aside by the oppo- 
nents ! If they would be consistent, they should let no 
person have a vote for a member, or be eligible without 
declaring himself a Christian. As the law now stands, it 
is a mass of absurdity.' l 

'My dear Senior, I have received from an 

acknowledgment of my last (of which I sent you a 
copy), saying that he does not agree with me ; and that 
no doubt the Cabinet will decide on the matter as soon 
as they have leisure. My belief is that they mean not 
to find leisure till after the close of the Session. But 
this I shall not acquiesce in. My character will be in 
more and more danger every day that I am a member of 
a Board which has departed from the system. And after 
the lapse of a few days I shall inform them that if by 
such a day say the end of this month, at latest I find 
the late resolution still standing on the minute-book, I 
shall consider myself dismissed. 

c They wish, I conceive, to avoid any battle either with 
the Irish brigade or with the opposite by throwing the 
matter over, and saying (if pressed) that there has been 
a small difference of opinion among some of the Commis- 
sioners, and that it may end in the unfortunate resigna- 
tion of one or more ; but that they mean, to supply their 
places, and go on with the system, &c. 

1 *T3ie debate to which allusion is here made took place on April 29. On 
this occasion the Archbishop spoke out, on the general subject of tests, with 
even more than his usual fearlessness. He was dissatisfied with the present 
bill, not merely on account of what he conceived to be an erroneous title, in that 
it purported to be a hill for the relief of the Jews, instead of for the relief 
of electors ; but because it did not do away altogether with all declarations 
required from members of Parliament. < He did not approve of this patch- 
work legislation this passing of laws, first for the relief of Separatists, then 
of Quakers, then of Jews.** 


* But this must not be. 

c I have appealed against the Commissioners, and if the 
appeal is rejected, I shall regard myself as dismissed,, and 
the system as abolished and replaced by a new one.' 

The Archbishop was now returned to Dublin ; and we 
find him writing to his old friend, Dr. Daubeny, of 
Oxford, on one of the subjects which formed a pleasing 
relaxation to his mind from more pressing cares. His 
love of natural history and botany never failed ; and the 
College Botanical Gardens in Dublin bear witness to his 
many and varied experiments, and the interest he took 
in collecting plants from all parts. His correspondents 
in various quarters of the globe, knowing his tastes, fre- 
quently sent him seeds or cuttings, which he always took 
to the College Gardens that they might have the benefit 
of the careful superintendence of Mr. Baine, to whose 
admirable management and scientific' knowledge he 
always bore ready testimony; and many of his plea- 
santest hours were spent in watching the effects of these 

'Palace, Dublin : June 11, 1853. 

c Dear Dr. Daubeny, Many thanks for your book, of 
which I have read as yet only the passage relating to 

c There is a case of what may be caUed acclimatisation, 
which seems very curious. The red-flowering ribes 
when first brought over was remarked as flowering 
freely but never fruiting ; after some years it began to 
bear here and there a berry, and every year more and 
more, and now is every year loaded with fruit. The 
ribes aureum and the prickly species have also begun, 
after several years, to bear a few berries, 

VOL. IT. u 


* All the plants of the Gkrrya in our country bear only 
catkins, though it is said to be a monoecious plant. 

* There are some differences between England and Ire- 
land, which it seems hard to explain from differences of 
climate. The Buddlea flowers freely in England, but the 
flowers are almost always abortive. When- 1 lived in 
Suffolk I had one which once produced a perfect seed- 
vessel, and my neighbours came to see it as a great 
curiosity. In Ireland they are loaded with seed-vessels 
every year. How is this to be accounted for ? 

'When I lived in Suffolk I "had a laburnum tree, one 
of whose branches, about as thick as a finger, swelled out 
towards the extremity nearly to the thickness of one's 
wrist, and from this bulging part pushed out a dozen or 
more luxuriant shoots. I cut off the branch and sent it 
to a horticultural society in London, who considered it a 
great curiosity. In Ireland nearly half the laburnums we 
see put forth such branches. 

* Tours truly, 


< June 12. 

* P-S. It was in the Sandwich Islands that taro was 
cultivated, not in New Zealand, where they had only the 
sweet potato. 

fc The inspissated juice of the cassava is called cassaripe, 
not cassarine. I doubt whether the poisonous juice is 
ever used by the Indians to poison their arrows, though 
they do use for that purpose some vegetable poisons. 
It is a curious circumstance worth noticing that there is 
a variety of the cassava, not a distinct species, which is 
not at all poisonous ; it is eaten boiled or roasted, like a 

' I believe you will find that the tripe de roche is not a 
seaweed but a lichen/ 


Again he writes to Miss Crabtree : 

< Dublin : August 23, 1853. 

4 1 send you the last published of the "Hopeful" 
Tracts, 1 which have been found very useful here. The 
great difficulty in Irish questions is, that they usually 
seem at the first glance so easy, that a man of intelligence 
who has spent two or three months in Ireland, or, like 
, two or three weeks, is apt to fancy that he under- 
stands the country, and sees how it should be governed ; 
but if he has patience and inquires further, with great 
diligence and great candour, he begins to find that he 
understands far less than he fancied he did, and, on still 
further inquiry, he finds that further yet is needful, like 
Sirnonides in the well-known story, who asked first for a 
day to answer a question, and then two days, and then 

four. If Mr, ever should come to know half a 

quarter as much of Ireland as I do, he would burn his 

* Because Ireland is poor and half-civilised and full of 
ignorance and error, it is generally thought that a very 
little knowledge and study are sufficient to govern it ! I 
am reminded of the young medical student who thought 
he had learnt enough of medicine to cure a very little 

To Mr. Senior. 

< September 20,1853. 

c Those who regard man as a very consistent being, and 
accordingly look on any instance to the contrary as a 
kind of prodigy, may well wonder at a Eoman Catholic 
sanctioning a Work on Evidences. And if they look 
about them a little, they may find other matters for 

1 A series of Tracts, pulblisHed in Dublin, under the ArchMakof ' sanction. 

u 2 


marvel; e.g. that the study of evidence should be dis- 
couraged by a professed successor of the apostle Peter, 
who charged us to be " ready to give a reason of the hope 
that is in us ; " and that Logical Studies should be tolerated, 
and encouraged by Eoman Catholics, and among fallacies 
that of the " Circle " enumerated by them ; when they 
bid you take the truth of your religion on trust, on the 
word of their Church, without seeking any farther proof ; 
and if you ask why you are to trust that Church, refer 
you to certain passages of scripture ; and when you urge 
that those passages do not seem to bear any such meaning, 
tell you that you must interpret scripture according to 
the teaching of the Church ; and so round again. A man 
may go round the world fancying he is travelling in a 
straight line ; but it is strange he should not be giddy in 
running round a circle of ten paces diameter. 

6 But when you talk of wonders, what more strange 
than to find men of mature age, and who were supposed 
to possess common sense and common honesty, and to 
have some regard for their character, talking about the 
fitness or unfitness of such and such a book for Eoman 
Catholics, as if that had anything to do with the present 
question ? The book was (whether wisely or unwisely) 
deliberately sanctioned for fifteen years by the highest 
Eoman Catholic authorities ; and to say that now they 
have changed their minds, and may fairly prohibit that 
book, and that whole course of study to those who do not 
object to it, and many of whom were invited and induced 
by the bait of such books to place schools under the 
Board this is like saying that if a man thinks he has 
made an imprudent marriage, he is entitled to a divorce. 
Indeed, if man's conduct generally were of a piece with 
such a profligate system of morals, the whole framework 
of society would be broken up. 


'In the case of an action for breach, of promise of 
marriage, if it be proved that a man has, though without 
signing any regular bond, given a woman to understand 
that he designs to marry her, only half as plainly as men 
were assured of their right to use the books of the Board, 
every judge and jury gives heavy damages against him ; 
nor is he ever allowed to plead that he was not originally 
bound to enter into the engagement, and that therefore he 
may break it at pleasure. 

' P.S. I am continually receiving fresh and fresh proofs 
that Ministers will find themselves in a sad scrape if they 
persist in supporting the Commissioners whose proceedings, 
in proportion as truth comes to light, are daily exciting 
fresh disgust, indignation, and alarm, both in Ireland and 
England. For, their plan and that of their advocates is 
to circulate gross falsehoods and misrepresentations (one of 
them you saw in the " Times " a good while back), which 
are credited for a short time, but when detected double 
the disgust felt, not only for their conduct, but also for 
their mode of defending it. Many of these falsehoods 
cannot indeed be traced exactly to the Commissioners 
themselves ; but as some can, the public will not give 
them credit for being scrupulous about the rest : e.g. 
they have published the answer to niy letter of resigna- 
tion, in which is a gross misstatement, which no one will 
suspect him of having invented, and which in fact can be 
proved to have come from them ; viz. that the rule by 
which they make the objection of one child, exclude a 
book from the whole school, was on one occasion only 
interpreted in a different way ; the fact being that it was 
always, for thirteen years, so interpreted, 

'And again, that rule, though ambiguously worded, 
did not appear to them quite sufficiently to bear them out 


in their procedure ; and so, in their Eeport just published, 
they have forged a different rule, putting in the words, 
" separate religious instruction," which are not in the 
original rule ! Now this is what EoucfoS would call " worse 
than a crime, a blunder." Their tricks, according to the 
proverb, are " sewed with white thread," for such a clumsy 
artifice is sure to be detected and exposed. 5 

The letter which follows, to Mrs. Hill, unlocks a recess 
of his inner life, and shows the reality of the struggles he 
was called on to undergo ; not only against outward diffi- 
culties, but inward hindrances. 

'Sept 29, 1853. 

* My dear Mrs. Hill, I sent you, yesterday, a copy of 
the vol. of " Cautions." The principal good that we ex- 
pected to do (and that was our object) was among those 
who would only partially approve. For what people 
most readily and most cordially approve, is the echo of 
their own sentiments : and they admire one who, perhaps, 
expresses these better than they could. But then, this 
leaves them much where they were, only, perhaps, better 
pleased with themselves. If there could be a book (on 
moral or religious subjects) which every one thought very 
convincing, this would be a sign that it had convinced 
nobody. But when a good many people read what they 
approve in part, about five per cent, may, perhaps, be 
brought in time to reconsider their opinions and practice 
in reference to the parts they did not like ; and in time 
some of them may come to alter their views a little. But 
this, one is not likely to hear much of. The " cheers " 
come from those who were already convinced. 

' There are thoughts that I have long been accustomed 
habitually to bring before my mind, and to suggest to 
myself, continually, that it is better to have a chance of 

-&T. 66] LETTEB TO MRS. HELL. 295 

doing even a very little good, which, perhaps, may not 
even take place in my lifetime, and which I am not very 
likely to hear of if it does ; and to incur ever so much 
censure from various parties, than to obtain the applause 
of millions, by flattering their inclinations. We were 
and are convinced that we might have gained a much 
larger amount of popularity, and have escaped nearly one 
half of the disapprobation we have encountered, if we had 
pursued a different course. But even if this course had 
been in itself a better than the one we did take, it would 
not have been right for ws, if at variance with our con- 

* All this, most would admit in words, but in practice 
there are many temptations to depart from the rule, and 
these temptations are different to different persons. Per- 
haps you have heard that, according to the Hindoo law> 
infidelity in a wife is severely denounced, except only in 
case of her being offered the present of an Elephant. 
That is considered a douceur too magnificent for any 
woman to be expected to refuse. Now in Europe, though 
an actual elephant is not the very thing that offers the 
strongest temptation, there is, in most people's conscience, 
something analogous to it ; and different things are ele- 
phants to different characters. 

'To myself, the "scandalon" most to be guarded against 
the right hand and right eye, that offended, and was to 
be cut off was one, which few people who have not 
known me as a child, would, I believe, conjecture. It was 
not avarice or ambition. If I could have had an Arch- 
bishopric for asking it of a minister, I would not have 
asked, though the alternative had been to break stones on 
the road ; nor would such a sacrifice have cost me much 
of a struggle. But my danger was from the dread of 
censure. Few would conjecture this, from seeing how I 


have braved it all my life, and how I have perpetually 
been in hot water, when, in truth,! had a natural aversion 
to it. But so it was. Approbation I had, indeed, a natural 
liking for ; but so immensely short of my dislike of its 
opposite, that I would not have purchased (by nay own 
choice) a pound of honey at the cost of chewing one 
drachm of aloes. 

* So I set myself resolutely to act as if I cared nothing 
for either the sweet or the" bitter, and in time I got 
hardened. And this will always be the case, more or 
less, through God's help, if we will but persevere, and 
persevere from a right motive. One gets hardened, as the 
Canadians do to walking in snow-shoes [raquets] : at first 
a man is almost crippled with the fi mal raquet,' the pain 
and swelling of the feet, but the prescription is, to go on 
walking in them, as if you felt nothing at all, and in a 
few days you feel nothing. 

6 There was a very dear and valued and worthy friend 
of mine, who was excessively sensitive, though I believe 
not more so than, originally, I was, and who exerted his 
eloquence and ingenuity in descanting on the propriety of 
not being wholly indifferent to the opinions formed of one 
the impossibility of eradicating the regard for approba- 
tion and the folly of attempting it, or pretending to it, 
&c. I used to reply, that, though this was all very true, 
I considered my care and pains better bestowed in keeping 
under this feeling than in vindicating it. I treat it, I 
said, like the grass on a lawn, which you wish to keep 
in good order ; you neither attempt, nor wish to destroy 
the grass ; but you mow it down, from time to time, as 
close as you possibly can, well trusting that there will be 
quite enough left, and that it will be sure to grow 

* This seems to be all about myself, but there is some 


general use in warning all people to be on the look-out, 
each for Ms own Elephant,' 

Mrs. Hill, in her answer to this letter, objected that a 
total want of deference or concern for the opinion of wise 
and trustworthy friends, is an extreme to which many are 
liable, and would be an equally trustful one with the 
opposite. The Archbishop's answer is as follows : 

'October 6, 1853. 

6 My dear Mrs. Hill, I rather suspect that you are 
confounding together two "things in themselves quite 
different, though in practice very difficult to be distin- 
guished: love of approbation, and deference for the 
judgment of the (supposed) wise and good, &c. The 
latter may be felt towards those whom we never can 
meet with ; who perhaps were dead ages before we were 
born, and survive only in their writings. It may be 
misplaced or excessive ; but it is quite different from the 
desire of their applause or sympathy or dread of then- 
displeasure or contempt. A man's desire to find himself 
in agreement with Aristotle, or Bacon, or Locke, or Paley, 
&c. whether reasonable or unreasonable, can have no- 
thing to do with their ^approbation of him. But when you 
are glad to concur with some living friends whom you 
think highly of, and dread to differ from them, it is very 
difficult to decide how far this feeling is, the presumption 
formed by your judgment in favour of the correctness of 
their views (see " Ehetoric Presumption "), and how far it 
is the desire of their approbation and sympathy, and dread 
of the reverse. 

4 It is of this latter exclusively that I was speaking : 
you, I think, in the instances you adduce or allude to, 
were thinking of the other. A man who is like one of 


those you mention excessive in his dread of excessive 
deference, will be very apt to fall into the opposite 
extreme, of courting paradox and striving after originality. 

* But I was thinking entirely of a different matter, the 
excessive care concerning what is said or thought of 

c Elizabeth Smith (whose vol. of " Kemains " I have 
unhappily lost ; she was an admirable person) says that 
if she were to hold up a finger on purpose to gain the 
applause of the whole world, she would be unjustifiable. 
If, said she, I obtain the approbation of the wise and good, 
by doing what is right, simply because it is right, I am 
gratified ; but I must never make this gratification, either 
wholly or partly, my object. 

6 Yet she had, and avowed, much deference for the judg- 
ment of others, and was reluctant to differ from those who 
she thought likely to know better than herself, Jt was not 
this deference but the desire of personal approbation, that 
she felt bound so severely to check. 

* One difficulty in acting on this principle is, that it often 
is even a duty to seek the good opinion of others, not as 
an ultimate object and for its own sake, but for the sake 
of influencing them for their own benefit and that of 
others, "Let your light so shine ..... Glorify your Father 
in Heaven." 

6 But we are to watch and analyse the motives of even 
actions which we are sure are in themselves right. 

6 And this is a kind of vigilance which human nature 
is always struggling to escape. One class of men are 
satisfied as long as they do what is justifiable, i.e, what 
may be done from a good motive and what when so done 
would be right ; and which therefore may be satisfactorily 
defended. Another class the ascetic are for cutting 
off everything that may be a snare. They have heard of 


the " deceitfulness of riches," and so they vow poverty, 
which is less trouble than watching your motives in gain- 
ing and spending money. And so of the rest. But if 
you would cut off all temptations, you must cut off your 
head at once. 

* Tours truly, 


The persecutions inflicted in the poor-houses on many 
converts to Protestantism, forced from poverty to betake 
themselves to this only place of shelter, had been brought 
before the Archbishop's attention specially at this time. 
At a somewhat later period his son-in-law, Mr. Wale, 
made very minute inquiries into this subject, visited 
several places where these abuses were carried on, and 
obtained much important information. But such sufferings 
were easier to ascertain than to remedy. 

It was on this subject that the following letter was 
written to Mr. Senior : 

< October 24, 1853. 

* My dear Senior, I send you a paper (which pray 
acknowledge) which has an account of poor-house perse- 
cution. I had always foreseen and foretold, that besides 
other evils of the Poor Law in Ireland, there would be 
that of incessant squabbles, on a fresh battle-field between 
Protestants and Eoman Catholics. But, of late, this has 
increased tenfold ; because many of the Protestants are 
converts ; and the object of the Eoman Catholic priests in 
each locality, is to keep all converts from being employed, 
so as to force them into the workhouse ; and then, when 
they are there, to have them persecuted without hope of 
redress. Tor, most of the officers in the generality of 
the workhouses, and a vast majority of the inmates, being 
Eoman Catholics, it is hardly ever that the most notorious 


outrages can. be legally established by testimony. I doubt 
whether even in Tuscany greater cruelties are practised 
than in several of our workhouses. For, what I send you 
now. is I believe only one case out of very many. As for 
the man who was only imprisoned for a day, and forced 
to be bound over to keep the peace, for handing a paper 
to another, it is true, this was far short, in point of 
severity, of the Tuscan proceedings. But I wonder you 
should overlook, as you seeni to do, the important cir- 
cumstance that the one was wholly illegal ; and that when 
once men in office are allowed to set at nought law, no 
one can tell what may come next. The other was accord- 
ing to law, though a most absurd and cruel law ; but 
still, when law is adhered to, a man can know what he 
may and may not do. The insolent and overbearing pro- 
ceedings of Eoman Catholics, and the disgust and dread 
felt by Protestants, increase daily. The sanction afforded 
by Government means to allow Eoman Catholic " ascen- 
dency " to the same extent as Protestant " ascendency " 
formerly prevailed. c Yours ever, 

<B. W. 

' P.S. If you receive a printed petition, remember that 
I never saw it till printed/ 

To the Same. 

'November 25, 1853. 

4 1 am glad you think the Ministry l a strong one ; not 
only because (as I told Lord A.) I think they stand 
between us and anarchy (for I cannot think of any others 
that could hold their places for one session) ; but because 
they will have the less need to truckle to the Irish 
Brigade, commonly called the " Brass Band." But I fear 
they will think the establishment of the separate-grant 

1 That of Lord Aberdeen. 


system will really conciliate permanently both parties. I 
must own they have good reason for thinking so ; for the 
ultra-Protestants and ultra-Eoman Catholics both press 
for it ; and they together form a considerable majority. 
But when this has been done, the Protestants finding that 
about four-fifths of the grant goes to Eoman Catholic 
priests (who will think it too small a proportion ; and the 
others, too large), will look back to their own arguments 
against the Maynooth grant, and will see that all the 
objections to that lie with double force against the other, 
and will assail ministers with redoubled fary for comply- 
ing with their own desire. 

c The Eoman Catholics, on the other hand, will complain 
bitterly of Government giving aid to proselytising schools ; 
for though their own will be in many instances the same, 
still, since there are many more Eoman Catholics than 
Protestants, there will be a greater number of Eoman 
Catholic children compelled to receive Protestant instruc- 
tion, than the reverse. There are schools, now, of this 
description ; but the complaints are met at once by the 
patron's urging that he may do what he will with his 
own ; he maintains the school wholly at his own expense 
and will insist on teaching in it whatever he thinks fit. 

c But the case will be different when it is supported by 
public money. 

*I am convinced therefore that Government, by adopting 
this course (as I expect they will) instead of satisfying 
both parties, will double the discontent of both/ 

Mrs. Arnold had asked the Archbishop's opinion of a 
recently published work which had excited much atten- 

< Dublin : November 25, 1863. 

4 My dear Mrs. A., I can give you no opinion as yet of 
Professor Maurice's book I am now reading it by prosy 


(which is what I often do), having put it into the hands of 
an intelligent critic. What I have read of his, gives me 
the impression of being much clearer and more satisfac- 
tory in each separate passage, than as a whole. It 
reminds me (as the works of several other writers do) of 
a Chinese painting, in which each single object is drawn 
with great accuracy, but the whole landscape, for want 
of perspective, is what no one can make head or tail of. 
Thus I have sometimes read a treatise in which I have 
understood, and assented to, almost every sentence ; and 
when I have come to the end, and ask myself what is the 
author's general drift, it has generally appeared that he 
never had any. 

c But I lately saw in some periodical an extract from 
his work, and one from No. 29 of the " Cautions " (one of 
the finest compositions* by-the-bye, in our language), 
about a "luminous haze " which the writer thought must 
have had especial reference to Mr. Maurice ; though in fact 
Fitzgerald had not, I believe, any one particular writer in 
his mind, 

'I forget whether I told you that Governor Grey has 
sent me some copies of a translation into Maori of the 
" Lessons on Money-matters," which he says has proved 
highly acceptable to the natives. He is about to publish a 
translation of the " Lessons on Eeligious Worship." I have 
sent him some more books, and among others 's " Les- 
sons on Paul's Epistles." So perhaps they may appear in 

* I sent him, along with the books, a present of some 
hips and haws and holly-berries! The weeds of one 
country are precious in another.* 


To Dr. Daubeny. 

6 Dublin : December 1, 1853. 

'Dear Professor, I thank yon for the pamphlet, with 
the general views of which I am disposed to agree ; though 
I am hardly a fair judge, not having read the " Quarterly/' 
You might I believe have brought in this University as a 
witness; for there are men among its Fellows who, I 
believe, are allowed to stand very high in physical science, 
particularly (but not solely) Professor Lloyd. 

4 But I wonder you should allude to Homoeopathy as a 
thing to be pooh-pooh-ed out of court, as not deserving 
even to be attended to. Be it truth or error, good or 
evil, it has made, and is making, far too great a progress 
to be thought lightly of. For, as our old friend Aristotle 
says, xou yap ra oiyada xou ra. xaxd, afyct oi0]a$0a 

c You cannot possibly think it more indefensible, than 
I do the peculiar tenets and pretensions of the Church of 
Borne ; which yet I should never think of treating as if 
they could never gain any considerable influence, or be 
worth contending against* 

c Paradoxical, certainly, is a great deal of the homoeo- 
pathic doctrine ; but this, which is a strong presumption 
against anything in the outset, becomes a presumption the 
other way when there is a great and steady, and long- 
lasting advance. For, as our friend Aristotle again remarks, 
what men believe must be either probable, or else true ; 
and therefore the great improbability of anything which 
gains and retains great and increasing belief, is, to a certain 
extent, a presumption that something so strange must 
have strong evidence in its favour, or else no one would 
have listened to it. 

c Now, in this 'case, when I first came here, &ere was 


not, as far as I knew, a single homoeopathic practitioner 
in all Ireland ; at present there are four or five in Dublin 
alone, in very considerable practice ; besides several in 
other cities. I believe there are now more in London 
alone than there were twelve or fourteen years ago in the 
whole British Empire. And from what I saw on the 
Continent, I am inclined to think that it is there spread- 
ing still more. And when I inquire into the causes of 
this, I am referred to the statistics of several Foreign 
Hospitals, and to the returns of Homoeopathic and Allo- 
pathic practice in Ireland during some frightful visitations 
of fever, of dysentery, and of cholera ; all which returns, 
if falsified, would, one might expect, have been reported 
and exposed long since. 

* Now such being the evidence adduced, and such the 
results produced by that evidence, I cannot think that it 
is to be overthrown by a slight and contemptuous touch. 
You cannot disperse the Turkish and Eussian armies and 
send them quietly home, like a swarm of bees ; " pulveris 
exigui jactu." 

c Yours very truly, 


< December 14, 1853. 

c My dear S. I am reading the third volume (which 
is quite independent) of Miss Brerner's (the novelist) 
" Homes in the New World," which I think would amuse 
you. Negro life, free and enslaved, in United States and 
in Cuba, compared, is one of the most interesting points. 

6 By-the-bye, Mr. Thackeray was saying, at a party 
where I met him, that the cases of ill usage are only here 
and there one out of many thousands; and that Mrs. 
Stowe's picture is as if one should represent the English 
as humpbacked, or a club-foot nation. Wonderful people 


are the Americans ! In all other regions it is thought at 
least as likely as not that a man entrusted with absolute 
power will abuse it. We jealously guard against this 
danger, and so do the Americans. But of the many 
hundred thousands of their people, taken indiscriminately, 
who are nearly all so humane and just, why do they not 
choose one to be their absolute monarch ? I think the 
only excuse for Mr. T. would have been the supposition 
that he was so very favourable in his judgments of human 
character as to reckon men much better than they are. 
But in his works he gives just the opposite picture. ALL 
his clever characters, and a majority of his weak ones, are 
utterly selfish and base ; and none but a few simpletons 
have any moral good about them. I cannot, therefore, 
but conclude that he knew better about slavery. 

6 1 send you a corrected copy of the verses. If you 
will get some one to correct yours by it, that will be an 
acceptable present to some one. 

c Just after I wrote kst, I saw an account of one of 
the Scripture readers having been (for no other offence) 
assaulted, three ribs broken, a tooth knocked out, &c., 
and the assailant being brought before a magistrate was 
sentenced to pay a fine of no less than five shillings ! If 
the Government go on thus, what shall we come to ? 

c Tours ever, 

C E. W. f 

< Dublin : December 3, 1853. 

c My dear Mrs. A. I send two copies of a Pro- 
spectus of a journal l which is to be conducted by some 
men in whom I have great confidence ; among others, 
Professor Fitzgerald. I hope it will be such as to do 

1 The * Irish Church Journal/ which was carried on for some years 
the Archhishop's sanction. 



away the prejudice existing against the Irish branch of 
the Church, which I believe is in great measure owing 
to the very bad tone of the existing Periodicals. 

c I forget whether I sent you before copies of my 
circular relative to the Tractite Memorial. 

4 The "John Bull" has been bellowing at me for inter- 
fering with the "right of private judgment." Bishops, it 
seems, are to allow full right of private judgment to every- 
one but themselves ; and though solemnly appointed, and 
sworn, to check disorderly proceedings as far as they can, 
they are to leave everyone to do whatever seemeth right 
in his own eyes, and yet to remain (nominally) acting 
under their superintendence and control. 

4 When a new Church was formed (in everything but 
name) some years ago, under the title of an Evangelical 
Alliance, with articles of faith to be subscribed, and 
congregations for prayer and preaching, and synods for 
passing decrees, &c. (I am only calling things by their right 
names) I was censured, as you are aware, by some well- 
meaning persons, for not allowing my clergy to join this 
self-constituted body. And my censurers did not, I be- 
lieve, perceive that they were in fact objecting to all 
government, and advocating complete anarchy. 

fi Now, to me, anarchy does not appear a good thing ; 
but if I did disapprove of all Church-government, I should 
be bound not to hold office in the Church. 

* As for the right of private judgment, if any man is 
fully convinced that Episcopacy, for instance, is wrong, or 
that the Quakers or the Eoman Catholics are in the right, 
he ought to leave our Church ; but not to insist on retain- 
ing his position in it, and yet set its rulers and govern- 
ment at nought, like the memorialists.' 

A petition for the regulation and inspection of nunneries 


brought forward by Lord Shaftesbuiy in May this year, 
led to debates in which the Archbishop took a prominent 
part, and expressed his hearty concurrence in the effort. 

A few words of explanation may be useful here, to 
remove misapprehension. He did, in common with most 
enlightened Protestants, strongly disapprove of the con- 
ventual system, and believe it to be totally unsanctioned 
by the spirit of the New Testament. And no doubt his 
feelings on this subject influenced him in advocating the 
measure in question. But he maintained the broader 
principle that every public institution, whether school, 
hospital, asylum, or other establishment, ought to "be 
open to public inspection, and that in no other way 
can the abuse of power be guarded against and the subjects 
of a free country protected from tyranny. Those, he 
alleged, who were conscious of no abuses being permitted 
in their establishments would surely be willing and ready 
to allow of an inspection which could only redound to 
their credit ; and if any shrank from such an inspection, 
this was in itself a presumption that the conductors of 
such institutions felt that their work could not bear the 
light of day. He held that, in the case of any public 
institution being completely secluded from all outward 
observation, it is manifestly impossible to guard against 
the danger of persons being detained against their will or 
otherwise constrained : that if the advocates of convents 
assure us that no such abuses take place, they should 
remember that we cannot be expected to take their bare 
word for it, and that the only proof they can give of 
being wholly free from this reproach is to be ready to 
invite inspection. 

A Eoman Catholic gentleman who was on friendly 
terms with the Archbishop requested his perusal of a 
letter from a female relation of his who had taken the 

x 2 


veil, and who wrote to her friends in terms expressive of 
the most perfect and exalted happiness as a nun. The 
Archbishop, on reading the letter, asked whether, if this 
lady was indeed enjoying a life so blessed, she would not 
rejoice that others should see and know it, and have an 
opportunity of personal observation of the happiness of 
convent life ? 

If the system, he thought, be indeed so perfect, let all 
men see and judge of it ; but as long as these establish- 
ments are kept cautiously veiled from the public eye, those 
who conduct them have no right to complain if suspicions 
are entertained that what is concealed is something which 
open examination would hold up to blame. 

It was with this view that the Archbishop lent himself, 
heart and hand, to the efforts made to procure a general 
inspection, not of convents only, but of all public insti- 
tutions. 1 

1 The debate to which allusion is here made took place in the House of 
Lords on May 9. 




Letters to Mr. Senior on Thackeray's Works, &c. Publishes the 
Remains ' of Bishop Copleston Letter to Mrs. Arnold Letter to 
Mrs. Hill Letter to Rev. C. Wale Letters to Mrs. Hill Letters 
to Mr. Senior on his < Sorrento ' Journal Letter to Mrs. Hill- 
Letter to Mr. Senior on his Review of < Uncle Tom's Cabin ' 
Extract from a letter on { Slavery.' 

OF the year 1854 we have few events to record directly 
connected with, the Archbishop's public or private life. 
His correspondence will show the subjects principally 
occupying his mind. He entered with unflagging earnest- 
ness and lively interest into all that was going on in 
literature or politics, and continued to write new works 
and revise new editions of former ones, and find time for 
extensive correspondence, without relaxing in his inces- 
sant attention to the special work of his diocese. 

The first letter before us in this year contains a criticism 
on his friend Mr. Senior's Eeview of Thackeray's Works, 
now published in a volume under the title of fi Essays on 

< January 18, 1854. 

4 My dear Senior, I think some censure should haye 
been passed on Thackeray's sneer (cited at p. 209) against 
piety and charity. He might have been asked whether 
he knew many instances (or any) of a person utterly desti- 
tute of all principle, and thoroughly selfish, bedng u the 
fast friend " of the destitute poor. Such will, on some 


* r 
grand occasion, make a handsome donation, and join when 

solicited in a bazaar ; but a life habitually devoted to 
such works is not consistent with such a character; at 
least, I never knew an instance. And he implies that it 
is quite common and natural. The truth seems to be 
that he has about as good a notion of moral qualities as 
the heraldic painter had of a lion, who when he saw a 
real one was convinced it was a trick put upon him ; he 
had been painting lions, he said, all his life, and he knew 
that was not one. 

4 1 suppose Ministers will escape having much attention 
called to the Education Board, by the Turks ; as one may 
be freed from the pain of a sore finger by the amputation 
of a hand. And perhaps again the Eeform Bill will 
suffice to smother the Turkish question. 9 

1 January 24, 1854. 

6 My clear Senior, I send you by to-day's post the MS. 
of the Lessons, 1 which I will beg you to acknowledge. 
Pray make any remarks on a separate paper, that the 
MS. may be fit to go to the press. 

4 1 hope you will not have been expecting, as some have, 
a much more extensive and more profound work than I 
designed ; either (1) a Constitutional History of England 
from the time of Alfred, (2) a Treatise on Government 
generally, or (3) a Treatise on Jurisprudence, or (4) a 
Scheme of Parliamentary Eeform, or (5) a Digest of the 
Laws, or all of these combined, any one of which would 
make a very large volume, even though too brief for popu- 
lar use, and too meagre to be satisfactory. The common 
error is to oblige anyone who wants a mutton chop to buy 
and kill a sheep. 

C I wish merely to give children, and those who in know- 

1 On the British Constitution. 


ledge and intelligence are not above thirteen or fourteen, 
a general notion of what our government actually is ; not 
of what it was, or may be, or might have been, or ought 
to be. And any notice of anything else is introduced 
very rarely and very briefly, and incidentally, when it 
could hardly be avoided. If you can detect any error 
in the execution of this design, or suggest any improve- 
ment in the execution, your hints will be of course very 

He was now engaged on a volume of remains of his 
lamented friend Bishop Copleston, To this he alludes in 
the following letter : 

< Dublin : January 28, 1854. 

c My dear Mrs. Arnold, An old bachelor in my father's 
neighbourhood used to tell with great exultation a story 
of a pair of canary-birds he had long kept in a cage, and 
which never sang. One morning he was surprised to 
hear the cock in foil song ; and on looking into the cage, 
the poor hen was seen lying dead. I hope the case of 

is not analogous, and that her versifying powers are 

not limited, like the canary's song, to a state of celibacy. 

< If you mean to read my publication, you must read the 
Memoir of Bishop Copleston already published (and which 
does really contain interesting matter, especially two let- 
ters to me, each worth the price of the whole volume), 
since, though I could perhaps have done it better, I can- 
not now ignore the book and write as if it did not exist, 
but must make references to it, which is a disadvantage, 
but unavoidable. 

c I find it harder work than writing an original book. 
But competent judges think what has been done very 


Mrs. Hill was at this time preparing an Index to one 
of the Archbishop's Works. 

'February 10, 1864 

4 My dear Mrs. Hill, I do not think there is anyone I 
employ who saves me so much trouble. Fitzgerald, who 
is now transcribing for me from Bishop Copleston's 
Commonplace Book, bears witness to the value of your 
excellent Index. 

6 This reminds me that in the new edition of the volume 
of Sermons, which is now in the press, I mean to have an 
Index ; a thing which adds 10 per cent, to the value of 
any instructive work. If you like to undertake it, write 
to Parker to send you as much as is printed, and each 
sheet as it comes from the press. It is a kind of work 
you do right well, and it will not take you long, for six 
or seven words, on an average, for each sermon, will be 
quite enough. 

6 Is it not strange that my Sermons when called Essays 
though avowedly they were written as Sermons sell 
five times better than Sermons so called ? 

* In all the accounts one reads of myrrh, frankincense, 
and other "medicinal gums," one always finds different 
qualities mentioned; the best being what exudes spon- 
taneously, and not by tapping, or boiling down, &c. And 
so it is with apophthegms. If a man taps himself to 
draw them out, he will be the more likely to sacrifice 
" truth to antithesis." What is said of human approbation, 
as compared with intrinsic rectitude that it is a very- 
good thing when it happens to come incidentally, but 
must never be made an object may be said of forcible 
or elegant expressions, &c as compared with truth. The 
desire of truth must reign supreme ; and -every thing else 
be welcomed only if coming in her train. 



may do what you will with my lobsters. 1 I 
wish you could boil and eat all the two-legged ones. 

'You will find out, if you reach my age, and probably 
much before, that people of different parties are much 
more alike than at first one is inclined to suspect. 
. 6 Certain persons who agree with you on several impor- 
tant points (whereon others are not only greatly in error 
but also argue most unfairly), you will be inclined to 
judge of from yourself; and you will be mortified and 
surprised to find them ready to practise equal unfairness 
when they have occasion. You have seen some samples 
of that in what is said by some persons (agreeing with 
you on the whole) in reference to my views of the Sabbath. 
And you will meet with much more of the same kind, - 

< Every now and then a case occurs which affords 
(Bacon's) experimentum crucis, whether the truth a man 
actually holds and for which there is good evidence, is 
held by him on evidence, and as truth, or as part of the 
creed of a party/ 

To Charles Wale. 

' February 18, 1854. 

c My dear Charles, It is the tendency of the Calvinistic 
school to represent man in his natural state as totally 
without moral sense, or as even having a preference for 
evil for its own sake ; not considering that (as is remarked 
in one of the " Cautions") this destroys not only virtue but 
vice. When - was a little girl, she rebuked a great 
tame gull we had, who was bolting a large fish, saying, 
44 Don't fill your mouth too full ! " She had been taught 
that for a little girl this was bad manners. 

1 An addition lie had made to an article on ' Food,' -written at his sugges- 
tion; and nearly Hie same as the one in his ( Commonplace Book* 


c It is curious to see Paley, who was far from Calvinistic, 
taking the same view ! 

6 One might ask one of these moral teachers, " Do you 
think it right to obey the Divine will ? " I don't mean 
merely prudent, for it might be prudent to deliver your 
purse to a robber, holding a pistol at your head ; but do 
you think that Grod has a just claim to your obedience? 
For, if you do, then to say that it is " morally right " to 
obey Elm, and yet that aU our notions of morality are 
derived from our notions of His will, is just to say that 
what He has commanded is what He has commanded ! ' 

To Mrs. Hill 

'T. Wells: April 18, 1854. 

c Certainly one may reckon among the obstacles to the 
attainment of truth, presumptuous speculations on what 
is beyond our reach. Instead of ploughing a fertile soil, 
a man breaks his tools in attempting to dig in a granite 
rock. One may read much of such speculations in the 
schoolmen and some who came after them, about the 
celestial hierarchy and such matters, when there was an 
utter want of practical elucidations of the New Testament 

c In a sermon of mine which I think you never saw or 
heard, on the sacrifice of Isaac, I have remarked on those 
who profess to explain the atonement of Jesus Christ, and 
who at the same time pretend to pre-eminence in faith; 
now, if Abraham had known beforehand the issue of the 
whole transaction, there would have been no trial of his 
faith or his obedience. One who on a dark night at sea, 
fancies he sees land before him while gazing on a fog 
bank, should at least not pretend to have as much faith 
in the pilot as one who believes on the pilot's word that 

&T. 67] LETTER TO MES. HILL. 315 

the land is near, and does not pretend to see it. For 
" Faith is the evidence of things not seen." 

'Fitz 1 wants me to follow up the "Lessons on the 
British Constitution" by "Lessons on Morals;" I am 
afraid the task is impossible, at least to me.' 

The Archbishop was anxious to employ Mrs. Hill in 
writing more articles for Eeviews; but her shrinking 
diffidence and distrust of her own powers, made her often 
draw back from the undertakings he suggested to her. 
On this subject he writes : 

'May 21,1854 

c My dear Mrs. Hill, My friend John Hughes went 
out one day a-trolling for pike, and caught one of 23 Ibs. 
He carved and painted a model of it, which he hung up 
in his study as a trophy ; and from that time he never 
would go a-fishing any more, that he might have it to 
say " The last time I went out I caught a pike of three- 
and-twenty pounds." 

* Now, perhaps, something like this is your case. You 
wish to be able to say, " The last article I wrote for a 
Eeview was eminently successful." If your article had 
been rejected or thought meanly of, I should have urged 
that you ought not to be vexed or disheartened by the 
failure of a first attempt, &c. But as it is, I am quite at 
a loss* For if complete success does not satisfy you, one 
can't say what you would have. 

c What I said about being charged with legalism was 
not thrown out at random. There are not a few such 
narrow-minded bigots, that anyone who does not treat 
and treat exclusively on the same topics with them, and 
in the very same order, and in the very same words, 
they set down as not knowing the Gospel. 
1 A playful name for Dr. Fitzgerald. 


4 But there are a good many partisans who are like the 
ancient Stoics. Those taught that all faults are equal ; 
since a man whose head is one inch under water is as 
infallibly drowned as if it were ten fathoms.' 

' June 9, 1854 

fc My dear Mrs. Hill, It is worth your while to look at 
(I would not sentence you to read it through) Coleridge's 
Dissertation prefixed to the " Encyclopedia Metropolitana." 
If you have not access to it, I can show it you when you 
come. I had thought to cut it out and burn it when I 
had the volumes bound, but I resolved to keep it as a 
curious specimen of what trash a very clever man can 

6 Those "fragmentary writers," as Bishop Copleston 
observes, men whose wealth may be said to consist in 
gold-dust who deal in striking insulated passages of 
wisdom, or wit, and in mysterious hints of what wonder- 
ful systems they could construct, if they had leisure are, 
as he observes, greatly overrated. Some are led to form 
expectations from them destined not to be realised till 
February 30, and others give them credit for being at 
least unrivalled in their own department. Now, if you 
should prove to the world that such writers can be ri- 
valled by selections from one of a far different stamp 
that the shreds and parings of some complete treatises can 
furnish almost as much gold-clust as those can produce 
whose gold is only dust you will have accomplished 

* The great Montrose, on one occasion, had to engage 
with a very superior force; and he put nearly all his 
soldiers into the wings, having nothing in his centre but 
a great deal of brushwood, with a score or two of men 
popping their heads out of bushes, which kept the enemy in 


check, who took these for the main army. Is not this 
something like the procedure of these "fragmentary 

Mr. Senior had sent the Archbishop a portion of a 
journal he had written during his stay at Sorrento. He 
was in the habit of recording conversations he had held 
with various distinguished persons ; and in this portion 
were notes of several which had taken place between him 
and M. de Tocqueville, on the respective merits of the 
ministers of the Eoman Catholic and Protestant Churches. 
On these conversations the Archbishop makes the follow- 
ing remarks : 

< July, 24, 1854. 

1 My dear Senior, It is but very lately that I have had 
leisure to look at a small portion of your Sorrento journal. 
I am greatly ^surprised at the record of some of your 
conversations with Tocqueville. He seems to have 
greatly mystified you ; for though he probably believed 
a good deal more than was true, he could hardly have 
believed all that he said. And you seem according to 
the most obvious interpretation of your words to have 
assented to much, and also added much, contrary not 
only to facts, but to your own knowledge of facts. 

c I suppose you did not really mean though most would 
so understand you that all Protestant ministers are 
worldly and interested men, and that Eoman Catholic 
priests are all disinterested and heavenly minded ; or that 
Eoman Catholics do not consider what they call c heresy * 
as * destructive,' but regard it with tender compassion ; 
or that hatred for erroneous or supposed erroneous and 
mischievous tenets, which is so apt to degenerate into 
personal animosity, does so degenerate among all Pro- 
testants and no Eoman Catholics? You are acquainted 


with several Protestant clergymen, though not with a 
twentieth as many as I am, but enough, I should think, 
to know as well as I do that there are good, bad, and 
indifferent among them, as in other professions. But as 
for what relates to the respective Churches, as such, the 
impression anyone would derive from the most obvious 
sense of the language used is just the reverse of the truth. 
There is a little penny tract by Napoleon Eoussel, widely 
circulated in Prance, and which no one ever did or can 
answer though the Roman Catholics would of course be 
very glad if they could called " La Eeligion de 1' Argent," 
exposing the established and sanctioned system of traffic 
which is peculiar to the Romish and Greek Churches, a 
traffic in the sale of Masses, Relics, Indulgences in short, 

6 Then as for tender compassion felt by Roman Catholics 
towards heretics, it is shown here by pelting, beating, and 
sometimes murdering them, refusing to employ them, re- 
fusing to sell to them any article, &c. In some of the work- 
houses, the persecution has been so fierce that all Pro- 
testants who would not give up their faith have gone out 
in a body, to take their chance of begging or starving 
outside rather than endure it any longer. And no legal 
redress can be obtained; because those who are eye- 
witnesses of the most violent outrages either will not or 
dare not give evidence. 

4 Perhaps you may think all this appertains to the Irish 
as suck. I, however, know something of the treatment 
which Protestants receive in Italy and in France. 

c ISTow, Protestants, it must be admitted, are often vio- 
lent and bitter, often avaricious or ambitious, &xx, and 
Roman Catholics often the reverse. But the difference is 
this : on the one side you have gardens often sadly over- 
run with weeds ; there are nettles in the cabbage plot 


and groTindsel among the celery beds, and so on. On the 
other hand, you have a garden laid out in noxious plants ; 
there are beds of nettles and parterres of thistles. A 
Eoman Catholic who does not seek to extirpate heretics 
by force, if fair means fail, is transgressing the regular 
deliberate decrees of his Church (look at the first article 
in the July number of the "Irish Church Journal," which 
is very well and fairly written). 

c I wonder you should have apparently acquiesced in the 
very shallow defence by Tocqueville of the celibacy of 
the clergy as qualifying them for the Confessional. Could 
he have been ignorant, or could you, that in the Greek 
Church, where there is confession also, the clergy must 
.be married men? or would he have supposed that a 
priest's niece would be less likely to be made a confidant 
than a wife ? or would either of you doubt that if the 
experiment were tried, and priests allowed to marry, all 
decent women would choose a married confessor? 

c As for the real cause of the greater interest in religion 
among the Protestant laity, you may see it clearly set 
forth in the "Cautions," No. 18, p. 341. The Eomau 
Catholic priest is to the people what the lawyer is to his 
client, and the physician to the patient ; the Protestant 
minister is to his people what the lawyer and physician 
are to the legal and medical pupil.' 

Mr. Senior in his answer suggested some explanation 
of the remarks he had made, which he had never in- 
tended as conceding so much to Romanism as they had 
appeared to the Archbishop to do. 

< Dublin : August 4, 1854. 

4 My dear Senior, I do think some such explanation 
as you allude to might as well be inserted in your 


journal. If you had recorded nothing at all of your own 
remarks, the whole would have appeared merely as " a 
mirror" showing what was said by another. But, as 
things stand now, the impression conveyed is something 
considerably different from what I conceive to be your 
real meaning. I believe that sometimes a partial know- 
ledge of some country misleads more than utter ignorance. 
"Per incertam lunam, sub luce maligna," may, in some re- 
spects, be worse than pitch-darkness. I have no doubt that 
a large proportion of the educated Roman Catholics on 
the Continent have no hostility to Protestants. But there 
are enough of them who have, or pretend to have, such 
hostility, to make them leaders of the vulgar, who are, 
many of them, fierce zealots. Probably, the Eoman 
magistrates at Philippi had no hostility of their own to 
Christianity, but they were willing to earn popularity by 
scourging Paul and Silas. 

c I have lately been raising contributions for some poor 
French Protestants, to enable them to build a church at 
Agen ; and no means were left untried by the authorities, 
leading or rather led by the populace, to prevent them. 

* The " Cautions " is out of print, and there will be a 
few words added to that note in the new edition. But 
there is one remark which will not be inserted there; 
when you speak of some differences of interpretation 
being designed, but not all, this seems an arbitrary dis- 
tinction. If, according to your own illustration, you infer 
a designed difference of construction of a deed from its 
actual occurrence, this must hold good equally whether 
the differences of construction be few or many, trifling or 
important. The whole resolves itself into the difficulty of 
the permission of evil. 

c I see Lord Monteagle has given notice of motion of a 
series of resolutions amounting to the request which the 

yET. 67] LETTER TO MRS. HILL. 321 

Education Committee would have made if they had 
agreed to make one conformable to the evidence. But 
I suppose it is too late in the session to bring forward his 

The following extract from a letter written about this 
time is characteristic : 

c What you and I think about asking for a Bishoprick 
is not I believe in accordance with the opinions of most 
Ministers. They cannot of course comply with every 
one's request ; but they don't seem to think it makes 
against him. I have often openly said, in presence of 
those whom I knew to have asked, that such a request 
must be understood to mean one of two things: (1) 
Appoint me as the fittest man, for which you must take 
my word, as my trumpeter is dead ; or (2) though I am 
not the fittest man, yet give me the preference, and I will 
show you the more gratitude/ 

<0ctol>er9, 1854 

' My dear Mrs. Hill, The paper which I sent to the 
Bishop contains a full report of my speech, 1 but a very 
slight sketch of the Bishop of New Zealand's, which was 
even much more interesting than the one Bishop Wilson 
admired so much in London. Ask him when you next 
meet to describe to you that, and ask him whether this 
does not illustrate the difference between a brilliant 
speech which makes you think much of the orator, and 
a quiet but impressive one which makes you think much 
of the things he is speaking of. 

c When the moon shines brightly, we are taught to say, 
" how beautiful is this moonlight ; " but in the day time, 
" how beautiful are the trees, the fields, the mountains," 

1 At a meeting of the S. P. G-. Society. 


and in short, all the objects that are illuminated ; we never 
speak of the sun that makes them so. The really greatest 
orator shines like the sun, and you never think of his 
eloquence ; the second best shines like the moon, and is 
more admired as an orator.' 

The following is a criticism of a Review of * Uncle 
Tom ' which had just appeared: 

'Dublin: November 23, 1854. 

'My dear Senior, It is a pity your article should have 
been delayed, as a good part of it is likely to have lost in 
interest. Still there will be much that will remain in- 
teresting; but some things perhaps may be dangerous. 
To set forth the dislike and jealousy of the English among 
a certain portion of the Erench, and their aversion to the 
war, may tend to increase those evils. I suppose you 
read at the time the article in the " North British Review" 
on " Uncle Tom." That contains most of what I have to 
s_ay on the subject. A subsequent article on Slavery, in 
the same, contains a few more of my suggestions. The 
former has a good many ; and some few, important ones, 
from Bishop Hinds. Shall I try and procure for you the 
original MS. of the article ? It contains one-third or one- 
fourth more than was printed ; some valuable parts being 
excluded for want of room. 

'When you speak of the work being more popular 
than Homer, Shakespeare, &c., you leave out of account 
their permanence. Some very pleasant wines, for the 
time, will not keep like Hock. 

6 But the present popularity is certainly a wonderful 
phenomenon. No one cause will account for it. (1.) It 
certainly is a work of great power. The author has 
shown that she can't write other things as well. But I 

-32T. 67 LETTER TO MR. SENIOR, 323 

do not know that her other productions are more inferior 
to it than the worst of Sir W. Scott's to his best. (2.) It 
relates to a very interesting subject. Many of the 
readers in England have friends settled in the United 
States, and the rest can easily fancy themselves living 
there in the midst of slaves, and perhaps themselves 
slave-owners. (3.) It gives a picture which most people 
believe, and I conceive with good reason, to be true. 
The answers it called forth, the testimony of many 
eminent Americans, and the documents published in " the 
Key " all go to confirm the truth, 

4 Only t'other day I heard a man repeat 'the argument of 
the " Times " that self-interest is a sufficient security ; as 
in the case of cattle, where, by-the-bye, it is so little a 
security that we have a law against cruelty to them. 
But even the most humane master of cattle treats them 
in a manner which one could not approve towards men, 
e. g. selling most of the calves that a cow bears ; and 
knocking on the head a horse that is past work. I 
suggested that it would be an advantage to slaves if the 
masters could acquire a taste for human flesh. When a 
negro grows ,too old to be worth keeping for work, 
instead of being killed by inches by starvation and over- 
work, he would be put up to fatten like an ox. Both the 
above arguments are fully met in that article* 

6 1 am in the press, as usual, though this is a bad time 
for publishing, except about Turks and Eussians. But I 
must keep up the existing works by fresh editions. I 
have also been delivering at an Institution in Cork a 
lecture on the Origin of Civilisation, which the Institution 
in London for which I had designed it are going to 
print It seems to have excited much interest 

6 Poor Lord St. Germans has lost a son and a i^ephew 
in this bloody battle. 

T 2 


'Bemember me kindly to Dr. Jeune and to your 
brother-in-law. What a delightful living Tenby would 
be if it were but of four times the value ! 

* Yours ever, 


* P.S. I have a hone now which I picked up at Tenby ; 
and never was there a better. The rocks (up the 
Channel) abound in them. I wonder no one has ever 
thought of collecting them as a matter of trade.' 

Extract from a Letter on the subject of Slavery. 

c I was once in a friend's house (the Coplestons) where 
a lady who was visiting rebuked me for saying something 
against slavery, asking whether I had ever been in the 
West Indies. I said no ; but that I was intimate with 
many West Indians. She said I could not be any judge. 
She had spent six weeks in Jamaica with her friend 
Mr. Snfith or Mr. Jones, and she could testify that the 
slaves were well treated and very happy, and far better 
off than the poor of this country. Miss 0. Copleston, 
who had much sly humour, observed to her, " Tour friend 
Mr. Smith was a remarkably kind-hearted good man, was 
he not ? " " Oh, yes ! most singularly so." We exchanged 
glances, but left her contented with her supposed proof. 

6 It is often overlooked that there is a peculiar difficulty 
in giving such moral lessons to slaves as shall be con- 
sistent with slave-constitutions. 

'E.g. how would you exhort a slave to abstain from 
pilfering or fairly running away with all the property he 
can lay hold of? Most would say, Teach him that theft 
is a sin. Granted : but he will deny that it is theft. It 
is enemy's property, and fair spoil. He is not a member 
of the community. It is a Hostile one. 


* Think'st thou we will not sally forth 
To spoil the spoiler as we may, 
And from the robber rend the prey ! 

* His master has stolen Mm, or at least is a receiver. 
And lie will ask whether, if you were taken prisoner by 
bandits, and either kept by them or transferred by them 
to others, though you might be deterred by fear in some 
cases from attempting to escape, you would feel any 
scruple of conscience, any doubt of the right, to seize on 
anything of theirs you might need, mount their best 
horses, and ride off? 

6 Such is the slave's case. You cannot prove that he 
has not a fair right to anything (including himself) belong- 
ing to his master, or to any other member of the com- 
munity which is thus hostile to him. 

'It is not- coveting one's neighbour's goods to sue another 
for damages for false imprisonment. 

* Hence it is that most missionaries, except the Mora- 
vians, 1 have made slaves discontented and rebellious, For 
when men acquire any notion of justice, they apply it 
most readily to others/ 

1 He often remarked, that the argument used commonly by the Moravian 
missionaries, and also "by the apostles, to keep slaves from purloining 
was the only one which could he valid with them, i.e. they should abstain, in 
order not to bring repioach on the Christian name. 




Publishes the s Lessons cm Morals 'Letter to Mrs. Hill Letter to 
Mr. Senior Publishes Ms edition of < Bacon's Essays with Annota- 
tions 'Letters to Mrs. HU His illness Attacked by Paralysis 
Letter to Dr. Hinds Letter to Mrs. BOIL 

THE year 1855 was also an uneventful one. The 
Archbishop paid a short visit to London, but took little 
part in what was going on. He was at this time much 
engaged with the < Lessons on Morals,' which followed 
those on the British Constitution. He was always strongly 
of opinion that the moral sense and perceptions of right 
and wrong required as careful cultivation as any of the 
intellectual powers ; and that though Christian principle 
supplied the motive, the perceptions, even in those who 
are truly actuated by such motives, axe liable to become 
blunt or to be perverted, if not carefully regulated and 
directed. Conscience, if ill regulated, will not only fail 
to guide us right, but positively guide us wrong, as with 
those spoken of in Scripture who were c given up to a 
strong delusion/ To help his readers fully to understand 
and profit by the teaching of the New Testament, and to 
educate their moral perceptions, was the object of this 
little book. 

'Dublin: January 2, 1855. 

c My dear Mrs. H21, I hope you inserted in my letter 
t( ? (though I forgot to remind you to do so) a com- 

jEi. 68] LETTER TO MBS. HILL. 327 

ment of your own, expressing your concurrence or dissent. 
If not, it must cost you another penny to write to her, as 
she will surely wish for your opinion. Doubtless you are 
right in thinking (as I collect you do) that " so that ye 
cannot do the things that ye would/' means " so as to be 
an obstacle to your doing." .... It is a common Greek 
idiom to express the tendency towards a certain result as 
the actual result. " John forbade Jesus to be baptised " 
is rightly rendered though a schoolboy would be likely 
to render it literally " hindered him " (Sisx^sv, u was in 
the act of hindering "). That Paul " compelled the Chris- 
tians to blaspheme " (yvdyxa&v) should have been " urged 
them," i.e, " was attempting to compel them." 

C I don't know whether you ever heard my remark 
that the organ of Conscientiousness is the only one that 
never in its exercise affords any direct gratification. The 
organ of Love of approbation gives much pleasure when we 
are praised, as well as pain when we are blamed or un- 
noticed ; the organ of Secretiveness makes those in whom 
it is strong (I speak from my observation of others) feel a 
delight in mystifying. That of Number, as I well remem- 
ber when I had it strong, about sixty years ago, affords 
great pleasure in the mere act of calculating ; and so of 
the rest. But Conscientiousness, which gives great pain 
to one in whom it is strong, if he at all goes against it, 
affords no direct pleasure when complied with. It merely 
says, You have paid your debt ; you are an " unprofit- 
able servant/' And when you have triumphed nobly 
over some strong temptation, the pleasure if it can be so 
called is just that which you feel at having reached the 
shore from a strong sea, or narrowly escaped slipping 
down a precipice. It is the pleasure of mere safety as 
contrasted with a shocking disaster. 

c But, indirectly, Conscientiousness affords pleasure ; 


and this is what leads people to speak of delight in 
virtue, &c, 

c It is to a conscientious man the necessary condition of 
all other qualifications. It is what the mosquito net (or 
canopy, xa>va)7rei<w} is in hot climates. It affords no direct 
pleasure, but enables you to enjoy sweet sleep. 

c But a benevolent man is gratified in doing good ; and 
because well-directed benevolence is a virtue, he is apt to 
fancy this is a delight in virtue as such. But it is the 
organ of Benevolence that is gratified. t And if he stands 
firm against solicitations and threats in a good cause, it is 
the organ of Firmness that affords the pleasure ; and so 
of the rest. Especially to a pious Christian there is always 
an indirect gratification in doing his duty, through the 
organ of Veneration ; for this, where it is strong, affords 
directly a high degree of gratification. Aristotle remarks 
this, saying that Admiration (TO Qavpdfav] is in itself 
pleasurable. I think if he had known the Gospel he 
would have been a pious Christian/ 

The Archbishop was anxious to have Mr. Senior's 
opinion on the anti-slavery article alluded to above. 

6 January 24, 1855. 

*My dear Senior, The MS. may be sent to "Mrs. 
Hill, Blackrock, Cork." But allow me to suggest that you 
should get Nassau or some one else to read it straight 
through to you first, in case, when the proof of your 
article comes to you for correction, you should see occasion 
for any insertion or modification. It would not take up 
three quarters of an hour, and would be well worth that. 
For, besides that Mrs. Hill is avertable writer, the article 
abounds with suggestions not only from me ? but from 
Hinds, who had been himself a slave-owner. 

6 And sometimes the addition or alteration of a line, or 


half Hue, will obviate some misapprehension, or forestall 
some objection, or impart important information. (The 
paper I sent yesterday was with that view.) And the 
subject is not only of vast importance, but of great 
difficulty ; and your opponents are active, watchful, and 
some of them skilful. If you were besieging a town, and 
had erected a formidable battery, it would be a great 
error to leave an unguarded opening by which a shot 
might dismount your guns. 

6 Perhaps I may have an over-allowance of the organ of 
Cautiousness ; but it is a fault, if any, on the right side. 
You have sometimes in most able articles laid yourself 
open to strong objections, and, in some instances, obliged 
me to write against you.' 

The Archbishop was this year engaged on his edition 
of * Bacon's Essays with Annotations/ Mrs. Hill was 
employed by him to assist in arranging references, &c., a 
work for which her accurate habits and extensive reading 
peculiarly fitted her. 

< August 24, 1855. 

4 My dear Mrs. Hill, I particularly wish for your opinion 
of what I have said in p. 54 ; and I should like the 
Bishop's 1 also, if you think he is well enough. The man 
was one in high repute : but what he said on that 
occasion gave me somewhat the impression of humbug. 

* You will see that I have referred to various works of 
my own, and some of others, for extracts, which it should 
be part of your task to make with omissions of such 
passages as are not to the purpose. 

4 That and the arrangement and correction of the Notes 
I am writing, and suggestions for more, and foot-notes 
1 The Bishop of Cork, Dr. James Wilson. 


explanatory of Bacon's obsolete words and phrases, and 
a translation of the Antitheta, will be a considerable job 

for you. 

. ' Yours very truly, 

C P.S. Tours just received. 

c Thanks for the valuable hints. 

fi Pray do not set me forth as seeking to convince any one 
or as thinking myself " that Election is not a doctrine 
of Scripture." I never said any such thing. But I do think 
many neglect to ascertain in each case " chosen to what ?" 

* Calvin's reasoning* from his own data, does appear to 
me quite a demonstration. And I feel sure that if (accord- 
ing to the parallel case I have adduced) any slave-state 
American were to put forth such " an apparent incon- 
sistency," he would be laughed to scorn. 

6 When I so freely tolerate, as I do in every one, differ- 
ences of opinion, I must warn you from time to time that 
if I make any errors, you are in some measure responsible 
for confirming me in them. If you either give no reasons 
at all, or none that appear to me satisfactory for rejecting 
my views, I am disposed to consider my reasons as 

* I mention this, because to many a one it would not 
occur that it is at all a compliment to be confirmed in 
one's own opinion by his contrary opinion, 

c There is no hurry at all about Bacon. But perhaps 
it may be ready in the course of next season. No matter 
if it is not/ 

* August 26, 1855. 

c My dear Mrs. Hill, Have you Bishop Hinds* " Cate- 
chist's Manual? " If not I will send you a copy. It had 
been long out of print, and a new edition by Parker is 


lately out. It is the substance of a portion of his lectures 
at St. Alban's Hall 

6 In presenting a copy to one of my clergy t'other day, 
I took occasion (it being audience-day) to make a dis- 
course on the subject of expounding ; and I should like 
your opinion thereon, (I wish you could be concealed 
in a closet on my audience-days, to hear and afterwards 
talk over with me what I say to the assembled clergy. 
For I generally take occasion, from business that arises, 
or some recent occurrence, to enter on some disquisition 
that may profit them ; and there are some who come 
almost every Wednesday to pick up matters for a sermon, 
or sometimes for two or three.) 

* I remarked that a hortatory discourse, in a style of 
florid declamation, is an easier thing than a good explana- 
tion, and also more likely to be popular, and to gain a 
man the credit of being a fine preacher ; but that the 
other is more lastingly profitable. For after all, the 
Apostles and Evangelists can preach the gospel better 
than we can. Our first, second, and third object there- 
fore should be to put the hearers of Scripture as nearly 
as we can (entirely we cannot) in the same position with 
the illiterate multitude whom the Apostles addressed, and 
who were quite familiar with many things that are made 
out (or not made out) by diligent study of the learned 
among us j e.g. " Let him that is on the housetop," &a, 
is quite intelligible to one who is acquainted with the 
oriental mode of building, but quite a mystery to one who 
is not. Paul, again, starting from Antioch (in Syria) 
and shortly after preaching at Antioch (in Pisidia), is 
quite bewildering till explained. And the common people 
need to be told what is a " lawyer " and a " publican." 
How did Elijah so readily get the water to pour on his 
.altar, when the land was parched with drought ? asily 


explained, as lie was close to the sea^ but needing to be 

* And do not, I said, regard any matter as trifling, that 
tends to give men an increased interest in Scripture, or a 
better understanding of it, 

4 1 used, in my own parish, to give a weekly lecture of 
this kind, first in a school-house and ultimately (as the 
number of hearers increased) in the church. Of course I 
did not fail to bring in practical admonitions when they 
sprung naturally out of the explanations ; but I made the 
clear elucidation of Scripture the main point, 

' That the hearers were interested, appeared from the 
large and increasing attendance ; and that they understood 
what was said, I ascertained by examining many of them. 
I thought this kind of exposition more profitable than 
impassioned hortatory harangues. 

* Of course a great deal of this kind of explanation to 
the uneducated, is likely to be tiresome to the educated, 
classes who do not need to be told what were " Phari- 
sees and Sadducees," or what is the meaning of the name 
" Jesus." Nevertheless, some even of them were interested 
in these lectures, from picking up now and then some- 
thing new to them ; and in other points receiving hints 
how to explain to children and the vulgar. 9 

< September 14, 1855. 

c My .dear Mrs. Hill, All the deference I claim is that 
my reasons should be attended to, and either admitted or 
refuted. And if any one chooses to do neither, the only 
consequence is that this is a confirmation to me of the 
soundness of my conclusion. But is it not possible that 
your dread of being unduly biassed in favour of ray 
opinions may have sometimes led you to bend the twig a 
little too far in the opposite direction? There was once a 


man whose extreme veneration for me led him to avoid 
all personal intercourse because he " looked upon me as 
a man who could prove anything." A minor degree of a 
like feeling may lead a person to say, inwardly, " Probably 
I am right and he wrong after all ; for though I do know 
of no answer to his arguments, if I were but equal to him 
as a disputant, I dare say I could refute all he has 
said." ' 

The year 1856 was one of some trial to the Archbishop. 
It began with an attack of inflammation of the tongue. 
But he was now beginning to experience a warning of a 
more serious character, in a symptom of 'creeping 
paralysis ' in the left arm and leg, which was now declaring 
itself. The shaking of th'e left hand continued to increase, 
and from this time forth never left him except in sleep ; and 
the pain occasioned in the whole arm by this involuntary 
muscular motion was at times very severe. The difficulty 
of steadying the paper on which he wrote affected his 
handwriting; and that clear, round, bold caligraphy 
now began to show somewhat of the tremulousness of 
age. It was to the last more legible than that of many 
persons in their best days, and exemplified the advantage 
of the strenuous pains he had taken in, this often-neglected 
branch. He always said it was a mark of selfishness ' 
to write an illegible hand. But the alteration which 
growing infirmity made in his writing was painfully felt 
by him ; and from this time he made use as much as 
possible of an amanuensis, latterly even in the c Common- 
place Book/ Dictation was never a painful effort to him ; 
he performed it with clearness and accuracy as well as 
rapidity, and would often dictate a short article or 
memorandum on some interesting point while sitting at 
the breakfast table. 


It has been often affirmed that he refused all medical 
aid in his latter days. That he was a firm and decided 
adherent of homoeopathy, all are aware ; and this treat- 
ment was always adopted by him in illness, though with 
very little real confidence in any medicine as far as he 
himself was concerned. But it having been suggested 
that some of the foreign baths might be beneficial to this 
paralytic affection, he consulted the late celebrated Sir 
Philip Crampton, then surgeon-general, who gave it as 
his decided opinion, that neither mineral waters nor any 
other medical treatment could in any way check tlie 
progress of the disease, and that all that could be done 
was to keep up the strength by diet and general care. 

His literary activity remained undiminished. He was 
constantly making additions to new editions of his works, 
and composing a fresh series of Easy Lessons, or superin- 
tending literary undertakings of friends or members of 
his own family. 

'May 15, 1856. 

c My dear Hinds, I remember reading somewhere long 
ago, a report of a dialogue between a governor of Jamaica 
and a Maroon, " Top, Massa Governor, top litty bit ; 
you say me must forsake my wife. Governor : Only one 
of them. Maroon : Which dat one ? Gar Almighty say 
so ? Jesus Christ say so ? No, Massa Governor 1 Gar 
Almighty good ; He no tell somebody he must forsake 
him wife and children" 

c I have always thought the Maroon was in the right. 
But puzzle-headed people are apt to confound together 
the making of a contract which is (in a Christian commu- 
nity) not allowed) and the keeping to a contract which, 
when it was made, was lawful. I hold that a man who 
puts away a wife (even though he has another) " causeth 
her to commit adultery." 

^Ei, 69] LETTER TO MRS. HILL. 335 

< You will see in the last number of the " Church Journal " 
some short remarks on Bacon's Essay on Marriage, having 
an allusion to the disputed rule of clerical monogamy. 
I do not see that it sets up a different rule of morality 
generally for clergy and laity, supposing a man with two 
wives (already) was admissible into the Church, but not 
into the ministry, and supposing members of the Church 
were forbidden, when such, to take more than one wife. 
Tor, a neophyte also was not to be admitted to the mi- 
nistry. Those were to be selected for it who were so 
circumstanced as to be the most unexceptionable. 

c Mr. McNaught will, I think, make naught of his 
theory. He sent me his book, with a letter in which he 
professed to have studied mine ; and then he coolly sets 
down among the instances of inaccuracy in the Scripture 
writers, the alleged discrepancy as to St. Peter's denials ; 
utterly ignoring my solution, 1 which to me appears per- 
fectly satisfactory, but which at least he should have 
noticed. He appears to be a dashing, careless sort of 

'October 21, 1856. 

< My dear Mrs. Hill, Nothing tends more to deprave 
and corrupt the moral sense than partisanship. It turns 
all the virtues into its own channel. It represents as 
truth, and as the only truth, the Shibboleth of the party. 
Under its influence public spirit becomes party spirit. 
Candour is made to consist in putting the best possible 
construction on whatever is said or done by one of the 
party, and the worst on all that comes from the opposite, 
or from (what is still more hated) a neuter. Charity, 
and mercy, and justice are confined to those of the 

1 The Archbishop's view was, that the prophecy of three denials meant, 
that there should be at least three : but that probably Peter denied -ma*** 
more times. This view is also to be found in Thonston's 


party, and become sins if shown towards those opposed 
to it. Everything -wrong is either denied, or excused, or 
applauded if it conies from one side, and exaggerated if 
from the other. 

c When a man is tempted by considerations of personal 
interest or gratification, instead of meeting with sym- 
pathy, he is likely to be checked by the dread of dis- 
approbation; but when he joins a party, combined for 
some object which he thinks a good one, he is surrounded 
by persons of whom the greater part are ready to keep 
him in countenance in anything, however unreasonable, 
that does but further party views. 

'The Eomish Church is but a picture, on a grand 
scale, of what every party is in a minor degree. 

6 And so great a corrupter of conscience is partisanship 
that it lowers the moral standard even in reference to 
opponents. They are hated as being of the opposite 
party, but this is considered as their only fault. They 
are looked on as a soldier does on the soldiers of the 
hostile army, whom he fights against for that reason, 
alone, but fully expects them to shoot at him, and thinks 
none the worse of them for doing so. It is what he 
would do in their place.' 




Appointment of Dr. Fitzgerald to the See of Cork Letter to Mr. 
Senior Letter to Mrs. Hill Letter to Mr. Duncan Letter to 
Mr. Senior on opening Places of Public Recreation on Sundays 
Death of the Key. Henry Bishop Letter to Miss Crabtree 
Letter to Mrs. Hill Letter to Mr. Senior Meeting of tlie British 
Association at Dublin Interested in Dr. Livingstone's Plans 
Accident to the Archbishop His great Interest in Missions 
Letter to Mr. Senior Letter to Mrs. Hill Dangerous Illness of 
his eldest Grandchild Letter to Dr. Hinds relative to his own 
Paralytic Attack Letters to Mrs. HillVisit of Mr. Senior Ex- 
tracts from his Journal. 

1$ the beginning of this year the Archbishop had the 
pleasure of seeing his valued friend and chaplain, Dr. 
Fitzgerald, appointed to the see of Cork in the place of 
Dr. Wilson. 

To Mr. Senior. 

'January 1,1857. ' 

c Mr. (Nemo) has applied to me, and, I understand, to 
you also, to look over all the political economy answers, 
and see whether he is not, as he is sure he is, the best of 
the candidates. 

6 When I meet with any very impudent person here- 
after, I shall say "Nemo impudentior."' 

< January 3, 1857. 

c My dear Mrs. Hill, I hope we shall soon have a 
better report of your influenza. 

* Mrs, W. thought Parker ought to have printed more 
than 1,500 copies of the Bacon. I thought he was 

VOL, n. 2 


likely to know best ; but now she seems to liave been 
right, for nearly half the number has been subscribed. I 
send yon the only addition that could be struck off 
separate, to improve your former copy ; and any of your 
friends who have copies may get this, gratis, from 
Parker. But there are other little additions pass in, to 
the amount of about an additional sheet. 

* It is curious to observe how much more the generality 
relish wisdom in the form of a hash, than in a complete 
systematic work : and yet, if I am any judge, my forte is 
in the latter. But then, this is not what suits a lounging 
reader, but a student; and one who has something of the 
methodical in his own mind. 

* The critic in Praser notices (which others had clone 
before) as something rather extraordinary, my saying 
that I treat of such and such a subject beca-use erroneous 
views on it are prevalent; and he thence infers that I 
am or at least wish to appear at variance in most 
points with the generality. But surely this is a rash in- 
ference. A man may conceivably agree with all his neigh- 
bours in nine points out of ten, and yet may see reason to 
treat only of the one, and say nothing of the nine. There 
is not so much need to tell people what they already 
know, as to correct mistakes and clear up difficulties. 
Though I am fully convinced that three and two make five, 
and that the sun is brighter than the moon, there is no need 
to proclaim nay conviction in a published work. One 
need not write a book to prove that peace is better than 
war, or that intemperance is noxious to health, 

* As for the Essay on Gardens, my reason for saying 
nothing was precisely what makes the reviewer wonder ; 
that there was so much to be said. I could not say a 
little that would have been at all worth saying ; and I 
was fearful of making the book too long. 


c The " Lessons on Morals " has been brought before the 
S.P.C.K., but I don't think they will accept it. If they 
do, it will be with great mutilations. Besides the jea- 
lousy naturally felt of a successful author by men who, if 
not publishing authors, are at least many of them sermon- 
writers, there are two parties, each of which, alternately, 
has sometimes gained a contest in the society; and 
each, besides their dislike of one who openly protests 
against all parties, will find something to object to in 
that book. All disciples of Paley will be ill-disposed 
towards it ; and I have found very few Calvinists who do 
not (which is very remarkable) concur with him in 
denying a moral faculty; indeed many of them go 
beyond him, representing man as having a natural pre- 
ference of evil -to good. Then some of the ecclesias- 
tical party will find fault with the part about Bomans 
vii.j which the Keligious Tract Society struck out in 
the . 

c And most of them, together with all the " high and 
dry," will quarrel with what I have said of chapters and 

c By-the-bye, I wonder that you should think I repre- 
sented those as inconsistent who hold one and not the 
other of the two interpretations I was censuring. I do 
not see any connexion between the two. I only said 
that both interpretations have danger in them, if so 
understood as many will be likely to understand them. 
But I am ready to admit the same, of some doctrines 
which I do hold ; those being very clearly and forcibly 
set forth in Scripture, and attended with earnest and 
careful warnings against abuse.' 

as 2 


'Dublin: January 27, 1857. 

c My dear Duncan, I was very glad to receive from 
you a letter written in as firm a hand as you wrote, when 
I first became acquainted with you, forty-five years ago, 
which is more than could be said of most. You have 
the glory of being the first to bring Fitzgerald into notice ; 
he has from me a print of you to worship as his patron 
saint. Most people give me the credit, or discredit, of 
having obtained the bishopric for him and for Dickinson, 
by making interest with Government ; I never said a word 
for either of them or any one else, and I will beg of 
you to say so to any one who may be under this mistake. 
There is a great advantage that the benevolent have over 
the selfish as they grow old ; the latter, seeking only their 
own advantage, cannot escape the painful feeling that 
any advantage they procure for themselves can last but a 
short time, but one who has been always seeking the 
good of others has his interest kept up to the last, because 
he of courses wishes that good may befall them after he 
is gone.' 

The question of opening places of public recreation on 
Sundays was now under discussion ; and the Archbishop 
wrote the following letter to Mr. Senior on the subject: 

' February 25, 1857. 

' My dear Senior, If your Sabbath question comes on 

for discussion, you may as well look at what I have said 

on a part of the subject, in an address to the people of 

Dublin, which is appended to the last two editions of my 

"Thoughts on the Sabbath." There is nothing in it 

which is not, I suppose, familiar to you ; but it may not 

be to all. There is a distinction which should be noticed 

between handicraft-work and shops. A man <5an cer- 


tainly (if he does not overwork himself) saw more planks 
in seven days than in sis. But there would not be more 
goods sold if shops were open seven days. One shop- 
keeper might indeed gain an advantage over his rivals, if 
he alone kept open shop on Sundays ; but if all did it, 
no one would gain. I have often thought that if old 
clothes-men, &c., were allowed to ply only on one day in 
the week, all would be benefited, except indeed the sellers 
and buyers of stolen goods. There would not be fewer 
old coats or hareskins sold per week than now. 

4 When I lived in Suffolk, the farmers all agreed that 
there should be no gleaning allowed till eight o'clock, at 
which time a bell was tolled to give notice. This was a 
benefit to all, when enforced on all ; for the women had 
time to dress their children, and give them their break- 
fast, &c., and there was just as much corn gleaned. But 
if the rule had not been enforced on all, one might have 
gone out at daybreak and forestalled all the rest. 

; Do you know what ministers mean to do about trans- 
portation? A Mr. Pearson, who takes my view and 
that of Mr. Hill, the Eecorder of Birmingham, and has 
exerted himself in the cause, has published a pamphlet 
which is worth your looking at.' 

This year was saddened to the Archbishop by the death 
of one of his oldest and most valued friends, his brother- 
in-law, the Eev. Henry Bishop, with whom he had been 
on terms of close and affectionate intimacy for many 
years, and whose high qualities of heart and mind he 
sincerely esteemed. 

The correspondence with this friend was very full and 
frequent ; but, as in the case of Dr. Arnold, the letters 
have not been preserved, and no record therefore remains 
of many letters probably containing matter of deep interest. 


To Miss Crabtree. 

'April 13, 1857. 

6 As for myself, I am going down 

hill, though not rapidly ; and I hope to be spared be- 
coming a useless burden to the diocese, and to my family. 
Though sooner exhausted than I used to be, I do not find 
my powers fail when called forth for a short exertion. 
But though I am by many years the latest born of the 
family, I may consider myself as practically the oldest ; 
as one year of my life is equal in point of wear and tear 
to two of most people's. Not but that others have their 
toils and their trials ; which compared with mine, are an 
English thunder-shower to a West Indian hurricane. 

6 1 sent you yesterday a copy of the first edition of the 
Bacon, as I can replace it with a copy of the new edition 
now just about to come out. There are, in this latter, a 
few, but trifling additions. 

4 I have but a limited number of copies at my disposal, 
as it is only the theological and educational books that I 
retain altogether in my own hands. 

c I have no doubt I could have gained more than double 
what popularity I have gained, if I would have consented 
to point out the faults of one side only, and just kept 
silence as to the opposite. Many who were delighted 
with the " Cautions," as long as the Roman Catholics and 
the Tractites were exposed, "went back, and walked 
no more " with us, when the Low Church faults were 

6 1 heartily sympathise with your rector about pews, 
but I know by experience, that even with his bishop on 
his side, he will have great difficulties in carrying his 
point. He should read the " Essay on Negotiating," with 
the annotations, which may furnish some useful hints to 

/ET. 70] LETTER TO MRS. HILL, 343 

those who can apply them with discretion. But " what 
art ever taught its own right application ? " You should 
have sent earlier for the cuttings. However, you may 
coax them to strike under a bell-glass. I have added 
some of 'the Weigeltia, a beautiful hardy shrub, if you 
have it not, and also a few seeds of a beautiful and fragrant 
lupine, which you possibly may not have. 

c I send you an order on Parker for copies of the Lessons 
which you may give or lend to those who are too poor 
to buy, and who are likely to be interested. 

fi With kind regards to my Halesworth friends, 
* Yours very truly, 


'April 18, 1857. 

* My dear Mrs. Hill, It is not our identity we should 
lose by oblivion, but the consciousness of it ; which alone 
makes us care about it. 

* You cannot doubt that it was really you that suffered 
in your babyhood from cutting your first teeth, but you 
have no memory of it. And if we could as completely 
lose all memory of our whole life, like Virgil's ghosts, 
who were dipped in Lethe (^En. vL), though reason would 
tell us that it would be we who should afterwards enjoy 
or suffer, we could not bring our feelings to acknowledge 
it ... The sermon might be entitled u The Use of an 
Educated Ministry," or "Mental Culture required for 
Christian Ministers/' or " Human Learning employed in 
the Cause of Religion." 

* Few passages of Scripture are oftener cited than " those 
who sleep in Jesus ;" but it is an utter mistranslation, as 
you will at once perceive, though happily it leads to no 
error in doctrine, "Without God in the world" is 


another passage which is often cited, though in a mistaken 
sense. It means that it was the ciQeoi that were " in the 
world ; " i.e. the heathen world. 

* Ever truly yours, 

Miss Crabtree had sent the Archbishop a little book for 
children, by a friend of hers. He was always genuinely 
fond of works for children and young people ; but con- 
sidered they required to be written with even more care 
than those for adults. The following criticism was 
suggested by the perusal of the book in question. 

'Dublin: June 12, 1867. 

c My dear Miss C. That little book seems to me in 
too high-flown language for young children. 

'I think it is also too uniformly tragical, Children 
should be trained gradually to contemplate worldly afflic- 
tions aright ; but a very bitter dose presented to them all 
at once may disgust or depress them. I don't know in 
1 what sense your friend uses " influence." I have a very 
short essay on it (in my Commonplace Book), in the 
original and strict sense ; and if you are curious about it, 
I would have it transcribed for you. My attention was 
early called to the subject by observing that some possess 
much of it, and some a little, and some myself among 
them none at all.' 

?, 1857. 

4 My dear Senior, On receiving your letter I pro- 
cured the u North British Keview." I agree with you in 
somewhat wondering that they received your article; 
because, besides other reasons, the preface to my Bacon 
shows up some of their writing. But this they probably 
overlooked. I think it not unlikely your article will be 

^"ET. 70] LETTER TO MR. SENIOR, 315 

read and approved by some who, if it had appeared in 
the " Edinburgh," might have never seen it, or if they 
did, would have disliked it. 

'Considering how many religious communities there 
are in England, all of Dissenters, and that all Protestants 
are Dissenters from the Roman Church, and revolted 
subjects, it is no wonder that the ideas of independence, 
and of disagreement, and schism should be associated in 
men's minds, and that it should be taken for granted 
that the only alternative is, on the one side, union under 
one government, and on the other, differences of doc- 
trine. But there is no necessary connexion between the 
things thus, through custom, associated in the thoughts. 
(See Lesson x. 4, on Eeligious Worship.) 

* The American Episcopal Church is kept distinct from 
ours, not by opposition in doctrine, but simply by being 
American. And the Swedish and Danish Churches, which 
are subject to no common authority on earth, do not, I 
believe, differ at all. The apostles, who certainly did 
not seek to introduce diversity of doctrine, founded many 
distinct independent churches (agreeing, I presume, with 
you, that the union of vast masses of people in one com- 
munity is inexpedient) even in the same province ; as 
Thessalonica and Philippi in Macedonia, &c. And in 
early times there must have been hundreds of such 
churches, distinct, but not opposed. 

'But a disagreement on points purely speculative is 
probably a benefit, when it so happens that the persons in 
question would but for such disagreement have thought 
themselves bound to live under one government on earth/ 

In the August of this year the British Association 
held its annual meeting in Dublin. The Archbishop, as 
he had done in Belfast in 1852, superintended the 


department of the < Statistical Society,' of which he had 
so long been president. But he always regretted that the 
arrangements of the Association prevented his attendance 
on any but his own department, and often expressed a 
wish that the different sections could be so ordered as to 
occupy different days or hours, so as to permit those 
specially engaged in different departments to attend 
those of other branches, and thus avoid that exclusive- 
ness which attention to one branch of knowledge alone is 
liable to produce. His own tastes were far removed 
from this exdusiveness ; he took an interest in almost 
every department of science, and constantly attended the 
meetings of the Zoological, Natural History, Ethnological 
and other societies. 

In the visit of Dr. Livingstone, who took a part this 
year in the meetings of the British Association, the Arch- 
bishop took a lively interest, and entered warmly into his 
plans for civilising the South African tribes. 

In the early part of the year 1858, he had an accident 
in which he narrowly escaped being unfitted for future 
exertion in the way of public speaking or preaching. He 
had been receiving a visit from the eminent American 
missionary at Constantinople (since deceased), Dr. Dwight, 
whose account of his work had greatly interested him. 
He rose before Dr. D. left, to look for a copy of the 
Armenian translation of his c Lessons on the Evidences 
of Christianity,' which he wished to present to him, 
when his foot caught in the carpet in crossing the room ; 
he was tripped up and fell with much violence to the 
ground. At first it was apprehended that all the front 
teeth would have been lost ; but by great care the evil 
was averted. 

His interest in foreign missionary work was very 
lively and constant. His own * Lessons on Evidences' had 


already, as had been observed, been translated into many 
different languages, and he was ever ready to help in the 
work of getting them printed and circulated. 

His active and efficient support of the venerable 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, a branch of which he first established in Ireland, 
is well known; but his interest in the labours of mis- 
sionaries was not confined to his own communion. In 
the labours of Dr. Livingstone in Africa, as before 
observed, and of Mr. Ellis in Madagascar, he was greatly 
interested ; and his support and countenance were always 
heartily given to the missions of the Moravians. He 
often remarked that they, of all others, worked the most 
successfully among the savage heathen; and that they 
seemed eminently to have succeeded in the difficult task 
of evangelising slaves, without tempting them to revolt 
against their masters. 

Not less constant and active was his sympathy and 
interest in the Waldenses, and his testimony to the pru- 
dence and Christian meekness and forbearance which 
they united with such resolute courage and endurance 
throughout their whole history, was always very strong. 

The Archbishop took the chair at a meeting of the 
Patagonian or South American Missionary Society, and 
warmly advocated its claims. He pointed out that in- 
struction in the elements of civilisation must ever accom- 
pany the introduction of Christianity for a savage, as 
such, could not understand what Christianity meant. 
One who cannot be made to believe in to-morrow can 
hardly be expected to look to a future state. But by 
pointing out to savages advantages which they can under- 
stand and value, in the common arts of life, they may be 
led more willingly to attend to the teaching of those who 
can show them the way of salvation. 


He was now engaged in preparing an edition of Paley's 
c Moral Philosophy,' with annotations. He heartily appre- 
ciated Paley's excellences; but was strongly alive to 
the danger of following his system of morals, which he 
considered as, in fact, disallowing the moral faculty 
in man. His chief object in publishing these annotations 
was to put readers on their guard with respect to this 

He took as lively an interest in writing and arranging 
these annotations, as in composing an entirely original 
work; and bestowed indefatigable pains on the com- 
pilation of the shortest note. 

'Dublin: July 8, 1858. 

c My dear Senior, As you are on an Education Commis- 
sion and are going to Canada, pray make a point of seeing 
there Dr. Eyerson, who holds there the same office as 
our Irish Education Board in his own single person ; and 
therefore (as he is a very able and good man) the system 
works, I understand, admirably. 

c I hope you and your colleagues will do better than the 
enquiry commission we lately had here ; who produced 
blue books in cartloads, not a word of which is at all to 
be depended on. For though some of their statements 
may be true, I cannot trust any; since all those that 
relate to schools which / am acquainted with, are grossly 
erroneous ; though they had ample means of ascertaining 
the truth. 

c If you go to Philadelphia you should introduce your- 
self to Bishop Potter, whom I have corresponded with, 
though not seen ; and who is accounted the first man in 
that Church. If you see him, tell him there are now 
growing in the Botanical Garden some of the sweet 
potatoes he sent me several years ago. I am just re- 

JE'i. 71] LETTER TO MES. HILL, 349 

turned from a visitation and confirmation tour. The 
candidates confirmed within the last half year amount to 
above 2,800 ; and since I came here, to about 30,000 ; 
though of course they are but a small proportion of the 
whole Protestant population of the diocese. If I were 
going with you, and were as young as Nassau, I would 
try to get two or three spirited fellows to join me, and 
would explore the interior of Newfoundland. It is 
strange that an island as large as Ireland, and the nearest 
spot to Europe, should never have been penetrated above 
thirty miles ! And probably though the climate of the 
coast is foggy as is that of Nova Scotia the interior 
may be (as with Nova Scotia) clear enough. Then, for 
trout and salmon and deer, what sporting ground would 
compare with it? 

c The Wales leave us next week. Their little girl has 
been at death's door with gastric fever, but is now 
gaining strength rapidly. 

6 Yours ever, 

< May 4, 1858. 

6 My dear Mrs. Hill, Some people and intelligent ones 
too have in their minds an association, established by 
long habit, between ideas which have no natural con- 
nexion, such, that to disjoin them is like picking out the 
stitches (in the " Tale of a Tub ") of the embroidery 
on the coat-tail ; which Jack found so difficult, that he 
was fain to tear off the whole piece and fling it into the 

c Even so I have known people no fools declare that 
to give up the belief that the Fourth Commandment is 
binding on us, and that the observance of Sunday is a 
compliance with it, would be to give up the whole of 


Christianity. And such, allow me to say, appears to be 
the sort of association in your mind,, as to one point or 
two, between things not naturally connected. 

c No doubt the doctrine of perseverance does follow 
from the Calvinistic doctrine of election ; but not vice 
versd ; as you yourself admit. Now it is the " perse- 
verance " (as taught by me) that affords the consolation. 
There are two trees both bearing the same fruit. You do 
not eat the tree but the fruit ; and no one ought to say 
that one of these trees is essential to his nutriment, if he 
might just as well have eaten from the other. That all 
the elect, and they only, will finally be saved, is a truth 
equally, ]f true at all, to the godly and the ungodly ; 
why then is it not equally consolatory to both ? Evidently 
the consolation to the godly must be, not from the doc- 
trine generally, but from his belief that he is one of 
the elect. 

6 But supposing this latter, who was doing well, should 
fall into a sinful life, and so continue. Thank God the 
case is a rare one ; and iny own belief is, that of the few 
cases of it that do occur, a majority are of those who 
have imbibed the Calvinistic doctrine and fallen into 
careless security ; you would say of such a man that he 
never was really one of the elect, but deceived himself in 
fancying it ; for that else he would have persevered. 

c And that all who do persevere will be saved, no one 
denies. " He that endureth unto the end, the same shall 
be saved." So that after all, it is on " patient continuance 
in well doing " that glory and immortality must depend ; 
and on the expectation of that continuance that the con- 
solation depends/ 

In this year, while his son-in-law's family were again his 
guests, his liveliest feelings of affection were called forth 

-43T. 71] LETTEE TO DE. HINDS. 861 

by the dangerous illness of his eldest grandchild from 
typhus fever. In no common degree attached to all these 
little ones, this firstborn had been the object of special 
and almost passionate affection ; and his son-in-law remem- 
bered afterwards frequently finding him alone and 
engaged in earnest prayer for the preservation of this 
beloved child, with marks of the strongest emotion. His 
feelings were so seldom outwardly manifested that they 
seemed all the more intense when the veil was for a 
moment torn down and their depth and strength betrayed 
to others. 

< September 1, 1858. 

c My dear Hinds, I sympathise the more with your 
infirmities from the increase of my own. The Con- 
firmation of this year fatigued me much ; chiefly from 
the paralytic affection of the left side, which keeps one 
arm in constant tremor, and, latterly, pain. If I live till 
the time comes round again, I shall probably ask Bishop 
Fitzgerald to confirm for me. He is the only bishop 
I know of who administers the rite exactly as I do ; 
and I should be loth to see a change. 

4 If this relief prove insufficient, I shall probably look 
out for some ex-colonial bishop, whom I can trust, and 
offer him a good salary, and an apartment in the palace, 
to ordain and confirm, and aid me in other things, like 
the coadjutor of the Roman Catholics. If this also fails, 
I shall then offer to resign ; not stipulating for a precise 
sum, but asking ministers what they are willing to allow ; 
not on the ground of not having a subsistence, but with a 
view to a general rule that a retiring bishop should have 
this ; for want of which many a one is prevented from 
retiring when he ought. And this is the course I should 
have advised for you* 


6 1 think I sent you the "Songs of the Night." 1 If 
not, you can get it of Wertheim and Macintosh, and I 
should like your opinion of it. 

6 The lecture on Egypt, 2 1 may say, who am only the 
compiler, is very interesting, and it was listened to witli 
apparent interest by the crowded audiences. I gave it 
to Parker, to publish for his own profit ; and it vexed me 
much to find that it has not yet sold enough to pay 
costs! The lecture on Civilisation sold 5,000 in a few 
months. Perhaps it may be that this one is not known. 
For, to advertise a sixpenny work would more than eat 
up all the profits/ 

The following extracts from letters to Mrs. Hill appear 
to have been written at this time : 


c There is an observation which T think your knowledge 
of mankind will enable you to verify. And indeed, 
some part of it is in one of the " Annotations " on Bacon. 
A self- distrust which was in itself right, may be pushed 
so far, and unwisely directed, as to lead to an opposite 
extreme from the one originally to be guarded against. 
A man. forgets that it is possible to warp the timber too 
far the contrary way. 

c E.g. Suppose A to confess with sincerity, and perhaps 
truly, that he is conscious of an over-saving disposition, 
which he is forced to be on his guard against, and that 
B in like manner is conscious of a tendency to profusion 
and carelessness. You might be surprised to find that, 
practically, in almost every instance, when A did go 

1 By his youngest daughter, the late Mrs. George Wale. Macintosh, 
24 Paternoster Bow. 

2 This was delivered by the Archbishop at Belfast in 1857, and on several 
other occasions. 


wrong, it was in the way of too lavish expenditure, and 
B in the way of parsimony. So also if professes with 
perfect sincerity, great admiration and veneration towards 
a certain person, it is possible that this veneration may be 
merely theoretical and general ; and that practically, and 
in almost every particular case, he will have so sedulously 
and excessively guarded against an over deference, as to 
cherish as a point of duty a strong prejudice against 
every plan, institution, decision, person, or thing, that C 
approves. He will have forgotten that it is possible to 
warp the beam too far the other way. Of this, I had had 
experience. And it follows that general professions, 
though sincere, will not furnish an unerring guide as to 
any one's actual conduct in particulars.' 


6 Now as to another point which I have already brought 
before you, and on which I should like to have your 
answer. The candidates examined for degrees at Oxford 
one by one, are placed, if thought worthy, in the first, or 
in some lower class of honours. There is no limitation, 
of number in each class, nor any comparison of one man 
with another ; but each, as soon as his own examination 
is over, is enrolled in his proper class. But this is " nobis 
arcanum." Till the whole number have been examined, 
and the lists published, no one but the examiners know 
where each man is placed. 

* Now when a man goes to bed the night after the close 
of his own examination, he knows that his place is fixed ; 
but it "^ill be perhaps three or four weeks before this is 

c Now, if any man were to say that it is a consolation 
and joy to him, to know that he either is or is not, in 
(suppose) the first class, would you, or would you not, say 

VOL. n % A A 


that he was deceiving himself ; and that the real ground 
of his satisfaction must be his conviction (based on the 
examination passed), that he is in the first class ? And 
this conviction is what he might equally have felt, as 
soon as ever his examination was finished, and before the 
examiners had made their decision. Nay, it sometimes 
happens that a man is so well prepared, that his friends 
feel confident, before his examination, that he will be in 
the first class. 

* But in every case, any satisfaction he may feel must 
surely be, not from his knowing that he is either in the 
first class, or else not, but from his belief that he is in that 


4 There are a few points on which you have not alto- 
gether adopted my views, and on which I think you will, 
on careful reconsideration. 

< 1. My illustration from the Oxford examinations, of 
a man attributing his feelings of satisfaction to a wrong 
cause, I think you will perceive on reflection to be quite 
correct. All that you urge in answer, about perseverance 
(just what is said on the essay thereon, which see), is 
foreign to the question. 

4 It is curious that ordinary (and sometimes very intelli- 
gent) persons, are so apt to mistake the grounds of their 
convictions, and the causes of their own feelings. This 
was well pointed out by Bishop Hinds in an article in a 
Review ; and I have repeated it in several of my works. 
Men are thus exposed to a danger of having their faith 
shaken, when it is proved to them that the foundation on 
which they had (erroneously) supposed it to rest, is 

' Lord Mansfield advised a Governor of Jamaica, who 


had to sit as Lord Chancellor (being no lawyer), to decide 
according to his common-sense view of each case, but 
never to state his reasons ; which, he said, will inevitably 
be the wrong ones, though the decision is right. 

* 2. My illustration (in the last edition of the " Difficul- 
ties"), from a member of a Slave State, alleging that their 
law made no mention of the exclusion of slave testimony, 
is what, I think, you will perceive on reflection to be 
quite sound. 

6 3. You insist on it, that you never met with any 
Antinomian teaching. And I dare say you have not met 
with any distinct avowal of it. But you could not deny 
that a very large majority of the Evangelical party teach 
an interpretation of KOHL vii. opposite to ours ; and that 
that is what must, practically, inculcate Antinomian views ; 
now, if this does not make a conclusive syllogism, I know 
not what can. 

4 4. Any one has a right to hold one half of Calvin's 
theory, and reject the other half; though Calvin derides 
that separation. But no such person is justified in pro- 
fessing to be a Calvinist. 

'These are points on which you have not, I think, 
committed yourself to a decided dissent from my views, 
but yet you have given no reason that I think can satisfy 
yourself for not adopting them, 

' You have often professed a wish that you had been 
my pupil in your youth. So did Bishop Dickinson. 
And none are more greedy of mental improvement than 
those who are the most advanced in it. But you see I 
do not consider you as too old to learn.' 


' In reference to that prophecy you allude to, it should 
be recollected (what is not in general sufficiently dwelt 

A A 2 


on) that the Gospel was first preached to Israelites alone, 
and by them ; and that for about seven years these (in- 
cluding Samaritans and proselytes) composed the whole 
Christian Church* It was not till after the religion had 
taken firm root in Israel, that the Gentiles were called 
in. And it must have been, seemingly, a well-known 
religion. Por Cornelius and his friends are evidently 
addressed as well acquainted with it, except in the one 
point which had just been announced to Peter, the 
adrnissibility of Gentiles. And they were baptised with- 
out having or needing any elementary instruction. 

c It is true, the great majority of the nation rejected the 
Gospel. So did the great majority of those who came 
out of Egypt fall in the wilderness. But, in each case, 
those were reckoned the nation who obeyed the Lord. 
And probably the proportion of Jewish Christians to the 
whole nation was not less than that of the Israelites 
who did enter the promised land the tribe of Levi, 
and Caleb and Joshua, and the children of the rest- 
Within a few days, apparently, the disciples numbered 
about five thousand in Jerusalem alone, not reckoning 
Galilee ; and after that we hear of so rapid a spread, that 
in Jerusalem alone, a few years after, there were " many 
myriads" of believing Jews, besides those of the disper- 
sion, and those in the rest of Judea and in Galilee. We 
have indeed no statistical accounts of numbers ; but there 
seems every reason to think that even before the call of 
the Gentiles there must have existed for several years a 
very considerable Jewish-Christian Church.' 

'November^, 1858. 

c My dear Mrs. Hill, I have just lost a sister at the 
age of eighty. It seems strange to me to outlive so many 
of my own family. For though in years I am much the 


youngest/ in point of wear and tear I may be reckoned 
the oldest. Hot water is not my proper element ; and I 
have long been in it. I am somewhat like the army in 
India, continually fighting, chiefly against those who 
ought to have been with us ; continually attacked, and 
repulsing every attack, and losing a very few in this en- 
counter, and a very few more in that ; and so on 3 till by 
degrees it is used up, in the midst of victories. 

; Yours ever, 

<B. W.' 

Mr. Senior again paid a visit to his old friend in the 
autumn of this year, and again we insert some extracts 
from his journal : 

Extracts from Mr. Senior's Journal. 

< NOT. 13,1858. 

4 My wife's maid told her this morning that my brother's 
coachman, a zealous Eomanist, had asked her whether 
she believed the Apostles' Creed. 

6 Of course she answered, " Yes." 

4 " Then," he said, " you believe in the Holy Catholic 
Church, and you ought to obey it ; and you believe in 
the communion of saints, and you ought to pray to them." 

c " I did not know how to answer him," said she, " and 
in fact I am not sure what is the meaning of those words." 

c I mentioned to the Archbishop her difficulty. 

6 " I understand," he answered, " the second branch of 
the sentence to be merely an explanation of the first, and 
read the whole thus: <I believe in the Holy Catholic 
Church ' that is to say c I believe in the communion of 
saints/ In the early times in which that creed was 
composed, the word c saint' was used as opposed to 
'heathen.' It meant not a person of peculiar sanctity, 
but simply a professor of Christianity, All that the creed 


declares is the existence of a Christian communion, or, to 
use a more modern word, of a Christian community a 
body of which Christ is the Head ; and all who believe 
in Him, however distinguished by varieties of belief in 
other respects, Protestants and Eoinan Catholics, Trinita- 
rians and Arians, Latins and Greeks, whether living or 
dead, are the members. At the same time, I regret that 
the word Catholic is used in the creed, or rather I regret 
that we have acquiesced in its assumption by the Ko- 

4 "We qualify it by adding the word 'Roman;' but 
that destroys its meaning. 

c "It indicates, however, the confusion of the ideas 
which the Romanists endeavour to attach to the word 
'catholic. 5 They claim both unity and universality. 
Now, if the Catholic Church is universal that is, if it 
comprehends all Christians then we and the Greeks are 
as Catholic as the Eomanists are, and there is no unity. 
If the Catholic Church includes only those who assent 
to the conclusions of the Council of Trent, then we and 
the Greeks in fact, the majority of Christians are ex- 
cluded from it, and there is no universality. 

' " It is clear," he continued, " that a Catholic Church, 
in the Komanist sense, did not exist even in the first 
years of Christianity ; dissensions, and even heresies, dis- 
turbed the churches addressed by St. John and by St. 
Paul; and the remedy suggested by St. Paul is not a 
recourse to any human authority to any living depositary 
of infallibility, but * watchfulness ' that is, earnest in- 
quiry, the very conduct which Eome forbids." 

* " I find," I said, " that it is not true that, in this war of 
conversion, the gain and loss are balanced. Your daugh- 
ters tell me that the number of converts to Protestantism 
is large, and that to Roman Catholicism very small ; but 


that the former belong to the lower classes, the latter to 
the gentry." 

' " All that is true," he answered, " and it seems strange 
that the converts to Eoman Catholicism should belong to 
the most educated to the class which has been most 
taught to reason. 

4 "But, in fact, it is not by reasoning that they are 
converted. The Eoman Catholic Church does not appeal 
to reason, but to authority ; and she does not allow even 
the grounds of her authority to be examined. They are 
converted through their imagination or their feelings; 
they yield to the love of the beautiful, the ancient, the 
picturesque. Afterwards, indeed, they sometimes try to 
defend themselves by reasoning ; but that is as if a jury 
should first deliver their verdict, and then hear the 

c " c One friend of mine," I said, " told me that he was 
converted by reasoning. He could find no medium, he 
said, between believing the Gospels to be mere human, 
uninspired records of our Saviour's doctrines, and believing 
that the inspiration which protected the evangelists from 
error is still given to the successors of St. Peter, and to 
the Church over which they preside." 

c " That might be reasoning," said the Archbishop, 
"but it is bad reasoning. If it were possible that he 
could prove that there is no better evidence of the 
inspiration of St. Luke than there is of the inspiration of 
the Pope, he still would not have advanced a step towards 
proving the Pope to be inspired. Such, however, are the 
shifts to which those who are in search of infallibility are 
forced to have recourse. They cannot deny that the 
primitive church was infested by errors, even in, the times 
of the apostles. They cannot deny that, if there was an 
infallible interpreter of Christianity, the apostles must 


have known of his existence, and were bound to point 
him out to their churches ; and they cannot affirm that 
they did so." 

4 The Archbishop has been reading my journal. 

4 " The picture of the priests," he said, " is melancholy, 
but, I fear, faithful; and we, the English people, are 
answerable for much of their perverseness. When Lord 
Grenville was congratulated on the approach of Catholic 
Emancipation a measure which he had always supported 
he refused to rejoice in it c You are not going to pay 
the priests,' he said, 'and therefore you will do more 
harm than good by giving them mouthpieces in Parlia- 
ment.' A priest, solely dependent on his flock, is in fact 
retained by them to give the sanction of religion to the 
conduct, whatever it be, which the majority chooses. 
The great merit of 4 I)red ' is the clearness with which 
this is exemplified in the Slave States. What can be 
more unchristian than slavery, unless indeed it be assas- 
sination? And yet a whole clergy, of different denomi- 
nations, agreeing in nothing but that they are maintained 
on the voluntary system, combine to support slavery, 

6 "Notwithstanding the evils of religious controversy, 
I rejoice in the conversions, which, together with emigra- 
tion, are altering the proportion of the numbers of the 
two sects. 

c " The emigration," he continued, " diminishes the 
apparent number of the conversions ; for many emigrate 
because they have been converted, but do not like to 
encounter the persecution which almost invariably awaits 
them here. Several circumstances have been favourable 
to conversion. One is the mere diffusion of education. 
All knowledge and all cultivation of the reasoning powers 
are unfavourable to error, and the religious knowledge 
diffused by the Education Board was of course peculiarly 


so. Now, indeed, the withdrawal of some books, and the 
power given to a single child to stop the religious instruc- 
tion of all the others, have almost paralysed the Board ; 
and the grant, which I hear is to be given to the Church 
Schools, will destroy it as a promoter of united education. 
But in its good times it did good and extensive service. 
The famine, too, was favourable to conversion. The 
priests are not alms-givers ; and if they were, they were 
then unable to give, for they received nothing. Some- 
times they refused to give even their services gratuitously, 
lest they should set a precedent which might be followed 
when the excuse was gone. All this threw the people 
into contact with the Protestant clergy, and created rela- 
tions which have continued. The people too are learning 
English, and the clergy Irish. In my earlier visitations 
to my southern province, knowledge of Irish was the 
exception. The usual answer was, c All the Protestants 
in my parish speak English.' c That was to be expected,' 
I used to answer. Now, in the Irish-speaking parishes, 
ignorance of Irish among the Protestant clergy is the 
exception." ' 

< Nov. 14,1858. 

c " There were schools," said the Archbishop, " kept 
by men who rejected the national system, in which the 
Bornan Catholic children were not required to read the en- 
tire Bible, or to listen to exclusively Protestant teaching." 

4 The Anglican clergy as well as the priests submitted 
to compromises, inconsistent with their declarations. 

Lord required all the labourers in his employ 

to send their children to his Protestant schools. They 
put their case before the priest. They could not starve, 
they said ; what were they to do ? He answered, that 
though the children might be forced to hear questions 


on the subject of their faith, they could not be forced to 
answer them they might sit mute ; and so they did. 
You may conceive what amount of Protestant knowledge 
or Protestant feeling they gained by the attendance which 
Lord imposed on them. 

6 Some Protestant schools, in order to attract the 
attendance of Eoman Catholics, degraded the reading of 
the Bible into a mere form a child read it, no explana- 
tions were given, no questions asked. It might as use- 
fully have been read in Hebrew or in Greek. " The 
Protestants," the Archbishop continued, "have lost an 
opportunity which they never will regain. If they had 
accepted the national system at first, it might have been 
rejected by the Boman Catholics ; but if at the end of 
the first six or seven years, when the Eoman Catholics 
had experienced its benefits, the Protestants had thought 
fit, they might have established schools, under their own 
patrons, over a large portion of Ireland, and might have 
secured that the system should be honestly carried out. 
But a time came when the Board ceased to be unanimous, 
even as to the principle, on which it was originally based. 
One of its members actually preferred ' Sectarian educa- 
tion,' and said that a Eoman Catholic who sent his son to 
a school kept by a Protestant was a fool. Another wished 
the Board to accept and administer grants for Sectarian 
schools. And then came the departure from its better 
practice, which forced me to resign, and is every clay 
more impairing its utility. 

c " An important subject," he added, " has not been 
brought under your notice the persecution of Protestants 
in workhouses. It is such, that I have known of persons 
who have submitted to the utmost destitution rather than 
endure it. Insults, outrages, and violence are inflicted, 
no redress can be obtained, because no legal evidence 


is forthcoming. A Protestant among a crowd of low, 
bigoted Eornan Catholics, is like a slave in South 
Carolina. He, or more frequently she, may be subject 
to any indignity, and not any one of those who have 
witnessed it will tell the story. The only remedy would 
be separate wards, but the Commissioners seem to be 
unable or unwilling to adopt it. 

'"Again," he continued, "your interlocutors have 
been silent as to the Lord-Lieutenancy." 

c " They have not been silent," I said ; " almost every 
one has expressed regret at its continuance. But I 
thought the subject too trite to be reported on." 

'" Trite," he replied, "as the objections to the office 
are, they ought to be kept before the public, lest the con- 
centrated interests of the few, who profit by it, and the 
wish, when dealing with a country in the ticklish state of 
Ireland, to make no change that can be avoided, should 
tempt government after government to defer a proposal, 
which will of course be opposed, and in the present state 
of parties might be defeated, unless it were generally 
called for. 

c " Though your friends here," he continued, " who see 
and feel the evils of the Lord-Lieutenancy, may be 
unanimous as to its abolition, I doubt whether it is 
equally disapproved in England. England has no ex- 
perience of the state of feeling in Ireland. There is no 
party there against the Queen, no party opposed to the 
executive as the executive. Here, in Ireland, with every 
change of ministry we have a change of sovereign, and 
the party opposed to the ministry for the time being is 
opposed to the Lord-Lieutenant, and does everything to 
make his administration unpopular and unsuccessful" 

4 "They are equally opposed," I said, "to the English 
Prime Minister and to the English Home Office," 


c " Yes," lie answered, " but they have not the same 
power to make their opposition tell. The Lord-Lieutenant 
lives among them ; they can worry and tease him. He is 
a hostage, given by the ministry to their enemies. If he 
likes popularity, or even dislikes censure, he tries to 
conciliate, or at least to avoid irritating his opponents. 
The Irish government therefore is generally timid. It 
sometimes does what it ought not to do, and still more 
frequently does not do what it ought to do. If Ireland 
were governed from the English Home Office, would the 
poor father and mother whose child was stolen from them 
from the Castle Knock National School have been treated 
with such bitter mockery? Would a man earning 10s. 
a week have been told that the remedy was to spend 50 
in sueing out a Habeas Corpus ? 

' " People talk about the laborious duties of the office. 
I know what they are, for I have often been a Lord- Justice. 
Half-an-hour a week performs them ; and I never heard 
that Ireland was peculiarly ill-governed under the Lord- 
Justices, or in fact that the want of the Lord-Lieutenant 
was perceived. I have known several Lord-Lieutenants 
who worked hard, but they made almost all the business 
that they did* They were squirrels working in a cage. 
There is no use in sweeping a room if all the dust comes 
out of the broom. The only persons who would be 
really inconvenienced by the change would be the half- 
dozen tradesmen who now supply the Lodge and the 

'"But I can propose an indemnity even for them, 
My hope is, that one day the great absentee will return 
that the Queen will be an Irish resident. The short visits 
of Her Majesty for less than a week at a time only 
excite the people of Dublin, make them mad for two or 
three days, and have no results. I wish her to live among 


us for five or six weeks at a time, to know us, and to be 
known I really believe that this would make the people 

6 " There can be no loyalty at least no personal loyalty 
to a mere idea, to a person who is never seen. Ireland 
now looks upon itself as a province ; it does not realise 
to use an Americanism that it is as much a part of the 
empire as Scotland is. It is always thinking of an Irish 
policy. I will not say that the Queen's annual residence 
in Scotland has much to do with the loyalty of the Scotch, 
or with their looking on Great Britain as a whole, but I 
cannot doubt that it has contributed to those feelings." ' 

' Nov. 8, 1858. 

c I talked with the Archbishop about the new Eoman 
Catholic university. 

* " It is a retrograde step," he said, " on the part of the 
Eoman Catholics. For the last seventy years they have 
received their lay education at Trinity College. They 
never whispered a complaint as to their treatment there. 
Now their minds are to be cramped by the narrow sec- 
tarianism of an exclusive education, and this too when 
Oxford and Cambridge have just been thrown open to 

' " I hear that the expediency of giving them a charter 
has been mooted. If it is done it will be the first instance 
of such a charter since the Eeformation. Maynooth is 
not an exception, for Maynooth is strictly ecclesiastical. 
The restrictions imposed on a Eoman Catholic priest are 
such as a boy, educated among laymen, would hardly 
submit to. The Eoman 1 Catholics, therefore, were entitled 
to claim an ecclesiastical university, or their young men 
devoted to the priesthood must have been deprived of 
the higher portion of instruction, 


6 " I hear also that it has been thought that giving this 
charter may be an excuse for a grant to the Church 
Education Schools. ' 

'"Are they prepared then," I said, "to give up the 
National System? for a grant to exclusively Protestant 
schools of course implies a grant to exclusively Eoman 
Catholic ones." 

* " Some persons," he said, " are insane enough not to 
see this. They must suppose that Koman Catholics arc 
indifferent to Eoman Catholic education, or that they 
have no one to plead their cause in Parliament, or that 
the present state of parties is such that fifty or sixty votes 
with justice on their side can be disregarded. 

fi " Others, not insane, but misjudging, see plainly that a 
grant for separate education to one body implies one to the 
other, and rejoice in it. They are either English or Scotch- 
men, unacquainted with Ireland, or Irishmen inhabiting a 
Protestant district, who wish to manage their own schools 
in their own way, and to exclude from them all Catholics 
as teachers or inspectors, and if they have Eoman Catho- 
lic scholars, to afford them the means of conversion. They 
forget that throughout the Eoman Catholic districts there 
are Protestant children who, under the separate system, 
would have to remain uneducated, or to be educated as 
Eoman Catholics. 

4 " They may, perhaps, think that the inconvenience will 
be mutual that there will be as many Eoman Catholics 
forced into Protestant schools, as there will be Protestants 
driven into Eoman Catholic schools. In short, that one 
injustice will be balanced by another. But even in this 
wretched calculation they are mistaken. 

4 " The Eoman Catholics are more concentrated than 
the Protestants. Thousands of Protestants will bo 
thus oppressed for hundreds of Bomau Catholics/' 


< "Would you leave things," I said, " as they are ?" 
' " By no means," he answered ; " that would be a 
much better course than the system of separate grants, 
but it would be a bad one* 

6 " The Board as now constituted, at least as now acting, 
allows its own rules to be habitually violated in the nun- 
nery schools ; it allows the objection of a single child to 
exclude a book from the use of all the rest ; it excludes 
from religious instruction a child that offers itself, unless 
it brings an express formal certificate from its parents. It 
gives grants to rival schools, set up close to and against its 
own model schools built at a great expense, with public 
money ; it withdraws aid from schools having less than 
thirty scholars, though the master be competent, and there 
be a sufficient number of children in the neighbourhood. 
It is now proposing to abdicate one of its most important 
and most troublesome duties the selection of inspectors 
by opening the appointment to public competition. When 
it has done this it will have scarcely anything left to do 
except routine business, which any ordinary secretary and 
clerks could carry on. The Commissioners are merely the 
Lord-Lieutenant's agents, appointed and removable by him. 
If I were Lord-Lieutenant I would take from them what 
they seem ready to give up the selection of inspectors ; 
I would appoint clerks to perform, under my direction, 
the routine duties of the office, and I would inform the 
Commissioners that they need no longer meet periodically, 
but that I would summon them when I wished for their 

* " The system of united education unaccompanied by 
any compulsory religious education, would then be carried 
out honestly, under the superintendence of one respon- 
sible head. No child desiring Protestant instruction, or 
Eoman Catholic instruction,, would be refused it, No 


child would get it whose parents especially forbade his 
receiving it ; no compulsion and no exclusion ought to be 
the fundamental rules, as they were during the first twenty 
years of the Board, and I believe that the most bigoted, 
wrongheaded patrons, when they saw that there was no 
remedy, that no further concession was to be hoped, 
would acquiesce. This I feel convinced would be the 
wisest, though perhaps the boldest course. 

c " To leave the Board as it is, but require it to carry 
out fully and honestly the principle on which it was 
founded, would be the second best course, 

6 " To leave things as they are is the third best. 

c " The very worst is the plan of two separate grants, 
and that is the necessary result of one separate grant." 

4 " Do you believe," I said, " that the opposition to 
united education is diminishing among the Protestants?" 

c " I have no doubt of it," he answered ; " it was at 
the beginning rather factious than conscientious, and 
more clerical than lay. 

* " The Protestant people were ready to use the united 
schools whenever the clergy would let them. But the 
plan was a Whig plan ; it was on the whole adopted by 
the Roman Catholics their taunts on it disgusted the 
Orangemen. The ^Tories in opposition denounced it. 
When they came into power they supported it feebly, 
and only after a long silence, during which their parti- 
sans, after waiting in vain for a signal, had committed 
themselves. But that generation has almost passed away. 
The primate and I are the only relics of the Irish Bench 
as I found it nearly twenty-seven years ago. The new 
generation is wiser. The Church Education Society, 
instead of claiming, as its predecessor the 'Kildare 
Place Society ' did, the whole grant, lowered its demand 
to .only a small portion of it. 


c " It now, indeed, ceases to ask for any. I have a 
letter from, the secretary of the committee, stating that 
they believe that a grant to the body which they 
represent would be inexpedient. I believe that if the 
Government hold fast to the system of united education, 
and take care that it is honestly carried out, the Protes- 
tant opposition to it will die out. 

c " In this unhappy country, where all is see-saw, the 
acquiescence of the Protestants may, indeed, provoke the 
opposition of the Eoman Catholics. The Eonian Catholic 
Church has never been cordially friendly; it tolerated 
united education, only as a substitute for separate educa- 
tion ; but the people accepted it joyfully, often even in 
spite of their priests ; and the priests cannot tear from 
the people anything that they are resolved to keep. 

4 " Dr. S , the patron of the Castle Knock School, 

dismissed the two mistresses, through whose instrumen- 
tality, or connivance, or negligence, the Protestant child 
was kidnapped, and appointed two others, a Eoman 
Catholic and a Protestant, in their places. The priest 
told him that the Eoman Catholic children should be 
withdrawn, unless he, the priest, was allowed to select 

the head mistress. Dr. S was firm. The children 

were forbidden to attend the school ; they disobeyed, and 
the priest withdrew the prohibition. 

c u Among the supporters of separate grants," he con- 
tinued, " you will find some who maintain that the evil 
which is feared from them already exists ; that in the 
National Schools under Eoman Catholic patrons the 
education is now sectarian. The answer is that, where 
this is so, it is the fault not of the law, but of those to 
whom the execution is entrusted. If the Protestants arc 
careless, if the inspectors are dishonest, if the commis- 
sioners are negligent or worse than negligent, the Eoman 

VOL. n. B B 


Catholic patrons, no doubt, have it all their own way ; 
but such vices are not inherent in the system ; they are 
curable, and ought to be cured. 

* " One argument," he added, " is used by the friends 
of the Church Education Society which has some truth 
in one of the premises, though the conclusion is false. 

6 " When reproached for using coercion for giving to 
the Eoman Catholic children only the alternative of hear- 
ing the Bible or being excluded they say that both the 
children and their parents like the coercion ; that they 
wish for the Bible, and are glad to be able to say to the 

priest, as Lord 's tenants did, * It is true that 

the children hear the Bible, but they cannot help them- 
selves. If they were allowed to quit the schools when 
it is read, they would/ This is the pretence usually put 
forth by rebels ; they say that they take up arms not 
against their King but against the evil counsellors, and 
that he in his heart approves their resistance to his 
authority. And sometimes what they say is true. The 
Stillorgan children attended our Scripture readings until 
the priest forbade them. It is possible that they would 
have been glad to say that they attended on compulsion. 
But though this may often be suspected, it can seldom 
be known ; even if it were admitted, therefore, that, on the 
supposition that such a feeling exists in the parents and 
children, coercion would be justifiable, still it could 
seldom be right to employ it, because the truth of the 
supposition can seldom be ascertained." ' 

'Nov. 21, 1858. 

; We were to have left Eedesdale yesterday, but a 
violent gale from the SW. has raised a sea which we do 
not choose to encounter. 

4 1 talked to the Archbishop of " The Society for the 


Protection of the Eights of Conscience," of which he is 
the founder. 

6 " It does not attempt," he said, " to protect a man 
from, every sort of persecution ; that is to say, from every 
sort of annoyance or inconvenience which he may meet 
with on account of his religion. It leaves the courts of 
law to defend his person and his property from physical 
injury, inflicted or threatened. It does not affect to pro- 
tect him or even indemnify him against much persecution 
which he may have to suffer, though it may be severe, 
and though it may be of a kind of which the courts of 
law can seldom take cognisance ; such as harassing dis- 
putations, remonstrances and solicitations, derision, abuse, 
and denunciations of Divine wrath. 

' " Such annoyances are incidental to religious schism 
when each party is sincere and zealous. They are to be 
deplored and endured. An offer of compensation for 
them would in many cases be a bribe, and in all cases 
would be an attempt to exempt men from trials to which 
Providence has subjected us, as tests of sincerity and as 
means of exhibiting patience, firmness, and faith. All 
that we can do in this respect is earnestly to enjoin on 
all within our influence to abstain from inflicting such 
persecutions, and to submit to them themselves, as an 
opportunity of showing their hearty devotion to the ser- 
vice of their Master. 

; " But there is a third kind of persecution, for which 
there is no redress by law, and which inflicts physical 
evils for which patience and faith are no remedies. 

6 " This persecution is the old excommunication ; it is 
6 aquse et ignis interdictio ;' it is the denial of employment, 
indeed of intercourse. 

6 " A convert, or even a few converts, surrounded by a 
hostile population, refused work, refused land, and refused 

BB 2 


custom, may have to starve, or to have recourse to the 
poor-house, perhaps to be refused admittance there, per- 
haps, if admitted, to be exposed to intolerable brutality 
and indignity. This is a temptation to the weak and a 
hardship on the strong, which cannot be witnessed or 
heard of with indifference by any one who has any 
feelings of humanity, any sense of justice, or any con- 
scientious convictions. As the law is powerless, indi- 
viduals or a combination of individuals must step in. 

; " It is not as a Protestant or as a convert, or even as a 
Protestant convert in distress, that any one receives aid 
from us, but as an industrious and well-conducted man, 
who has been excluded from employment, and left to 
starvation, on merely religious grounds. And to any one 
so circumstanced all who disclaim persecution are bound 
to give relief, whatever be the ground of Ms exclusion ; 
whether it be his belief, whether he be excommunicated 
as a Protestant, a Papist, or an atheist. 

* " It is because Protestants only are so persecuted that 
the society assumes in the eyes of the public a Protestant 
colour. It is, in the true sense of the word, catholic. It 
is open to all who are thus persecuted for conscience 

i. 71] LETTER TO MB, SENIOR. 373 



Letter to Mr. Senior on ' Book grants ' from the Education Board 
Letter to Lord Ebury on Liturgical Revision Letter to a 
Clergyman on the same subject Letter to Miss Crabtree on the 
Revival Movement His family bereavements Death of his 
youngest daughter Death of Mrs. "Whately Letters to Miss 
Crabtree and Dr. Hinds Breaking up of his family circle Spends 
the summer with Mr. Senior Letter to Mrs. Arnold. 

OF the year 1859 there is but little to record. He was 
not in parliament that year ; and, with the exception of a 
short visit to England in the early part of it, it was spent 
in his usual diocesan and literary avocations. 

Lord Wicklow had suggested grants of books being 
made to schools not under the Board, and on this subject 
he wrote to Mr. Senior : 

'Dublin: April 14, 1859. 

' My dear Senior, As for Lord Wicklow's suggestion, 
the books of the Board are to be had now, very cheap, 
and so very little above prime cost, that the difference 
would not afford any effectual support to any school. 

4 Why then should this be so eagerly sought ? Evidently 
for the insertion of the thin end of the wedge. It would 
be a Government recognition and sanction of denomina- 
tional schools. And soon after, a claim would be made 
(no unreasonable one), and granted, for some effectual aid 
to the schools set up in avowed rivalry to the National 
Schools ! 


* If we were to send the King of Sardinia one company 
of soldiers to fight against Austria, he would probably be 
very glad. Not that this handful of men could do any 
valuable service, but we should have sanctioned the war, 
and engaged in it; and we should be expected to send,- 
soon after, two or three regiments to support that com- 
pany, and then a powerful army to support these. 

fc A camel, according to the Arabian fable, begged leave 
one cold night to put the tip of his nose inside a tent for 
warmth; having got his nose in, he next intruded his 
head and shoulders, and then his hind quarters ; and then 
he lay down before the fire, and turned away all the rest. 

c I have sent the Bishop of Cork a curious document, 
an Address from the Roman Catholic Bishops, claiming a 
separate grant. He is to have it reprinted, or not, as ho 
may judge best. If he does not, he will send it to you to 
look at and show your friends. 

'Yours ever, 

6 K W.' 

The memorandum which follows was sent to Mr. Senior 
a little earlier than the letter, and is the last of his notices 
on national education. 

Lord Ebury had written to him on the question of 
Liturgical Revision; and the two following letters are, 
one an answer to the above, the other to a clergyman on 
the same subject. 

To Lord Ebmy. 

'Dublin: Dec. 2, 1S59. 

* My dear Lord, I am sorry to say I cannot see how 
to surmount the difficulties of the question your Lordship 
has brought before me. The pamphlet you have sent 
me, and one which I have since received from Mr. Proby, 
of the diocese of Winchester (Simpkin & Marshall), and 


which, probably your Lordship will have seen, do not 
show me any outlet. 

c The object proposed is, I presume, not to reform the 
Church, but to revise the Liturgy; not to make such 
fundamental changes of doctrine as might be to some 
very acceptable, and would drive a great many others 
out of our communion, but to make such alterations in 
the formularies as might satisfy nearly all who regard 
themselves as conscientious members of our Church. 

4 Now, if all that was wanted were the abridgment of 
some services that are confessedly tedious, and the altera- 
tion of some obsolete phrases, the task of revision might 
not be very difficult. But many clergymen, of various 
parties, hold doctrines I will not say at variance with 
our formularies, but at variance with the most simple and 
obvious sense of some passages therein ; which passages 
they are driven to explain away in a certain " non-natural 
sense." And they earnestly desire to have these altered. 
And if some revision were made which did not effect that 
object, they would be much dissatisfied. They would 
even be indignant, if the alterations they seek were such 
as they thought ought to satisfy all parties, as containing 
no express assertion of the doctrines they hold on some 
point, but only excluding an assertion of the opposite, and 
leaving the matter open. E.g. suppose that for " regene- 
ration" we everywhere substituted "admission into the 
visible Church." It might be said that all agree in ac- 
counting baptism an admission into the visible Church. 
And the question would be left open whether the Church 
is or is not a spiritually-endowed society, and whether 
any or what benefit, beyond a mere empty name, is con- 
ferred on the recipient of baptism. 

4 Now, all this would be quite reasonable, if we were 
founding a new Church and framing original formula- 


ries. But, if any words are deliberately expunged from a 
passage where they formerly stood, this could not fail to 
be interpreted as a rejection of the doctrine those words 
were supposed to imply, which would greatly displease 
many. It is vain to say an omission ought not to be so 
understood. It will, and must be. Wherever there is an 
amputation there will be a wound and a scar. Suppose, 
e.g., we erased from the wedding service the word "obey," 
it would surely be understood that we meant to exempt 
wives from the duty of obedience ; though no such in- 
ference is drawn respecting those Churches which never 
had that word in their marriage service. And again, 
some Churches never introduced the Ten Commandments 
into their services, and are not charged with Antino- 
mianism thereupon ; which we doubtless should be if we 
were to remove the commandments. And so it is in 
many other points. I cannot see how to get over the 
difficulty. It is the greater, because several of those 
who call out for liturgical revision do seem in reality to 
be seeking not merely that, but a re-cast of the Church's 

'Mr. Proby, e.g., in the pamphlet above referred to, 
alludes to the Gorham controversy, apparently quite un- 
conscious that he himself pronounces a decision against 
Mr. Gorham. For the question was not whether Mr. 
Gorharn's doctrine was scriptural and true, but whether 
it was consistent with the teaching of the Church in which 
"he sought a benefice; and Mr. Proby distinctly lays 
down that it was at variance with that. It is a curious 
circumstance, and a most unfortunate one, that the ex- 
pressions which formerly, and for a very long time, 
satisfied those of our clergy (probably a majority, cer- 
tain]y a large portion) who, in the early days of the 
Eeformation, leaned towards the Calvinistic views, are so 


generally displeasing to those who lean, towards those 
views now. It would seem that they have introduced a 
limitation of the sense of the word " regenerate " un- 
known to our ancestors, both those who did and who did 
not incline to Calvinism ; and that now it is required to re- 
fefcOdel our formularies in confonnity with this innovation. 
6 Believe me to be your 

* Lordship's faithful humble servant, 

'Bo. DUBLIN.' 

'Palace, Dublin: Dec. 10, 1859. 

c Eev. Sir, The wish that our Liturgy should be agree- 
able to Scripture must be common to all sincere Christians, 
how much soever they may differ among themselves as to 
what is agreeable to Scripture. 

c But the point I was dwelling on (in the letter to Lord 
Ebury) is the importance of calling each distinct thing by 
its own right name, instead of confusedly blending to- 
gether by means of a common title two things which are 
neither identical nor inseparable. If any one thinks that 
there is need both of a doctrinal reformation of the Church 
and also of a revised Liturgy, let him plainly say so. 

6 But evidently it is at least conceivable that some men 
may wish for the one of these and not for the other 
may wish for no change in the doctrines of the Church, 
and yet may wish for the abridgment of some services 
that are tedious, and the alteration of some phrases that 
are obsolete or ambiguous. 

* This latter is what I understood Lord Ebury to have 
in view. 

6 If I have misunderstood his Lordship, he will I pre- 
sume explain to me his meaning. To take a familiar 
instance. If I wish to make my will, I hand my lawyer 
a memorandum stating in tintechnical language my wishes 


as to the disposal of my property, and he draws up a 
will for me accordingly in legal form. If he thinks some 
of my bequests unwise he may advise me, as a friend, to 
alter them, but it would be very unfair in him to foist in 
(as a clever lawyer might easily do) unknown to me 
under colour of merely altering an expression words 
which would defeat what he knew to be my intentions ; 
and the like holds good in all analogous cases. 

4 Suppose, for instance, the case of a Eoman Catholic 
priest (in our own country before the Eeformation, or in 
Spain or Italy in the present day) arriving at the con- 
viction that the sacrifice of the Mass and the other dis- 
tinctive tenets of the Church of Borne are fundamentally 
erroneous, what would be his procedure, if he were a 
sensible and fair-minded man? Surely he would not 
propose merely a revision of the Liturgy, but a doctrinal 
reformation of the Church. He would in the meantime 
suspend his ministrations in that Church, and cease to 
administer ordinances which he would consider funda- 
mentally superstitious and erroneous ; he would call on 
his ecclesiastical superiors to reform the doctrines of their 
Church ; and if they refused to do this, he would abandon 
its communion, and resign any office he might hold in it. 

fi But a man would not be called on to proceed thus, 
who was seeking merely for such alterations in 'the Liturgy 
as did not involve any points of doctrine. 

4 As for my own views upon some of the points that 
are debated, it may be worth while to mention that I 
very much concur with Archbishop Simmer, with the late 
Bishop Eyder, and Mr. Simeon, from whose works I have 
extracted some passages in the appendix to my little tract 
on the Sacraments. 

c Not that I have appealed to any human authority as 
infallible, but I am glad to find a coincidence between 


my own views and those of some who are accounted 
eminent divines/ 

To Miss Crabtree, who had asked his Opinion of the Revival 
Movement then going on. 

'Oct. 10,1850. 

4 My dear Miss Crabtree, The revivals are doing both 
good and evil. Which will ultimately predominate is 
more than I can as yet pronounce. Much will depend 
on the conduct of many persons, most of whom I am un- 
acquainted with. 

c I send you the best pamphlets that have appeared. 
They are by judicious and impartial men. Most of the 
other publications take a part. They either condemn the 
whole as an outbreak of frenzy, or proclaim hysterical 
shrieks and fits as an outpouring of the Holy Spirit. 

c Now to me it appears that true Christianity is a very 
quiet and deliberate religion. It keeps the steam acting 
on the wheels, instead of noisily whizzing out at the safety 

6 1 cannot tell how I came to send you cuttings of the 
common elder for the scarlet. But what I conjecture is 
this, I have a common elder grafted with the scarlet, and 
I suspect that the stock must have sent up a surreptitious 
shoot which mingled with the branches of the true, and 
was mistaken for one of them. 

c Now this may suggest a useful parable for the present 
time. When the " natural man " is grafted with true re- 
ligion (by a revival, or any how) we are apt to feel care- 
lessly confident from, the certainty that the graft is of the 
right sort, and has taken, and is flourishing. But without 
continual vigilance shoots from the wild stock will im- 
perceptibly grow up, and getting intermingled with the 
branches of the graft will pass for one of them. A tree 


that is headed down and grafted with a different kind, may 
be said to have undergone a " new birth," but it is not there- 
fore safe unless it be continually and carefully watched. 

c I believe that, besides other evils, the tone of some 
rash enthusiasts has done much to foster the kind of 
infidelity now prevailing, which calls itself spiritual 
Christianity. " You call any remarkable occurrence that 
favours your views miraculous ; and so no doubt did the 
Apostles, They reckoned as inspiration any vehement 
excitement, any strong impression made on men's minds, 
just as you do," &c,' 

This year was to be the last of his united family life ; 
his home from thenceforth was to be a desolated one. 
Hitherto he had been singularly exempt from ordinary 
domestic bereavements; his elder sisters had, indeed, 
one by one departed, but their advanced age rendered 
this an event to be looked for in the course of nature, 
and his daily life, from his residence in Ireland, had been 
little affected by the removal of those out of his domestic 
circle. Some friends very dear and valuable to him had 
indeed been removed ; but his own home party had been 
hitherto untouched. But now the time was come for tho 
hand of affliction to be heavily laid on him,* and it came 
in a form peculiarly affecting. His youngest daughter 
had been married in the November of that year to 
Captain George Wale, E.K, the brother of his son-in-law 
Charles Wale, under circumstances offering cveiy promise 
of a bright future. The family festivity attending the 
wedding had, indeed, been shadowed with a first touch 
of sorrow in the sickness and death of -a newborn 
grandchild ; but this was to be the beginning of sorrows. 
The new-married pair were to reside in Ireland, and 
scarcely a month after the marriage they came to spend 


Christmas under the old family roof at the palace, on 
their way to their new abode. Within three days the 
bride sickened with a fatal illness ; and after ten weeks' 
acute suffering, the child of so many hopes was carried to 
her grave (in March 1860) a bride of scarce four months. 
But this affliction did not come singly. Another member 
of the family was threatened with pulmonary symptoms 
and ordered to avoid the spring east winds of the Dublin 
coast ; and the bereaved family accordingly removed to 
Hastings. There, in the middle of April, one short 
month after the daughter's death, her mother, worn out 
with long watching and sorrow, coming on an already 
over-taxed frame, was carried off by a short but sharp 
illness of only five days' duration. 

The bereaved husband and father was, as we have said, 
not one to show his feelings ; even those nearest to him 
could only guess at what passed within, and hardly they. 
He was now becoming very infirm, and could not, as in 
early days, watch by the invalid. At her own request, 
the day before her death, he came to read to her the 
service for the Visitation of the Sick. He made a strong 
effort to go through it, but his voice broke down at the 
first sentence, and he was obliged to give up the book to 

In the midst of his own grief and increasing infir- 
mities, he found time to write a touching letter to his 
grandchild in Ireland (his son's eldest daughter) on the 
departure of those two loved ones, exhorting her to follow 
in their steps, 1 From his brother-in-law and sister-in-law, 
who had both hastened to join him, he received the most 
affectionate and devoted attention ; for some time he 
remained under the roof of the former at Tunbridge 

1 This mucli-prized letter baa unhappily fallen into other hands, and can- 
not therefore be published. 


Wells. In June he insisted, notwithstanding the entrea- 
ties of his friends, on returning to Dublin for his visitation 
and other duties, and went through them more easily 
than could have been expected. The rest of the summer 
was spent with his daughter and son-in-law in Cambridge- 
shire, and in the autumn he returned to Ireland and took 
up his residence in a smaller place nearer to Dublin than 
the former, between which and the Palace he spent the 
last three years of his life. 

Of the letters that follow the first was written a little 
before the first of these bereavements ; the others later. 

To Miss- Crabtree. 

'Dublin: March 2, 18GO. 

6 A bishop who is anxious above all things for a peace- 
ful life will do well to imitate a bishop whom you 
remember by sitting still and doing nothing at all. And 
one who would be popular must ever swim with the 
stream. But one who is discreet as well as active and 
conscientious will consider that above half of the evils that 
have ever esisted, have arisen from something good in 
itself and done well, but which has afforded a precedent 
and an encouragement to something evil in imitation of 
it. The Ass, according to the fable (which is one of most 
extensive application), followed the precedent of the 
Lapdog. Nelson gained the victory of Copenhagen by 
disobeying orders. If a few more such instances had 
occurred, and it had been thence the practice for every 
subaltern officer and private sailor or soldier, who might 
think he knew better than his commander, to collect a 
party of his comrades, and act as he thought best, this 
would before long convert the finest possible army into a 
rabble of undisciplined guerillas. 


c If some period of great excitement had occurred when. 
I was at Halesworth, and I had thrown myself at once 
into it without any precaution, I should probably have 
gained more reputation, and produced more striking 
effects, some good and some evil, than by my quiet un- 
pretending explanatory lectures in which I laboured night 
after night, and week after week, in patiently laying on 
" line upon line, precept upon precept ; here a little and 
there a little." ' 

To Bishop Hinds afeiv days after his Daughter's death. 

'March 10, 1860. 

c My dear Hinds, We are friends of fifty years' 
standing ; and you write like one. 

c I ought to dwell on the contrast between you?* letter 
and that addressed to Cicero on a similar occasion, by 
Sulpicius, a kind-hearted friend, and a man of cultivated 
mind! May we find grace to think of the blessing 
bestowed on us ! 

c But, humanly speaking, the trial is very sharp, to 
have such a cup of happiness, when just tasted, dashed 
from the lips. And the eleven weeks of severe suffering 
to the dear patient, and of painful toil and anxiety to all 
of us, has broken down the health of the whole party,' 

To Miss Crabtree he adds, two months later, c I have 
faith, on Scripture warrants, in intercessory prayer ; and 
I am sure you will be ready to pray for us, that we may 
be supported under these heavy strokes of affliction.' 

The year 1861 was also marked by much trial; 
partly from alarming illness among members of his 
family, and partly from other causes of grief, which 
pressed heavily on him. His immediate circle was now 
a reduced one; his son-in-law was obliged to remove 


with, his family to the Continent in consequence of ill 
health ; another daughter had been previously compelled 
to reside abroad from the same cause during greater 
part of the year. Only one daughter therefore re- 
mained with him; but he bore up through all with 
characteristic firmness and calm dignity; and though 
increasing infirmities might well have furnished an excuse 
for withdrawing from his official duties, the visitation and 
confirmations were performed as usual. It was touching 
to see the deep solemnity with which the trembling hands 
were placed on the young heads ; and, though the fatigue 
and exhaustion obliged him to pause and rest in the middle 
of the ceremony, the usual addresses were not omitted, and 
the voice which had lost much of its full clear tones, still 
spoke the words of exhortation to the young candidates 
with impressive earnestness. Nor were his literary 
occupations discontinued. Writing was now become 
painful and difficult : but he still corrected the proofs of 
each new edition, and still dictated articles for the 
c Commonplace Book,' and papers for several magazines 
to which he occasionally contributed ; and frequently 
sent memoranda to friends on some subject of interest 
and importance. 

Though unequal to much general society, he was able 
to enjoy a social circle in his own home ; and many will 
remember the evenings when he would discourse to a few 
gathered round him, with his wonted life and power of 
illustration, on a variety of topics of interest, or comment 
on a passage of some favourite work he would cause to be 
read aloud to him ; and at the breakfast table he was 
always fall of conversation and ready to enter on the 
subjects of the day or to impart information on various 
matters small and great. 

Part of the summer of this year was passed with his 


friend Mr. Senior in London, and with his relations at 
Tunbridge Wells ; and the change of scene and society 
seemed to cheer and interest him. 

His brother-in-law has preserved some recollections 
of that time. c He was always partial,' he writes, 'to 
Tunbridge Wells ; and in his latter visits, which continued 
till within a year of his death, he had pleasure in renew- 
ing intercourse with some of his old college friends. 

; He had often preached for his brother-in-law in the 
old chapel of ease to large and attentive congregations ; 
and many will remember the last time he addressed them 
from that pulpit on the 4th of August 1861, when from 
the effect of paralysis of one side he was hardly able to 
ascend the stairs. 

* A mutual esteem existed between him and Archbishop 
Sumner, and the last time these met was at Tunbridge 
Wells on May 29, 1860, though only to exchange 
tokens of recognition on each side of the railway 

Thus far the recollections of his last visits to his 
favourite old resort. The following letter to Mrs. 
Arnold shows that his intellectual activity was as untiring 
as ever. 

To Mrs. Arnold. 

' December 1C, 1861. 

4 My dear Friend, You must excuse my writing very 
rarely and very briefly, as it is fatiguing, from the palsy 

having extended to my right hand. But J will tell 

you all about us from time to time. 

c I am (as the Yankees say) most * powerful weak/ 
But I am thankful that my intellect does not yet seem 
much affected ; only I am soon, exhausted. The last charge 



was thought to be equal to any former ones. But it took 
me as many weeks as it would formerly days. 

4 To think of such a wreck as I am having survived the 
poor Prince ! 

4 He is a great loss to the public. 

' Towards me he was always most gracious. Two or 
three times I sent him little books of mine for his children, 
and he always acknowledged them in his own hand.' 




Suffers from neuralgic gout. Attends the session of the Statistical 
Society, and contributes a paper on Secondary Punishments Letter 
to Rey. 0. Wale Visit of Mr. Senior Mr. Senior's Journal Ex- 
periments on Charring Conversation on our Penal Code Remarks 
on the falsehood of commonly received maxims Visit of Dr. de 
Kicci, and interesting conversation on religious endowments. 

IN tlie spring of 1862 he suffered greatly from an 
affection of the leg, supposed to be neuralgic gout ; the 
pain was at times very severe, and the case a tedious one ; 
but he entirely recovered from it, and was again enabled 
to pay a visit to his -English friends, but being feeble, 
seemed to enjoy it less. That autumn his son-in-law and 
daughter paid him a visit from, abroad, which greatly 
cheered and refreshed him ; and later his friend Mr. Senior 
spent some time with him. He still continued occasion- 
ally to preach ; but the weakness of his voice had increased, 
and the effort was evidently a painful one. 

But even in this year he came to the opening meetings 
of the Statistical Society, which he had so long and steadily 
supported, to receive the Lord -Lieutenant and to hear the 
address of the Solicitor-General. Late in the c session ' of 
the Society he contributed to their proceedings the paper 
containing the notes of a conversation between himself and 
Mr. Senior on Secondary Punishments, and took part in 
the discussion which followed. 

C o 2 


He continued to contribute articles to several magazines, 
and from time to time to add to tlie stores of his Com- 
monplace Book ; but letters were more and more of an 
effort to him. The following letter to his son-in-law 
is the only one we give in this year. 

' February 1, 1803. 

c My dear Charles, .... To-day I enter on my 
seventy-sixth year. I do not think it probable I shall reach 
the end of it. But what I am anxious about and earnestly 
pray against is, continuing alive., after having ceased to live, 
i.e. becoming as is a common fate of paralytic patients 
a wretched burden to myself and all around me. 

c I do not as yet, myself, perceive much decay of intel- 
lectual power, except that I am veiy soon exhausted. I 
can write nearly as well in ten days, as I formerly could 
in two.' . . . 

We have mentioned that Mr. Senior was the Arch- 
bishop's guest in the autumn of 1862. The following 
extracts from his Journal will show what subjects were 
mostly occupying my father's mind, and illustrate the 
freshness and vigour of intellect which remained unabated 
in the midst of bodily infirmities which were gradually 
though slowly increasing. 

Mr. Senior's Journal. 

' Nov. 8, 1862. 

c I left Ashton this morning to visit the Archbishop of 
Dublin, at the Palace in Stephen's Green. 

c He is anxious that* the experiment of charring instead 
of burning the surface turf for the purpose of reclaiming 
bogland should be tried. Under the present practice 
only a few pounds of ashes are obtained from an amount 


of turf which, if charred, would give hundredweights 
of peat-charcoal. 

6 " I believe," he said, " that the charcoal would form a 
much more useful ingredient to mix with the subsoil and 
manure than the ashes do. I think it probable, indeed, 
that the peat charcoal would grow farming crops without 
any other soil Charcoal has the power of absorbing 
gases to an incredible amount, which it gives out to 
plants and thus furnishes to them fresh and continued 
supply of manure. You may see in the Botanical Gardens 
of Trinity College, many plants growing in pure peat 
charcoal, and more luxuriantly than similar plants grow- 
ing in earth. 

' cc The charcoal is not pulverised, it is merely broken 
into the consistency of coarse gravel. If by this means 
new land could be obtained, not only would there be a 
new supply of food, but new tenants ; English and Scotch 
might be introduced without evictions." ' 

'Nov. 8. 

4 The Archbishop has been reading the earlier part of 
this journal. 

'"There would be something," he said, " in 's appre- 
hension of evil from the dependence of a paid clergy on 
the State, if they were appointed, removed, and paid by 
the Prime Minister. But the English, and French, and 
Belgian clergy, though all paid, are dependent on the 
State only in the sense in which every one, who is entitled 
by law to property or to income, is dependent on the 
State ; that is to say, they feel that their incomes or 
their properties depend on the law, and on the State, as 
the preserver and enforcer of the law and accordingly 
the clergy in all those countries are from time to time in 
opposition to the existing government. The majority of 


the clergy in France, in Belgium, and I am inclined to 
think, in England., are now in opposition." "Though 
they may have nothing to fear from the minister," I said, 
" may they not have much to hope from him ? " 

< " From a minister," he answered, " but not necessarily 
from the minister of the time being. And if the influence 
of the minister be feared, it might be remedied by taking 
from the Government ecclesiastical patronage. I do 
not think that this would be a good change. I do not 
think that a synod of bishops, or deans and chapters, 
would choose so well as the prime minister does. A 
synod would probably be intolerant. It would be 
governed by a clique, and admit persons professing only 
one set of opinions, and not the most eminent of those 
men. The deans and chapters would follow the example 
of the fellows of colleges, and elect only from their own 
small body. 

c " As the prime minister is changed every three or four 
years, he has seldom time to make more than three or 
four bishops, or indeed so many, and as he acts under a 
strong individual responsibility, it is pretty sure that ho 
will endeavour to make appointments which will be 
generally approved. 

c " ," he continued, " when he denies that the Eoman 

Catholic priests are proselytisers, on the ground that he 
never heard from an Irish Eoman Catholic pulpit a con- 
troversial sermon, resembles a man who would say, that 
a bull is an inoffensive animal because he does not bite. 

c " The priests well know that controversy is not their 
forte. They have no general knowledge, and a man 
without general knowledge, though he may be primed 
with separate texts and authorities, is soon silenced by a 
disputant with extensive information, 

c " On the other hand, the more enlightened of the 


Boinan Catholic priests probably suspect, indeed, if they 
are candid, must suspect, that when they differ from us, 
they are often wrong, and therefore are likely to be often 
defeated in argument. They are therefore forced to 
proselytise in a different manner. 

4 " They choose for their field of action large parishes 
where there is a Protestant population too scattered to 
be attended to by their own minister, and where the 
benefice is too poor to maintain a curate. While visiting 
their own flock they enter the Protestant cabins, and 
having the public opinion of the parish with them, they 
talk over the women, and then the men. 

'"His opinion, that they are not anxious to make 
converts, is absurd. A Boinan Catholic who believes that 
there is no salvation out of his own Church, would be a 
monster if he did not compass heaven and earth to make 
proselytes ; and I know that they make many ; but they 
do not boast of them, Igst they should attract the notice 
of the Additional Curate Society. 

c " I also disbelieve his statement, that the Bible readers 
force their way into cabins against the will of their 

* " They enter them often against the will of the priest 
and against the will of the Boinan Catholic neighbours, 
but I do not believe that they ever enter a cabin unless 
the husband or the wife wishes them to do so. Under 
such circumstances they are often waylaid and beaten, 
and the converts themselves are subject to the persecution 
of a fanatical peasantry and a fanatical priesthood. The 
priests denounce and curse from the altar all who have 
any dealings with a convert. If it were not for the aid 
afforded by the Conscience Society, which endeavours to 
protect all who suffer for their creed, whatever that creed 
may be, converts would often starve. 


4 " ," he continued, " seems to belong to a large class 

of intelligent men and a still larger class of intelligent 
women who have weights without scales. 

* " They notice all the arguments pro and con, but do 
not estimate their relative force ; any objection to a 
measure is to them an objection, and they will not or , 
cannot see that it may be much overbalanced by an 
accompanying advantage, or by the objections to any 
other expedient. Such persons cannot understand the 
force of accumulative proof. They see that every 
separate bit of evidence is weak, and do not perceive that 
the whole body of proof built up out of those separate 
bits is irresistible. 

c " He has summed up the objections to a clergy 
dependent on their flock ; he has also summed up the 
objections, or what he thinks the objections, to a clergy 
paid by the state ; but when he comes to compare those 
objections, his want of scales is obvious. 

6 " Two persons, each of them affected by this defect, 
cannot agree. It is as if a Stork and a Pox made a pic- 
nic, and the Fox contributed his soup in a platter, and the 
Stork in a bottle. 

* " Such people are apt to deal in half measures. A half 
measure is not a medium between two extremes, but a 
medium between what is right and what is wrong 
between what will effect its purpose and what will not. 

6 " A coat that fits you is not a half measure a coat a 
little too tight or a little too loose, would be. Neither 
perfect religious impartiality, nor irresistible persecution 
is a half measure. 

c " Each of these may effect its object. The first may 
enable men of different sects to live in harmony. The 
second may extinguish all differences, and therefore all 


6 " But moderate persecution, such as England inflicted 
on Ireland, is a half measure. It produces neither peace 
nor unity. 

c " The retention of the Lord-Lieutenancy on the Irish 
Union was in the nature of a half measure. It was in- 
consistent with the fusion of the two people, which was 
the object of the union. 

'"When England and Ireland were two independent 
states, tied together as England and Hanover were, by 
having a common sovereign, but having no common 
legislative, or judicial, or administrative body, and when 
no one could be certain of getting from Holyhead to 
Dublin, in less than three weeks, such an officer may have 
been wanted. But when the two legislatures were fused, 
the Lord-Lieutenant became a phantom, the creature of 
the English Tinder-Secretary and of the English Prime 
Minister, forced often to look on at, and sometimes to ap- 
parently countenance a policy which he thinks mischiev- 
ous, and appointments which he disapproves, with no 
duties but to preside at a mock Court, and make after- 
dinner speeches." 

c " This may show," I said, " that the Lord-Lieutenancy 
does no good, but what harm does it do ? " 

' " It does harm," he answered, " as keeping up in people's 
minds the notion of a separate kingdom, as affording a 
hot-bed of faction and intrigue, as presenting an image of 
majesty so faint and so feeble as to be laughed at or 

* "Disaffection to the English Lord-Lieutenant is cheaply 
shown, and it paves the way towards disaffection to the 
English Crown. 

c " These inconveniences would follow, / the Lord-Lieu- 
tenant knew his business. But he is almost always recalled 
before he has learnt it. Having little real power, he can 


acquire influence only by cajoling people, by talking them 
over, but for this purpose he ought to know his men. To 
use that influence, when required, for good purposes, he 
ought to know well what are the wants of Ireland. This 
knowledge of men and of things he is seldom allowed 
time to acquire. He is thrown into the midst of a most 
corrupt, selfish, factious society, and before he has found 
out the few whom he may trust, and the many who will 
do all that they can do to mislead him, he leaves it. He is 
placed in a country, in which many of what are considered 
in more civilised nations necessary branches of adminis- 
tration have to be created, and many more have to be 
reformed : which is governed from a distant capital by a 
ministry who know little about it, and use it chiefly as a 
means of party warfare, or of corruption ; and his func- 
tions cease by the time that he has acquired a half infor- 
mation, perhaps, not much better than ignorance/' ' 

Nov. 16. 

<" You," I said, to the Archbishop, " greatly contributed 
to the abolition of transportation. With its many dis- 
advantages its sowing our colonies with poisoned seed 
its uncertainty, and its ill performance of the principal 
purpose of punishment, the deterring men from offences 
it has one great merit. The criminal was discharged 
among the antipodes. Now he is discharged at home." 

fc " The substitute for transportation, which I proposed," 
he answered, "was nearly what has been adopted in 
Ireland that of requiring from the convicts a certain 
amount of work, compelling them to a certain moderate 
quantity of daily labour, but allowing them to exceed 
this as much as they pleased, and thus shorten the time 
of their imprisonment, by accomplishing the total amount 
of their task in less time than that to which they had 
been sentenced. 


< " I mentioned, also, that they should not again be let 
loose on society, till they had given some indication of 
amended character. And I further admitted, that the 
enforcement of these regulations would require much 
vigilance and discretion, in the superintendence of convict 

4 " It seems," I said, " that all these conditions are utterly 
neglected in England. The convict is not sentenced to 
the performance of any fixed amount of work. No ab- 
breviation of imprisonment can be obtained by diligence, 
no indication of amended character except quiet sub- 
mission to restraints which cannot be evaded, is required ; 
and as to vigilance and discretion, the English prison 
authorities repudiate them by declaring iii so many words, 
that * male convicts must be treated in masses, rather than 
according to their individual characters.'" 1 

c " It is difficult," said the Archbishop, " to conceive the 
state of mind in which a man, familiar with penal juris- 
prudence, could come to so monstrous a conclusion 
as that convicts ought to be let loose on the public in 
masses, without reference to their individual fitness for 

c " But the ill-regulated humanity which shrinks from 
inflicting on the convict the proper amount of punishment, 
may be easily explained. Those who act from feeling, 
not from principle, are usually led to show more tender- 
ness towards the offending than towards the unoffending ; 
towards the culprit who is present, and the object of their 
senses, whose sufferings and apprehensions they actually 
witness, than towards the absent, unknown, and undefined, 
members of the community, whose persons or property, 
were endangered by him. 

c " The other day," I said, " some men were tried for a 

1 Report of Directors of English. Convict Prisons for 1867, p. 49, 


crime of garotting. They had knocked a man down, 
broken his jaw, obliged it to be cut out of his face to 
prevent mortification, in fact, they had rendered him 
wretched for life. They were ticket-of-leave men, who, if 
their sentences had been carried into effect, would,, at the 
time when the outrage was committed, have been in 
prison. 'It is computed that not one offence in twenty is 
detected. How many crimes did J. H. commit ; of how 
many people did he destroy the happiness, during each of 
the three periods in which, in defiance of his different 
sentences, he was let loose ? " 

c " What were the sentences," asked the Archbishop, 
" passed on the garotters ? " 

'" Penal servitude," I answered, "for life, or for long 
terms of years which, in a very few years, will be re- 
mitted, and they will be again set to work, to maim or to 

c " We have nearly put an end," said the Archbishop, 
" to the two punishments, death and transportation, one of 
which was absolutely irremissible, and the other nearly so. 
It does seem to me, that substitutes ought to be pro- 
vided. I know of but one means by which this dreadful 
abuse of the power of pardon can be put a stop to. It 
is to enact that certain sentences shall be irrenrissible, ex- 
cept by Act of Parliament. 

c " Every year in which any such sentences are to be re- 
mitted, an Act should be passed, enabling the Home Secre- 
tary to grant tickets-of-leave to the persons mentioned ia 
the schedule. The schedule should contain the names, the 
crimes, the sentences, and the previous convictions of the 
persons to be released, and the grounds on which each 
separate release was granted. 

6 " Other improvements should of course also be made, 
and the treatment of convicts in England should be assi- 


inilated to the Irish system, but all sentences are illusory, 
as long as convicts are discharged in masses, without 
reference to individual character. 

fi " If sentences for life, or for any number of years 
exceeding fifteen, were thus made irreniissible, except by 
an act of the legislature, judges, the public, and the 
criminal population would know the real meaning and 
the real effect of a sentence." 

' " I perfectly agree with you," I said, " as to the propriety 
of making long sentences irreniissible, except by Act of 
Parliament. Nor would I allow to justices and magis- 
trates their present discretion. Every crime should have 
its fixed punishment. The caprice of a magistrate or of 
a judge should not decide whether a murderous assault 
should be punished by six months imprisonment or by 
six weeks, or by six years. The lenity shown by our 
judicial authorities to acts of violence, is one of the 
strangest phenomena in our present penal administration. 
I would go further still. I would return, and return largely, 
to the only irreniissible punishment, death. I would punish 
with death, three days after conviction, every person con- 
victed a second time of robbery, accompanied by vio- 
lence. Experience shows that such malefactors are never 
reformed. They go on from crime to crime until death, 
I would cut their course short, in pity to the public and in 
pity to themselves. The common answer, that robbery 
ought not to be punished by death, lest murder should be 
added, for the sake of concealment, does not apply. The 
garotter, who strikes his victim down, secures his watch and 
runs off, has not time to do more. He attacks him from be- 
hind, does not fear recognition, and would increase instead 
of diminish the chance of detection, if he murdered him. 

4 " Pity for such men is the weakest of follies. They are 
wild beasts, and ought to be treated as wild beasts, 


What should we think of a right, claimed and exercised 
by a Secretaiy of State, to go every clay to a menagerie, 
and let out, by mere rotation, one animal from a cage, 
without inquiring whether he released a monkey or a 
tiger ? The tiger, however, would be recognised instantly, 
and shot down in half an hour; the ticket-of-leave fern 
may prey on society for months, or for years, in the 
disguise of a human being." 

c We talked in the evening of the falsehood of commonly 
received maxims. 

' " One," said the Archbishop, " which has the sanction of 
La Eochefoucauld is, that hypocrisy is the homage which 
vice pays to virtue. 

* " It is not a homage to virtue but to opinion. The 
hypocrite affects the qualities, the reputation for which 
will, as he thinks, be useful to him. 

4 a There was a time when it was fashionable to be sup- 
posed to be a rake, to be supposed to drink, to game, to 
be profligate and to be extravagant. The same men who 
were then c fanfarons des vices' would, under a different 
state of public opinion, have been ascetics." 

6 " It must be admitted, however, " I said, " that the 
affectation of virtue is more common than the affectation 
of vice." 

' " Of what Bacon calls the lowest and middle virtues," 
he answered. " Such as liberality, good nature, good 
temper, courage and fidelity to your friends or to your 
party. In short, of the virtues, which according to him> 
men praise and admire. But not of the highest virtues, 
of which he says that they have no sense. He does 
not tell us what these are, but I understand him to 
mean candour, perfect justice, and disregard of popularity 
and of party ties, when duty requires. These are quali- 


ties for which men are often blamed as eccentric, 
crotchety, fanciful, and absurdly scrupulous. And they 
are seldom affected. 

6 " One of the merits most pretended to, consistency 
or perhaps I ought to say one of the reproaches most 
dreaded is 5 the reproach of inconsistency. We see 
people trying to avoid it by persisting in what, in their 
own inward minds, they acknowledge to themselves to 
be error. 

6 " Now inconsistency of conduct may arise from three 
causes : 

* " 1. Change of circumstances. 

6 C5 2. Change of opinion. 

6 " 3. The co-existence in the mind of contradictory 

'"In the first of these cases, change of conduct is 
almost always a proof of wisdom. It is very rarely that, 
under altered circumstances, persistence in the same 
conduct is advisable. 

* " Secondly, as long as man is fallible, a change of opi- 
nion must often be right. Though each separate opinion 
necessarily appears to the holder of it to be true, yet 
every one is aware, that of the mass of his opinions, some 
must be wholly or partially false. Just as a bad arithme- 
tician, in adding up a long column of figures, is perfectly 
confident as to the truth of each separate addition, but 
may know from experience, that it is highly probable, 
that the total may be wrong, 

4 " Thirdly, the co-existence in the inind of irreconcil- 
able opinions of course implies a mental defect. In a dark 
mind, as in a dark room, enemies may lie down in different 
corners, without its being known. Bring in a light, and 
they instantly rise and fight, until one expels the other. 

6 " The inconsistency of conduct, which arises from the 


co-existence in the mind of opposite opinions, is not a 
moral, but an intellectual defect. It is to be cured only 
by bringing in a light. 

4 " On the whole, it seems to me that a man who prides 
himself on universal consistency ought not to be allowed 
to take part in public affairs. He must close his eyes 
before new facts and his ears against new arguments. 
He must be intensely obstinate^ and intensely arrogant. 

c " Another common error," he continued, "is to suppose 
the sinfulness of man was occasioned by our first parents 
eating the apple. The apple may have increased that 
sinfuhiess, it may have awakened passions unknown to 
them before ; but the sin was committed as soon as they 
had resolved to eat the apple, and a sinful diathesis, a 
tendency to sin, must have existed in them, or they 
would not have listened to the tempter. 

c " The nature of the tree of life, too, has not been well 
explained. I suspect that the use of its fruit completely 
repaired the waste of the body, and that imparted to the 
constitutions of our first parents a vigour which gradually 
wore out. The earlier generations of mankind inherited 
a life eleven or twelve times as long as ours. After the 
deluge, life gradually shortened, from 600 years, the time 
of Shern, to 438 years, that of his son Arphaxad ; 239 
years, that of Arphaxad's great grandson Peleg ; 148 years, 
that of Peleg's great grandson Nahor; and 175 years, 
that of Nahor's grandson Abraham. Jacob's answer to 
Pharaoh, c The days of my pilgrimage are an hundred and 
thirty years. Pew and evil have the days of my life been, 
and have not attained unto the years of my forefathers,' 
shows, that at that time the life of man was about double of 
what it is now ; and by the time of Moses it had receded 
to its present limits. Now this is what might be expected 
to be the effect of a food which, as long as it was habitu- 


ally eaten, gave immortality, and when it was discontinued 
slowly lost its effect. 

c " Another false maxim," I said, " is : Do not put off to 
to-morrow what can be done to-day. The true maxim is : 
Do not do to-day what can be put off till to-morrow. If 
you do it to-day, you will find, when to-morrow comes, 
that if you had delayed doing it, you would have done it 
and ought to have done it differently, if at all." 

c " Another," he said, " is : c Ne facias per alium quod 
facere potes per te.' It ought, like the former one, to 
be reversed and to stand, * N"e facias per te quod facere 
potes per aliuin.' 

6 " The things which you ought to do, and which nobody 
can do for you, are so numerous and so difficult, that all 
your time and all your strength of body and of mind will 
not enable you to execute them fully. The strength and 
the time which you devote to things which you can do by 
deputy, are so much robbed from the things which you 
must do, if they are to be done at all, yourself. 

c " A man may be great as a theorist without assistance, 
or with only the assistance to be derived from conversa- 
tion. But he can seldom do great things in practice, 
unless he knows how to choose, and how to employ in- 
struments. The Romans would have remained a petty 
tribe, if they had not employed every nation, as they con- 
quered it, to aid them in conquering another." ' 

'November 17. 

* The conversation turned this morning on habits. 

4 1 said that the word "Jiabit " was difficult of defini- 
tion. That most persons, in attempting to define it, fell 
into tautology, calling it an habitual mode of acting or of 

c "The difficulty.," said the Archbishop, "is occasioned by 

VOL. n. D r> 


the confusion of two words, custom and habit, which, are 
often used as synonymous, though, really distinct; they 
denote respectively cause and effect. The frequent repe- 
tition of any act is a custom. The state of mind or of 
body, thereby produced, is a habit The custom forms 
the habit, and the habit keeps up the custom. So a river 
is produced by a continued flow of water, which scoops 
for itself the bed, which afterwards confines it. And the 
same conduct, occasioned by different motives, will pro- 
cluce different habits. A man who controls his temper 
and who acts honestly only from prudence, acquires the 
habit of being gentle among his equals and of acting 
honestly where there is danger of detection ; but he may 
be habitually insolent and irritable and fraudulent, when 
he has nothing to fear. 

c " I have often said, that though * Honesty is the best 
policy,' a man who acts on that motive is not really 

6 " Aristotle's test of a habit," I said, " is that the obedi- 
ence to it shall cost no effort. Defining the different virtues 
as habits, he therefore describes them not as duties to be 
performed, but as pleasures to be enjoyed. To a certain 
degree therefore his theory of virtue and Paley's agree. 
Both make virtue a matter of prudence, a means of 
obtaining happiness ; but according to Aristotle, happi- 
ness in this life, and according to Paley, happiness in 

<"And it is" he answered, "a matter of prudence. 
Cceteris paribuS) a man is happy even in this life in pro- 
portion to his virtue. 

c "Paley's error was, that in general (for he is not con- 
sistent) he denied a moral sense. He denied an innate 
instinctive feeling in man to approve of some kind of 
actions and to disapprove of others." 


< " This seems to me/' I said, "like denying an instinc- 
tive palate denying that we instinctively perceive the 
difference between bitter and sweet." 

* " He confounded," said the Archbishop, " an innate 
moral faculty with innate moral maxims, which is like 
denying an instinctive palate because there is no instinctive 
cookery ; though some men, like the Germans, like the 
mixture of sweet and savoury, and some, like the French, 
detest it, all men know the difference." 

c " In your lessons on morality," I said, " you do not 
define duty." 

; " It cannot be defined," he answered ; "if you attempt 
to do so you merely use some tautologous expression. A 
man's duty is to do what is right to do what he ought to 
do to do what he is bound to do. In short to do his 

6 " The kind of conduct, to follow which is to do our 
duty, is pointed out by the scriptural rule, 4 Do unto 
others as you would have them do unto you ; ' that is to 
say, pursue the conduct which you would wish to be 
universally prevalent." 

4 " This," I said " coincides with Bentham's principle of 
utility, or, as it has been sometimes called, expediency." 

fi " I have sometimes," said the Archbishop, " asked 
those who object to expediency as a motive, or as 
a test, whether they think that anything which is inex- 
pedient ought to be done." 

6 1 mentioned the speech of a woman, to whom the 
story of the Passion had been read. "Let us hope 
that it is not true." 

6 " We seldom," said the Archbishop, " think with pain 
on our past sufferings, unless we think that they may recur, 
or unless they have inflicted permanent injury. 

6 " If the pain has done no harm and cannot return, we 

D 2 


sometimes even think of it with pleasure, as enhancing 
by contrast our present ease. 

c " But with respect to our friends, we are anxious to 
believe that they have not suffered. There are no past 
evils which people are so apt to grieve about, as those 
which are most utterly past, the sufferings of the deceased. 
One of the most usual inquiries respecting a departed 
friend is, whether he died easily. Nothing is so con- 
solatory to the survivors as to learn that he suffered little ; 
and if he died in great agony, it excites their sympathy 
more perhaps than the case of one who is living in. 
torture ; and yet this is mere imagination, the sufferings 
cannot have left bad traces, and cannot recur. It is 
shivering at last year's snow. 

c " In our own case, present sufferings are matters of 
perception, past ones of conception, and the contrast 
between the two is too striking to allow us to confound 

4 " In the cases of others, all sufferings, both present and 
past, are to us matters of only conception ; we arc liable, 
therefore, to confound them, and to suffer real pain in 
consequence of a conception of what is unreal as we do 
sometimes when reading a tragedy. It is true that the 
pain of which we are speaking once was real, and that 
described in the tragedy may never have been so ; but 
both are equally unreal now the one never was, the 
other is as if it never had been. 

6 "Again, in our own case we resist such feeling ; every 
one makes light of his own past evils. 

* " But we think there is a merit in sympathising or in 
imagining that we sympathise with the sufferings of our 
friends, though our reason tells us, that at the very 
moment at which we are bemoaning them they are per- 
fectly free from affliction. Eeason docs not tell us that 


a man who was burnt alive suffered no pain, but it does 
tell us that he suffers none now. 

' " Another reason why we peculiarly lament death-bed 
sufferings is, that there is no hope of their being compen- 
sated by subsequent health and comfort. This, however, 
would be a fanciful ground of affliction in a heathen, 
and is utterly unchristian. 

c " I believe, that by keeping these apparently obvious 
truths clearly and constantly before the mind, much use- 
less sorrow may be avoided. 

4 " You remember," said the Archbishop, " our concoct- 
ing a paper on the Trades Unions, which have destroyed 
the commerce, and the principal manufactures, and handi- 
crafts of Dublin, and force us to import almost everything 
except poplins and porter ; which drive ships from Dublin 
Bay to be repaired in Liverpool, and have rendered our 
canals useless. 

'"Well, the medical men of Dublin are almost out- 
doing in narrow-mindedness, selfishness, and tyranny, the 
ignorant weavers and carpenters. 

* " They have made an ordinance, that no fellow or 
licentiate of the Eoyal College of Surgeons, shall pretend 
or profess to cure diseases by the deception called c homoeo- 
pathy,' or the practice called c Mesmerism,' or by any 
other form of c quackery ' and that no fellow or licentiate 
of the college shall consult with, meet, advise, direct, or 
assist any person engaged in such deceptions or practices, 
or in any system of practice considered derogatory or dis- 
honorable by the physicians or surgeons. 

4 " In the spirit of this ordinance, a surgeon refused to 
attend me unless I would promise to give up homoeopathy. 

6 " In the midst of the disgust and shame which one must 
feel at such proceedings, it is some consolation to the 
advocates of the system denounced, that there is something 


of testimony borne to them by their adversaries, who dare 
not trust the question to the decision of reason and ex- 
perience, but resort to such' expedients as might be as 
easily employed for a bad cause as for a good one. 

4 " There is a notion that persecution is connected with 
religion, but the fact is that it belongs to human nature. 
In all departments of life you may meet with narrow- 
minded bigotry, and uncharitable party spirit. Long be- 
fore the Reformation, Nominalists and Realists persecuted 
each other unmercifully. The majority of mankind have 
no real love of liberty, except that they are glad to have 
it themselves, and to keep it all for themselves ; but they 
have neither spirit enough to stand up firmly for their own 
rights., nor sufficient sense of justice to respect the rights 
of others. 

c " They will submit to the domineering of a majority 
of their own party, and will join with them in domineering 
over others. I believe that several members of the 
Royal College of Surgeons were overawed into acquiesc- 
ing in this detestable ordinance against their better 
judgment and their better feelings." 

* " Is homoeopathy," I asked, " advancing in Dublin ?" 

4 " Rapidly," he answered. " Trades Unions among the 
higher orders not being able to employ personal violence, 
are almost powerless. 

4 " I do not believe that the ordinance has really done 
any harm, except indeed to its ordainers." ' 

c Dr. de Ricci, an Italian physician, settled near Dublin, 
and Mr. Dickson, a former fellow of Trinity College, 
holding a living near Omagh in Tyrone, dined with us. 

c " Ireland," said Dr. de Ricci, " has utterly lost the sym- 
pathy of Italy* We thought that the Irish were like our- 
selves an oppressed nation, struggling for freedom ; we 

^BT. 75] VISIT OF BE. DE EICCI. 407 

now find that they are quarrelling with England, not for 
the purpose of freeing the people, but of enslaving them, 
for the purpose of planting the foot of the priest still more 
firmly on the necks of his flock, the foot of the bishop 
still more firmly on the neck of the priest, and the foot 
of the Pope still more firmly on the neck of the bishop. 
We find that they would sacrifice to abject ultramon- 
tanism everything that gives dignity or strength to 
human nature." 

c " I deplore," I said, " the ultramontanism of the priests, 
as much as you do, but both the extent of their influence 
and the evil purposes for which they employ it, are 
mainly our fault. By depriving the Eoman Catholic 
Church in Ireland of its endowment ; by throwing the 
priests on the people for support ; by forcing them to 
earn a livelihood, by means of squabbling for fees, and 
by means of inflaming the passions and aggravating the 
prejudices of their flocks, we have excluded all gentlemen 
from the priesthood ; we have given them a detestable 
moral and political education ; we have enabled the Pope to 
destroy all the old liberties of the Irish Eoman Catholic 
Church ; we have made the priests the slaves of the 
Pope, and the dependants of the peasant." 

4 " But," said Dr. de Eicci, " they have refused an en- 

c " It was never offered to them," said the Archbishop, 

* " They were asked," said Dr. de Eicci, " if they would 
take one, and they said no." 

c " Of course they did," said the Archbishop. "If I were 
to go into a ball-room and say, * Let every young lady, 
who wishes for a husband, hold up her hand ! ' how many 
hands would be held up ? Give them endowment ; vest in 
commissioners a portion of the national debt, to be appor- 
tioned among the parish priests ; let each priest know the 


dividend to which he is entitled, and how he is to draw 
for it ; and protect him in its enjoyment from the arbitrary 
tyranny of Ms bishop, and you will find him no more bound 
by his former refusal, than any one of the young ladies 
would feel that not holding up her hand had bound her to 
celibacy. To do this," he continued, " would be not merely 
an act of policy, but of bare justice. It would be paying 
Eoman Catholic priests with Eoman Catholic money. 
The taxes are a portion of each man's income, which the 
State takes from him, in order to render to him certain 
services, which it can perform for him better than he can 
do for himself. Among these one of the most important 
is the maintenance of religion and of religious education. 
This service the State does not render to the Eoman 
Catholics, and so far it defrauds them." 

6 " Ought it then," I said, " to pay the ministers of the 
Protestant Dissenters ?" 

" " Many of those sects," he answered, " such as tho 
Quakers, the Baptists, and the Congregationalists, are 
founded on the very principle, that the State ought not to 
interfere in matters of religion they therefore are out of 
the question ; most of the others assent to the doctrines 
of the Established Church, and can take advantage of its 
ministrations, though they like to add the luxury of 
teachers peculiarly their own ; they therefore are pro- 
vided for already. The Unitarians are perhaps the only 
sect, besides the Eoman Catholics, who differ from us in 
doctrine, so fundamentally as to require ministers of their 
own. They axe few, they are rich, and they ask for no 
aid. If they did ask for it, I do not see how it could be 
justly refused." ' 

^Er.75] HIS LAST OHAEGE. 400 


Gradual decline of the Archbishop Visit of his sister-in-law 
Journal of the Bev. H. Dickinson His last Charge Presides at 
the monthly dinner to his clergy Increase of his bodily sufferings 
Interesting conversation with Mr. Dickinson Apprehensions 
respecting his state of health Continued interest in literary pur- 
suits Tender attentions of his family in his last moments Ilia 
patient resignation His delight in the Eighth of Bornans Re- 
ceives the Lord's Supper with his family Progress of the disease 
and great physical suffering Parting interview with his favourite 
grandchild Visited by Mrs. Senior His anxious desire to die 
His death Lines on his death. 

THE year 1863 opened tranquilly. There was some 
increase of weakness, but it was very gradual. The 
spring was spent much as usual. He enjoyed the society 
of his friends, and especially a visit from his sister-in-law, 
who spent part of the spring and early summer with him ; 
and no special cause appeared for uneasiness. 

The following notes, from the journal of his chaplain 
and friend the Eev. Hercules Dickinson, describe the 
occupations of this the last summer of his life : 

c The Archbishop gave his last charge in the cathedral 
of Christ Church, Dublin, on June 18, 1863. He was 
then very feeble, and felt that it was likely to be his last. 
He wished to take the opportunity of letting it be under- 
stood, in contradiction of rumours diligently circulated, 
that he had not changed his opinions respecting the 
national system of education, but still lamented its com- 


parative failure a failure arising in great measure from 
the opposition of the clergy of our Church as the greatest 
blow that could have been given to the cause of the 
Eeforrnation in Ireland, 

c Shortly after this charge was delivered, the symptoms 
began to show themselves of an ulcer in the right leg, 
similar to one from which he had endured much pain two 
years before. Notwithstanding the suffering this caused, 
he presided at his usual monthly dinner to his clergy in 
July, and held a special examination for a few candidates 
who were not ready to take orders till after the final 
divinity examination in Trinity College. He took his 
accustomed part at the examination, though the pain was 
so intense that he described it "as if red-hot gimlets 
were being put through his leg." He did not himself 
hold the ordination ; and on the Wednesday subsequent 
to it he was, for the first time for many years, unable to 
hold his weekly reception of the clergy. He was then 
staying at his country residence ; and, after the last day 
of the examination for orders, did not again enter the 
palace in St. Stephen's Green till he was brought there 
on his way to his last resting-place in the cathedral, 
where he had so recently delivered his farewell charge.' 

Mr. Dickinson continues : 

4 His sufferings increased each day, and he felt very 
painfully his inability to come into town for the discharge 
of business. His "uselessness," as he called it, was the 
especial trial to his active spirit. One day, early in 
August, when I went out to see him, on my entering his 
study he looked up and said, with tears in his eyes, 
" Have you ever preached a sermon on the text, * Thy 
will be done?' How did you explain it?" When I 
replied. "Just so," he said; "that is the meaning;" 


and added, in a voice choked with tears, " But it is hard 
very hard sometimes to say it." ' 

He had already consulted his usual medical advisers, 
and would have also seen some of the leading surgeons of 
Dublin, had their professional rules admitted of their 
meeting his own attendants ; but on no other terms was 
he willing to consent to consultations, and indeed was 
little inclined to be sanguine as to the power of any 
remedies on himself. 

But early in September it began to be manifest to all 
that a fatal issue must sooner or later be apprehended. 
His appetite, which had been always good, began to fail, 
and the decline of strength was more apparent. Before 
long, even the excursions in his garden-chair became too 
much for his failing powers, and he could only be wheeled 
from his bedroom to the adjoining sitting-room. The chess 
or backgammon in the evening, which had for some time 
been a resource, now became too fatiguing. As his 
powers gradually decayed, the exertion of holding a book 
had to be discontinued; but he listened with constant 
interest to reading aloud, and this was now his chief 
resource. One of the last things read to him in the 
garden had been the proof-sheets of his daughter's second 
volume on 'Ragged Life in Egypt.' This peculiarly 
pleased and interested him. 

The books he preferred were chiefly of the kind that 
had always been his favourite reading. Works of fiction, 
except a few old favourites, rather wearied than enter- 
tained him; but natural history, curiosities of science, 
travels, histories of inventions and discoveries, &c,, had a 
never-failing interest for him ; and often, when apparently 
dozing, or sunk in languor and exhaustion, he would 
surprise the reader by remarks on the subject read, 


observations made in former days recurred to, or mistakes 

Till within a short time of the end, he took pleasure in 
listening to music ; old familiar tunes played over to him 
by his daughters soothed and refreshed him, and he 
would often recognise or ask for special favourites with a 
clearness of memory that astonished those around him. 
Often such evenings of music would calm his nerves and 
produce sleep. It was not till very near the last, when, on 
music being proposed, he murmured, fi I am past that now.' 

His surviving family were now almost all around him. 
His two unmarried daughters and his son were now joined 
by his brother-in-law, the Rev. W. L. Pope, who came to 
take a part in the attendance on his suffering friend, and 
to cheer and console him in this trial, as he was well 
fitted to do. His son-in-law and married daughter would 
gladly have shared these sacred offices of loving attend- 
ance, but they were detained abroad by the precarious 
health of the former, who was so soon to follow him. 
But the cares of his relatives around him were shared by 
the skilful and indefatigable attendance of two old and 
faithful servants, and of several most attached and devoted 
friends. To the unwearied and assiduous care and affec- 
tion and personal watchfulness of these friends, .and 
especially of his chaplains, his family cannot bear too 
earnest and grateful a testimony. Most especially must 
they remember the affectionate care of the Eev. II. II. 
Dickinson, who was in constant attendance on him, and 
whose thoughtful and judicious attentions alleviated, as 
far as it was possible, the intensity of the suffering which 
now attended every movement. His helplessness was 
now so great, that he who had all his life waited on 
himself, could not lift his hand to his mouth or turn liis 
head ; yet never did a murmur escape his lips. 


We again quote from the memoranda of Mr. Dickinson, 
who constantly took notes of an illness so affecting to his 
friends. In these notes we see the veil of reserve some- 
what lifted, which hitherto had made the c inner life ' a 
mystery, hid even from those nearest to him. Through 
life he had stood forward as a resolute and powerful de- 
fender of the Christian faith, and now it was to be shown 
to all how the same simple trust in Christ as the only 
Saviour, which has smoothed so many an humble death- 
bed, was to be the stay and staff of the mighty thinker 
and writer while crossing the ' valley of the shadow of 

Mr. Dickinson writes : 

c Sept 12. This morning I read for the Archbishop 
the sixty-ninth Psalm. His appetite grows worse. When 
his dinner was brought he said, w Oh ! how I loathe the 
thought of eating." Yet in these little things he shows 
very strongly the influence of his life-long habit of forcing 
all his inclinations and actions under the rule of reason. 
And he is so considerate for others so fearful of giving 
trouble. When he could scarcely bring himself to eat 
he said to his attached servant, who seemed distressed, 
" But pray do not think I am finding fault ; I know the 
fault is in myself." It has become extremely difficult to 
move him from the sofa to the bed ; and it is touching to 
see how he tries to control the outward expression of 
suffering lest he should cause distress to those about him. 
While the perspiration streams down his face from agony, 
he restrains every murmur of impatience, and says to us 
repeatedly, " Yes, yes, I know you do all you can. The 
pain cannot be helped." During the night I heard him 
often murmur, "Lord, have mercy on me 1" " Oh, my 
God ! grant me patience !" 


' Sunday r , Sept. 13. This morning he looked as if his 
last hour was drawing near. About one o'clock a friend 
standing near said, " This is death," supposing that all 
was over. One of his daughters stooped down and kissed 
his forehead. He awoke, and in the confusion of sudden 
waking said, with a little nervous irritation, " Oh ! you 
should never wake an invalid ! " Some time afterwards 
he sent for his daughter, and said, " I am afraid I spoke 
petulantly just now, and I am very sorry for it I beg 
your pardon." If ever the fruits of the Spirit " gentle- 
ness, patience" were manifest in any one, they are in him. 
In the afternoon he was rather better. Archdeacon West, 
his domestic chaplain, came out and read prayers with 
him. He said, " Bead me the eighth chapter of Bomans." 
When Dr. West had finished the chapter, he said, " Shall 
I read any more?" "No; that is enough at a time. 
There is a great deal for the mind to dwell on in that." 
He dwelt especially on the thirty-second verse : " He 
that spared not His own Son," &c. In the very last 
sermon which he had preached, he had enlarged on this 
as the conclusive and satisfactory proof that afflictions 
were sent not in anger but in love ; and he now recalled 
for his own comfort the train of thought by which he 
had so lately tried to comfort others. He has had this 
chapter read to him frequently during his illness/ 

On the 14th of September he received the Lord's 
Supper with the Bishop of Killaloe, Archdeacon West, 
and several other friends. At his desire all the servants 
who wished were admitted to join, and all the members 
of his family united with him in the solemn service. It 
was a scene never to be forgotten by any who had wit- 
nessed it. A calm, earnest attention and solemn peace 
rested on his face ; he spoke little, but evidently the soul 


was communing with God. A little before this, one of 
the friends in attendance on him had remarked that 
his great mind was supporting him ; his answer, most 
emphatically and earnestly given, was, * No ; it is not 
that which supports me. It is faith in Christ ; the life 
I live is by Christ alone/ I think these were his exact 

Meantime the disease made rapid progress. The state 
of the limb was terrible. The wheeled chair could no 
longer be borne ; and soon even the transport from his 
bed to a sofa became too painful. A distinguished 
homoeopathic physician had been summoned from Edin- 
burgh to a consultation, and had agreed with the two on 
the spot that nothing could avail to arrest the progress of 
the disease, and that a few weeks must end it. And none 
who witnessed the constant and intense suffering and 
weary helplessness could dare to wish it prolonged. 

His eldest grandchild, the same whose illness had so 
distressed him years before, was on a visit under his roof. 
He had greatly delighted in seeing her again. But the 
time of her departure was now come, and the last day all 
watched anxiously for a momentary revival, that she 
might receive his last farewell. He had been in a doze 
or stupor most of the day, but just before she left he 
roused sufficiently to have her brought to the side of his 
couch. He was too much overcome with emotion, in his 
weak state, to speak ; but as his feeble hand was guided 
and placed on her head, his eye turned for the last time 
to the young face before him with an expression of intense 
love and deep solemnity which none who looked on could 
ever forget. 

His countenance had acquired an expression most 
remarkable ; the appearance of extreme age was gone; a 
beauty of youth, or rather full manhood, seemed to rest 


on it, but the brow had a smoothness mid calm which 
had never even in his brightest days been observed there. 
That calm never left it even through hours of intense 
pain and weakness : it seemed to speak of the peace that 
passeth understanding. None who saw it can forget the 
majestic repose of that form, as he lay motionless on the 
low couch on which the water-bed was placed, a fur 
cloak thrown over him. Friends came in continually 
from Dublin or from a distance, and many comparative 
strangers to whom he had shown kindness, or who had long 
venerated his character, would entreat for an interview. 
The room door was open into the adjoining apartment, 
and many would only pass in and give a last look of 
affectionate reverence to one so long loved and honoured, 
without speaking. Often he was sunk in slumbers of 
exhaustion, and could not notice them ; if able to take 
notice, he would show his kindly sense of this feeling 
towards him by a word or look ; and often would express 
warmly the comfort he felt it to be surrounded by so 
many kind friends. 

We again quote from Mr. Dickinson's journal : 

'Sept 15. This morning his son read to him the 
fourth chapter of 2nd Corinthians. He followed the 
chapter with tears and silent prayer, and at the end pro* 
nounced an emphatic AMEN. Towards evening he said, 
" This has been a terrible day. Oh I this tenacity of life 
is a great trial. Do pray for my release, if it be God's 

' Sept. 16. After breakfast I read to him Hebrews ii. 
He was much moved, and, when I ended, said with em- 
phasis, "Every chapter in the Bible you read seems 
as if it were written on purpose for me." 

6 Sept. 22. Amongst other friends, Mrs, Henry Senior 


came out to see him to-day. When she was leaving he 
said, " Give my love to Nassau, and give him, from me, 
my ' Lectures on Prayer.' Ask him, from me, to read 
the second Lecture." 

6 Sunday, Sept. 27. The Archbishop's brother-in-law, 
Eev: Wm. Pope, read prayers to him to-day. In the 
evening, at eleven o'clock, there was an haemorrhage from 
the leg. A messenger was immediately despatched into 
town for the physician. He lay quite calm and stilt; 
asking, after ten minutes, " Is the bleeding still going on? 
I hope so." He evidently felt thankful, as believing that 
his release was near. The bleeding had greatly abated 
before the doctor arrived. When he came in he said, 
"I think we can stop it, my lord." The Archbishop 
answered, in his old, natural manner, " I am afraid so," 
When the doctor left, having succeeded in stopping the 
hemorrhage, the Archbishop said to me, " Is not this a 
very unusual hour for the doctor to come ?" I answered, 
" Yes ; but we sent for him expressly when the bleeding 
began." And he replied, " Oh ! you had not told me of 
that. Did you suppose I was afraid to die ?" 

c Thursday r , Oct. 1. This morning he listened atten- 
tively while several of the Psalras were read to him. He 
was moaning very restlessly in the night, and once, when 
I went to his bedside and asked, " Is there anything you 
wish for, iny lord?" he answered, "I wish for nothing 
but death." 

c Oct. 2. When I was trying to soothe him to sleep by 
reading aloud an article on " Uninspired Prophecy," he 
unexpectedly stopped me when I came to the mention of 
Lord Chesterfield's well-known prediction of the French 
revolution, and he observed, " 6 Oh I that is not a case in 
point; that was quite wide of the mark;" and ho went 



on minutely to state the particulars of the so-called pro- 

Oct. 4 To-day he listened while some of the Psalms 
were read to him. Afterwards, though hardly able to 
articulate obliged, indeed, to spell the words he tried 
to utter he expressed his wish that some little articles 
belonging to him should be given to two or three of his 

It was on the night following this, I think, that another 
of his chaplains was watching beside him, and in making 
some remark expressive of sympathy for his distressing 
suffering and helplessness, quoted the words from Phil, 
iii. 21, "Who shall change our vile body." The Arch- 
bishop interrupted him with the request, "Bead the 
words." His attendant read them from the English 
Bible; but he reiterated, "Bead his own words." The 
chaplain, not being able to find the Greek Testament at 
the moment, repeated from memory the literal translation, 
"This body of our humiliation." "That's right," in- 
terrupted the Archbishop, "not vile nothing that He 
made is vile." ' 

The pain now began to diminish, and he lay in a calm 
and scarcely conscious state for the last two or three days 
of his life. 

On the 8th of October, at eleven in the forenoon, Mr. 
Dickinson, who was sitting by him, perceived a change 
come over him. He whispered, * The struggle is nearly 
over now, my lord; the rest is very near.' He then 
went to call the members of his family, who were all on 
the watch in the next room. They all came in ; and his 
eldest daughter knelt at his side and repeated one or two 
verses of Scripture-prayers from the Psalms, which we 
thought he heard and understood. He opened his eyes 


and looked around, biit was unable to speak. The pulse 
became each moment weaker and his breathing more 
faint Again the verses, speaking of the Christian's hope, 
were repeated in the failing ear. 

Mr. Dickinson writes: c He passed away in perfect 
calm. The physician arrived at his usual hour (twelve 
o'clock), ten minutes after Dr. Whately had breathed his 
last. We found then that the immediate cause of death 
had been the bursting of an artery in the leg.' 

c Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace whose mind is 
stayed upon Thee, because he trusteth in Thee.' 

He was buried in the vault of St. Patrick's Cathedral. 
The feeling displayed at his funeral was very deep and 
universal ; the Earl of Carlisle, who was so soon to follow 
him, was among those who accompanied his coffin to its 
last resting-place. But the whole scene, and the feelings 
which it awakened in those present are best described in 
the following verses by the Very Rev. William Alexander, 
Dean of Emly. 


Fast falls the October rain. Skies low and leaden 
Stretch where no lustrous spot of blue is isled. 

Some sorrow is abroad, the wind to deaden, 
Sad but not loud, monotonous not wild. 

Faster than rain fall tear-drops bells are tolling; 

The dark sky suits the melancholy heart ; 
From the church-organs awfully is rolling 

Down the draped fanes the Requiem of Mozart. 

tears beyond control of half a nation, 
sorrowful music, what have ye to say ? 

Why take men up so deep a lamentation? 

What prince and great man hath there falFn to-day ? 

B E 2 


Only an old Archbishop, growing whiter 
Year after year, his stature proud and tall 

Palsied and bowed as by his heavy mitre ; 
Only an old Archbishop that is all ! 

Only the hands that held with feeble shiver 
The marvellous pen by others outstretch'd o'er 

The children's heads are folded now for ever 
In an eternal quiet nothing more ! 

No martyr he o'er fire and sword victorious, 
No saint in silent rapture kneeling on, 

No mighty orator with voice so glorious. 

That thousands sigh when that sweet sound is gone. 

Yet in Heaven's great Cathedral, peradventure, 
There are crowns rich above the rest with green, 

Places of joy peculiar where they enter, 

Whose fires and swords no eye hath ever seen; 

They who have known the truth, the truth have spoken, 
With few to understand and few to praise, 

Casting their bread on waters, half heart-broken, 
For men to find it after mauy days. 

And better far than eloquence that golden 
And spangled juggler, dear to thoughtless youth 

The luminous style through which there is beholden 
The honest beauty -of the face of Truth ; 

And better than his loftiness of station, 

His power of logic, or his pen of gold, 
The half-unwilling homage of a nation 

Of fierce extremes to one who seem'd so cold, 

The purity by private ends unblotted, 
The love that slowly came with time and tears, 

The honourable" age, the life unspotted, 
That is not measured merely by its years. 


And better far than flowers that blow and perish 
Some sunny week, the roots deep-laid in mould 

Of quickening thoughts, which long blue summers cherish, 
Long after he who planted them is cold. 

Yea, there be saints, who are not like the painted 

And haloed figures fixed upon the pane, 
Not outwardly and visibly ensainted, 

But hiding deep the light which they contain. 

The rugged gentleness, the wit whose glory 
Flash'd like a sword because its edge was keen, 

The fine antithesis, the flowing story, 

Beneath such things the sainthood is not seen, 

Till in the hours when the wan hand is lifted 
To take the bread and wine, through all the mist 

Of mortal weariness our eyes are gifted 

To see a quiet radiance caught from Christ ; 

Till from the pillow of the thinker, lying 

In weakness, comes the teaching then best taught, 

That the true crown for any soul in dying 

Is Christ, not genius, and is faith, not thought. 

Death, for all thy darkness, grand unveiler 
Of lights on lights above Life's shadowy place, 

Just as the night that makes our small world paler, 
Shows us the star-sown amplitudes of space ! 

strange discovery, land that knows no bounding, 
Isles far off hail'd, bright seas without a breath. 

What time the white sail of the soul is rounding 
The misty cape the promontory Death ! 

Rest then, martyr, pass'd through anguish mortal, 
Rest then, saint, sublimely free from doubt, 

Rest then, patient thinker, o'er the portal, 

Where there is peace for brave hearts wearied out. 


long unrecognised, thy love too loving. 
Too wise thy wisdom, and thy truth too free ! 

As on the teachers after truth are moving 
They may look backward with deep thanks to thee. 

By his dear Master's holiness made holy, 
All lights of hope upon that forehead broad, 

Ye mourning thousands quit the minster slowly. 
And leave the good Archbishop with his (rod. 





MY earliest recollections of Archbishop Whately go back to the 
year 1833. And the very first thing that I remember of him left 
such an impression of his kindness of heart as thirty years more 
of his acquaintance and friendship served only to deepen. He 
was standing on the steps of my father's house, in Baggot Street, 
just as I, with my brothers and sisters, came home from our after- 
noon walk. I can distinctly recall his voice, and his benevolent 
smile, as he cried out, three or four times, ( I see little lambs ' 

* I see little lambs ; ' and coming to the edge of the steps, 
gathered five or six of the younger ones into his arms, and 
then walked into the house with one of us upon his shoulder. 
All children naturally took to him, and seemed, with the quick 
and correct intuition of childhood, to understand and trust his 
love for them. In after-years I used to observe, when walking 
with him in St. Stephen's Green, how the young children used 
to stop and smile up at him, and how some of the little ones 
who were accustomed to see him there, and whom he often 
delighted by sending his dog to fetch and carry for their amuse- 
ment, used even to run up to him with the. familiar salutation 

* Artsbissop I * This he was always pleased with ; often stooping 
to take up some little toddler into his arms, or laying his hand 
upon its head and passing on with a half-murmured word of 
blessing. In the Female Orphan House, and in the National 
Model Schools, which he used often to visit, he particularly 
endeared himself to the children ; and I think many of them 

1 Son of the late Bishop DicMnson. 


will be not the less staunch episcopalians in after-life because 
their first idea of a bishop is that of one who never forgot the 
words of the Chief Bishop and Shepherd, ' Suffer little children 
to come unto me.' 

The suspicion and distrust with which he was met on his 
arrival in Ireland, were such as he could not be wholly unpre- 
pared for. As an Englishman, and one who kept aloof from 
all parties, he could hardly have been generally popular ; but 
the bitterness of opposition he encountered was such, that he 
must have been more or less than man had he not felt it. It 
was natural, therefore, that he should draw into his special 
confidence and friendship those few who did from the first 
understand the goodness and honesty which came in later 
years to be recognised by all ; nor is he fairly to be blamed 
if, with his natural confidingness of disposition, he was some- 
times deceived by the pretence of sympathy and a co-operation 
not perfectly disinterested. The very show of kindness was 
something refreshing in the midst of the hostility which, on all 
sides, encountered him. 

It would give needless pain to many to refer more particu- 
larly to those years of opposition. But no one can do full 
justice to the character of the Archbishop who has not the 
records of that period before him. I well remember how the 
whole Irish press, day after day, month after month, year 
afterjear, continued to pour out invectives, accusations, and 
innuendoes, and how eagerly these were taken up and repeated 
from mouth to mouth. That the Archbishop was a c Jesuit * was 
whispered here and there; acute physiognomists saw something 
suspicious in the look of his hall-porter ; and when, at lust, 
some one found out that in the words 'Ricardtis Whatoly* 
might be spelt out the mystic number 666, the evidence against 
his Protestantism was felt to be conclusive. Things of this 
sort, of course, only amused him ; but there was a determined 
opposition, and an obstinate distrust, which constantly put real 
difficulties in his way, and thwarted his efforts for the good of 
the diocese and of the Church in Ireland generally. A friend 
of his was one day making a journey on the top of a coach, and 
had for fellow-passenger a Boman Catholic gentleman. The 
conversation turned on the Archbishop, about whom Kotnan 
Catholic papers were then respectful or silent, < But how is it 
that the members of your Church never abuse him ? ' it was asked. 


f Oh, we leave that to you. You Protestants do it so well that 
you save us the trouhle ; not that we like him any "better than 
you perhaps ; but then, you see, you do our work very effec- 
tively yourselves.' 

Through all this storm of obloquy, which blew with hardly 
diminished violence for a quarter of a century, the Archbishop 
held on his way unswervingly. And judging from his conduct, 
some might have thought he did not feel it. But that he did, 
and very keenly. 

He was not, in his manful perseverance in duty, buoyed up 
by either hope or stubbornness. Many persons are kept steady 
to their point and purpose by a sanguine temper or an obstinate 
disposition. But Archbishop Whately was not at all sanguine ; 
on the contrary, he was so hopeless as almost always to anti- 
cipate failure in everything he undertook. And, if he had given 
way to the bias of his natural constitution, he would have been 
over-yielding, indulgent and compliant. 

To anything like severity of discipline it was an effort of pain 
to bring himself; but he held firmly to truth and duty, upon 
principle. He formed his convictions and purposes upon reasons 
which he had deliberately weighed and believed to be sound. 
When he had once made up his mind, he went straight on his 
way, as steadfastly as though he had never heard the voice of 
obloquy, while those who knew him well knew that he often 
went with a bleeding heart, feeling intensely the opposition of 
many whom he respected and loved, yet never flinching for that 
or any other consideration, from the path of duty. 

It needs not to be concealed that for some of this unpopularity 
the Archbishop's manner was to be blamed. Nothing could 
have been more mild and tolerant and conciliatory than were 
his Charges, Pastoral Letters, and Addresses ; and to all those who 
could appreciate his thorough truthfulness, these gave the real 
measure of the man, and made them comparatively indifferent 
to the peculiarities of manner by which those who did not know 
him so well 01 judged him hastily were apt to be offended. He 
gave offence to many quite unintentionally. It often happened 
that when he was walking through the street and much pre- 
occupied in conversation or in thought, he either did not ob- 
serve at all, or only half-noticed, in an absent way, the salutation 
which was offered in passing. And this was sometimes mistaken. 
In his manners there was at times a startling brusquerie by 


which shy people were made uncomfortable and proud people 
affronted. Absence of mind and shyness were very erro- 
neously, yet not unnaturally, interpreted as rudeness. He 
would often enter a room, and with scant salutation or none at 
all begin abruptly upon the subject of which his mind was full ; 
and then perhaps quit it as suddenly, forgetful of the xisual 
courtesies of farewell. He had been perhaps just introduced to 
some one who was of consequence or else supposed himself to 
be so. And such a person might have been easily charmed out 
of his previous prejudices if the Archbishop had been an adept 
in those social arts by which other men are able very harm- 
lessly and allowably to smooth over opposition. But he was 
no such adept, and had no arts of any sort. He was natural 
even to a fault ; and in the careless familiarity of the College 
common-room had acquired a habit of forgetfulness as to the 
smaller conventionalities of life, which was, no doubt, a not un- 
frequent hindrance to him. And yet he could, on occasion, 
comport himself with a dignity and even courtly politeness, 
which sat gracefully enough upon him, though it was not lus 
most characteristic and ordinary bearing. At his own dinner- 
table he was always courteous and particularly attentive as a 
host. No matter how earnestly engaged in conversation, lie 
stood ready to receive his clergy one by one as they came in on 
his monthly dinner-days, and at the table never failed to take 
especial and friendly notice of the greatest stranger among his 
guests. He would occasionally, in the keenness of discussion, 
seem peremptory and somewhat impatient of contradiction. 
Seeing very clearly himself, and having reasons which he believed 
to be sound and logical for his opinions, he was apt sometimes 
to betray by his manner that he believed the persevering dissent 
of his opponent to be the result of obstinacy, stupidity, or pre- 
judice, and to assume the man to be, as he would sometimes 
say, 'proof-proof.' 

He was often merciless enough in his use of the logical 
weapon reductio ad dbsurdum; and as the reaaoner feels 
generally too much sympathy with his argument to enjoy this 
mode of refutation, especially in public, the Archbishop's an- 
tagonists, whether convinced or not, often gave way. Yet no 
one, I think, ever suspected him of wishing to ride down an 
opponent by any official weight or force of his episcopal 
authority. His eagerness arose, on the contrary, from forget- 


fulness of these. His clergy could hardly be expected to forget 
that they were arguing with their Archbishop; and it was 
not easy, even for a beneficed clergyman, under such circum- 
stances, to hit out well, and press his points as tellingly as at 
an ordinary clerical meeting. But the Archbishop on such 
occasions forgot that he was anything more than Dr. Whately; 
he felt and spoke as if he were back again in the common-room 
debating with his equals. If he spoke ex cathedra, it was not 
as from an episcopal throne, but rather as from the seat of the 
Professor. The youngest curate was just as free to enter the list 
with him as any dignitary who might be present ; and, indeed, 
would have been likely to receive a gentler handling than the said 
dignitary ; and the Archbishop was always better pleased upon 
the evenings when the discussion had been open and animated. 
He was so wholly free from any thought of throwing his epis- 
copal dignity into the scale in such conversational debates, that 
he would have even felt surprised and incredulous if any one 
had hinted to him that his official position laid a restraint on 
his antagonists in argument. He never wished people to seem 
or be afraid of him in any way, and always liked most such 
persons as were not. I shall ever think it a great pity that 
this part of his character was not generally understood. Because, 
not really knowing him, many men felt repelled and stood 
aloof or drew aside, whom therefore he naturally concluded 
to be either entirely opposed to him in principle or kept 
away by personal dislike ; and, of course, neither of these cir- 
cumstances can come to any man in the light of a recommenda- 
tion. It has been sometimes said of him that he liked only 
those who agreed with him or who seemed to do so. I can, 
however, testify that I have often heard him speak with sincere 
respect and regard of many who differed from him very much, 
and who spoke out their differences too. There was one clergy- 
man who, whenever present at the monthly clerical dinner, 
used with especial boldness to enter into argument with the 
Archbishop, and firmly, though always with Christian and 
gentlemanly mildness, would hold his ground against him. 
And towards that man the Archbishop had, I know, the most 
kindly feeling. He liked him all the better for his quiet 
courage. But, in point of fact, there really never was an 
archbishop or bishop in whose presence his clergy felt less 
restraint And though men too shy or too proud to risk 


encounter with so acute a dialectician as the Archbishop, held 
back and were silent on these ocasions, they will remember that 
those who chose to take it had always full liberty of speech. 
There was, assuredly, no official stiffness at those gatherings of 
his clergy. Clergymen from other dioceses, who occasionally 
dined at the Palace, expressed surprise at the e free-and-easy ' 
friendliness of these social meetings. The Archbishop was 
anxious to make all feel at home. He did not even like men 
to stand upon the order of their going ; but when the door into 
the other room was thrown open and dinner announced, he 
would sometimes call out, if he observed delay for such puncti- 
lios, c Now then, bundle in, curates, rectors, archdeacons, deans, 
bundle ID, bundle in ! ' He certainly c held no man's person in 
admiration, because of advantage.' 

N"or was he influenced by personal considerations in his ap- 
pointments. Whoever will take the trouble to look over the 
list of clergy whom he promoted may see the names of several who 
held opinions different from his on certain points of doctrine, 
or the national education question, and in politics. 

His thorough dislike of party spirit made him feel sympathy 
with any one who made profession of the same dislike, and who 
disclaimed connection with any declared party in Church or 
State. It did not occur to him that in some cases this show 
of independence might be put on, from a spirit really the very 
opposite. Because when he, himself, took such and such steps, 
or refused to join in such and such measures, he acted from an 
independent love of truth, and not from the desire of pleasing 
any one, he forgot that some might join him in that apparently 
independent course of action from the less worthy motive of 
pleasing him. He gave them credit for an unworldly temper, 
forgetting that, in fact, the Palace was to them the world. 

He saw himself morally as well as intellectually reflected in 
those who came near him ; and often fancied congeniality of 
sentiment and feeling where there was little or none. 

He was, besides, so wholly truthful, and free from secondary 
motives in what he did and said, that he was apt to take the 
sincerity of other people for granted. He was most unsuspicious, 
and was accordingly sometimes deceived. 

' He drew around him a cordon of flatterers,' says an un- 
friendly Eeviewer; and, if the truth is to be told as I desire to 
tell it, there is enough foundation for the sneer to claim some 


notice of it, particularly as the same thing has been elsewhere 
and frequently repeated. 

There was a sort of flattery administered to him by some, 
and much too trustfully and favourably accepted by him, I will 
acknowledge. But it was flattery of a peculiar sort. It did 
not take the form of praise ; it did not appeal to the ' love of 
approbation,' to speak the language of the phrenologists. This 
principle, indeed, I have said, the Archbishop naturally had, 
and strongly ; but, having it, he deserves all the more credit for 
life-long self-denial upon this point; for conscientious perse- 
verance, in the face of painful hostility and continued unpopu- 
larity, in saying what he thought true, and doing what he 
thought right. He never spoke or acted m order to gain praise. 

There were, however, two other parts of bis character quite 
as strong naturally, one of which a sense of duty as well as in- 
clination helped to make constantly stronger; the other, a 
feeling which does not seem to ask control so obviously as does 
the love of approbation. Among the active principles of Arch- 
bishop Whately's mind the strongest was, doubtless, his love of 
teaching. He carried this to Oxford; he fostered it there in' 
the lecture-room, in the common-room, and in the parks, where 
he was always seen, at leisure hours, with some disciple. If in 
his personal bearing he was not always tf gentle unto all men,' 
yet was he eminently c apt to teach. 5 His bitterest enemy could 
not deny to him this qualification for the episcopate* 

He was above all other things ^CUCTIKOS. Nothing was more 
characteristic of him than the persistent energy with which he 
set himself to indoctrinate everybody, on all sides, right and 
left, with the religious, social, and ecclesiastical views which he 
held to be true. 

Again, among passive sentiments, none was more alive in the 
Archbishop than his craving for sympathy, for intellectual 
sympathy especially. Meeting, as he continually did, with the 
opposition of the many, he was thrown for the satisfaction of 
this craving upon the few, and therefore he hailed it with un- 
concealed and artless delight whenever he saw or thought he saw 
it It was a keener hunger with him, because so often starved ; 
and it was not perhaps so discriminating in its appetite as it 
might have been but for the painful and compulsory fasts it had 
so often to keep. 

Some who wished to gain his favour made a habit of inquiring 


his opinion or asking Ms counsel on this question ortLat; he 
was of course delighted to get a pupil ; pleased not on his own 
account only, but because of the opportunity of teaching others 
standing by. He would call such a person ' a very good anvil.' 
It sometimes did happen, I know, that he saw through the 
motive of the inquiry obvious enough indeed to fill bystanders 
with disgust but he would take advantage of the opportunity 
of teaching nevertheless, thereby giving the impression that he 
was gratified by getting it, and holding out encouragement to 
those who sought in this manner to please him. 

Oftener than not, however, he imputed his own guileless 
honesty to the questioner, and gave him credit for a sincere 
desire to learn ; and then, when he found him an apparently 
intelligent disciple, bringing out something which he had really 
learnt from one of Whately's own books, the Archbishop would 
hail the opinion with pleasure as a quite * undesigned coin- 
cidence,' and think that he had found another like-minded with 
himself. In this way, his love of teaching and his dosire for sym- 
pathy exposed him to the charge of allowing, if not accepting, 
what other people saw to be flattery. 

It is a curious circumstance, but perhaps not so uncommon as 
might be at first supposed, that one who had so intense a craving 
for sympathy as the Archbishop had, should nevertheless have 
had small power of sympathy himself. And yet I think it was 
the want of this natural gift which deprived him of what may bo 
properly called ' Influence.' In one of his Commonplace Books 
he speaks of this as a subtle sort of force, which it is difficult to 
account for ; and he often expressed his consciousness of wanting 
it. c Whatever impression I make or ever have made upon the 
minds of others has always been by force of arguments and never 
by influence in the correct sense of the word.' This I frequently 
heard him say. But it may be doubted whether any one can 
exercise this subtle force called c influence' who has not either the 
natural power, or the art, of throwing himself into the feelings 
and circumstances of those he meets in other words, the power 
of sympathy. And perhaps a very extraordinary strength, con- 
sistency and fixedness of character like the Archbishop's la in- 
compatible with the possession of this in any great degree, A 
man who sees truths obscurely or superficially, or who has an 
undecided hold of his opinions, or who has an impressible 
imagination easily coloured by present circumstances, will not 


only be able to sympathise more readily with those with 
whom he converses, but will be unable to prevent himself from 
sympathising oppositely and inconsistently, just as depends upon 
his company. I rather think that among great men, strong 
leaders of speculative thought, and men who have cut their 
way through difficulties in action, the larger Dumber would be 
classed among what may be called c unsympathising characters.' 
They may be genuinely philanthropic, large-hearted, benevolent, 
unselfish. All this Archbishop Whately was. A man of larger 
or truer benevolence there never lived. And yet his habits of 
reflectiveness and self-concentration, his searching acuteness 
of judgment, his rigid consistency of principle and habit, made 
it difficult for him to throw himself into the thoughts and 
feelings of persons who widely differed from him; and his 
straightforward simplicity made it equally hard to assume the 
show of sympathy when he did not feel it. 

Being unable (whether from general force of character, or 
from the weakness of a particular faculty, or from the natural 
connection of these two circumstances, need not be determined) 
to put himself into sympathy with other men, he required all 
the more that other men should be, or else should place them- 
selves in sympathy with him. Hence he could not easily make 
a close friend of any one whose opinions set him at a distance. 
It was not, however, dogmatism or arrogance, or self-esteem., as 
some untruly supposed, that estranged the Archbishop from 
persons who diverged from him in sentiment, or led him to 
look coldly upon them from the first, but simply the absolute 
necessity for that sympathy which was, with him, an essential 
basis of friendship. Dr. Arnold is, I think, the only instance 
among his close and chosen friends of one whose opinions 
differed considerably from his own. But there was a thorough 
moral sympathy between the men that was quite strong enough 
to bridge over all differences. Arnold's intense love of truth 
and manly simplicity of character were thoroughly appreciated 
and loved by Dr. Whately. 

One of the Archbishop's examining chaplains was Dr. James 
Wilson, afterwards Bishop of Cork. He was a man of literary 
tastes, aod a fair share of learning, and though no writer 
himself, his critical acumen was valued highly by the Arch- 
bishop. He had a certain dry humour which was a constant 
amusement to Dr. Whately, who enjoyed greatly the recol- 
lection and repetition of some of his sayings. 


Speaking one day of a newly risen sect of religionists who 
proscribed the use of animal food, the Archbishop said to Dr. 
Wilson, c Do you know anything, Wilson, of this new sect?' 
f Yes, my Lord ; I have seen their confession of faith, which is 
a book of cookery,' 

On one occasion when Dr. W. was asked to subscribe his name 
to a testimonial in favour of some one whom he thought, not 
very highly of, yet did not wish to refuse, and who had had his 
testimonial signed already by clergymen whose names carried 
small weight, he got out of his difficulty by writing, ; I know 
the value of the above signatures. Jas. Wilson.' But the Arch- 
bishop was too straightforward himself to approve of this ruse, 
and, though amused, blamed Dr. Wilson for it at the time. 

I remember hearing Dr. Wilson give, in his driest way, a very 
entertaining account of an interview which he had one day with 
a lady who called at his own house. She wanted him to bring 
an appeal on her behalf before the Archbishop ; and stated her 
case with much eagerness and irrepressible volubilitj^ Unable 
to stem the torrent, Dr. Wilson sat, rustic-like, waiting for the 
stream to spend itself, which, unlike Horace's river, it did at 
last. When the good lady, mistaking the Doctor's patient 
silence for conviction and consent, wound up her loug mid dis- 
cursive harangue with the final appeal, ' Well now, I may depend 
upon you. Sir, to state all this to the Archbishop?' the very 
unsatisfactory reply which she received was, e Madam, I make 
it my business to intercept as many as possible of these com- 

Archbishop Whately was, at that time, very active, and used 
In the afternoon to take long walks with my father (then his 
chaplain). The Pydgeon House l Wall and Sandymount Strand 
were their favourite places of exercise. On their way to the 
latter place they generally crossed over the river Dodder, by a 
toll-bridge (since then removed). And it very frequently hap- 
pened that neither the Archbishop nor his chaplain had enough 
money about them to pay the penny-toll ; so they had to pass 
over the bridge on credit. I think two of the happiest periods 
of the Archbishop's life were when he was engaged in conceit 
with my father in compiling the ' Lessons on Christian Evidences,* 
and afterwards when in conjunction with Dr. Fitzgerald (now 

1 So properly spelt, being named from people of tha name 
who had a house of entertainment there in the last century. 


Bishop of Killaloe) he was writing the ' Cautions for the Times.' 
He always enjoyed his literary occupations most when shared by 
one or two fellow-labourers. Some of the chapters in the Evi- 
dences were worked out in the course of walks upon Killiney 
shore with Dr. Dickinson, and with Archdeacon Bussell, the 
biographer of the Rev. Charles Wolfe. When Archdeacon E. 
suggested to the Archbishop the chapter < On the Character of 
Our Lord, 5 he said, <Yes, a most important evidence indeed, 
but I know of only one man who could have treated that subject 
as it ought to be treated, and that is your friend Wolfe.' He 
greatly admired this writer ; and showed appreciation of his 
poetic and imaginative eloquence by frequently reciting those 
passages from his sermons which he has quoted in his volume 
on c Rhetoric.' 

In preparing his charges or addresses, he made it his constant 
practice to read what he had written to several of his friends, 
and to ask their judgments before publication. He was re- 
markably candid, and ready to listen to any suggestion that 
might be made. He never slighted any emendation, however 
trifling, and never resented any criticism, however boldly 

He was pre-eminently a man of c major premises ' ; and where 
his readers dissent from his conclusions, it is, in the majority of 
cases (I am inclined to think), in the minor premise that the 
difference will be found. In words that non-logicians will 
understand, his general principle is almost always true, while 
in his application of it to particular cases there may be, now 
and then, something to question. In reducing such and such a 
case, thing, subject, &c., to the class of which something has in 
the major premise been truly predicated, the soundness of the 
argument will often depend upon a special knowledge of facts 
and details. An accurate acquaintance with these, or a close 
and critical investigation of them, would show perhaps that 
there is some particular circumstance essentially distinguishing 
the subject of the minor premise from the class (or description 
of things) under which it is proposed to reduce it. Almost 
always sound in his general principles, invariably logical in his 
conclusion, the flaw in the Archbishop's reasonings, where there 
is any, arises, I think, from his not knowing or overlooking 
some qualifying circumstance, the knowledge of which depended 
on faculties of minute and patient observation, which except 



perhaps in the region of natural history he did not very 
prominently possess ; or on familiarity with a certain kind of 
learning which he did not much care to cultivate. He was too 
wise to he far wrong in the general principle of his syllogism, 
too clearly and acutely logical to blunder in his conclusion ; but 
he was, on some subjects, not deeply enough read to be quite 
safe against objection in his minor premise what some logi- 
cians have called the Argument. 

Of his examinations for Holy Orders, his daughter has spoken 
in this memoir. 

He never received any candidate till he had first passed the 
examination of one of his chaplains. The object of this plan 
was a benevolent one. It was in order that none might be 
exposed to the pain of feeling and of reporting to his friends 
that he was rejected by the Archbishop ; for it was understood 
that the chaplain's preliminary examination was quite a private 
one, and that in cases where he advised the candidate not to 
present himself without some further study, the recommendation 
was given in confidence, and the opportunity left to him ac- 
cordingly of offering himself without prejudice, when better 
prepared, to the Archbishop. 

When the names of the candidates were given in, and they 
were reported as satisfactory, the Archbishop appointed them to 
come three or four on each day. He gave them written ques- 
tions to answer, and subjects on which to write short sermon- 
outlines ; receiving them separately into another room, where he 
and his chaplains sat round a table; and always examining 
them one by one. This plan he preferred, both as more agreeable 
to the candidates and as testing the knowledge of each bettor 
than he thought could be done at an examination where the 
right answer may be gathered by one out of the misses of another. 
As for the candidates, I think the other plan would aftor all 
have been less formidable, if I may judge of others* feelings 
from my own. For, long and intimately as I had known the 
Archbishop before, I felt frightened enough at my own exami- 
nation for Orders, in being the solitary object for his Grace 
and five or six more divines to look at and question, and I 
should have felt the presence of my companions a very 
great relief. However, there was really nothing in the Arch- 
bishop's manner to alarm* He was an uncommonly patient 
and indulgent examiner^ always giving the candidate full time 


to deliberate, and with quick kindness catching the first approach 
to a correct reply. In the latter years of his life, his hearing 
was imperfect, and his articulation less distinct than formerly. 
It sometimes happened, therefore, that when he put a question, 
and found it not heard or not answered at once, he repeated it 
much louder than he was himself aware. This gave the im- 
pression of impatience, and if the candidate was not prepared 
for it beforehand, rather increased his nervousness. But it 
arose from the physical causes I have referred to. 

But on the whole, I think his extraordinary love of teaching 
made him, in the same ratio, a rather less good examiner. He 
often forgot the examiner altogether in the teacher, and spent so 
long a time in explaining and instructing, that by the end of an 
hour he had got much more into the candidate than he had got 
out of him. And I have seen him also much pleased with a 
candidate whose merit lay rather in being a quick and intelli- 
gent pupil than in the manifestation of any profound knowledge 
of his business. But the Archbishop would form his estimate 
of a man's general ability and intellectual fitness to teach more 
by the first of these tests than the second. 

He never would be persuaded to prescribe any course of 
books for his examination. * I shall examine, 5 he would say, 
' in the Bible and Prayer-book. Eead anything and everything, 
I don't care what, that will assist you to understand these two.' 
He used to scoff at what he was accustomed to call the semn- 
dum quern style of examination which is adopted in our 
universities. Yet, having written on all the theological subjects 
which he, himself, thought most important, it was impossible for 
him to keep clear of these when examining, and consequently a 
knowledge of Whately's writings would always serve a candidate 
materially in the Archbishop's examination- He never, how- 
ever, required any of his own books to be read ; nor did he, in 
the least, care whether the knowledge of what he asked had 
been derived from him or from any one else. 

He always made it a rule to examine very carefully in the 
Epistles. When he came over to Ireland he was asked to adopt 
a course of examination to which other Bishops had agreed. 
They had consented not to examine candidates for deacons' 
orders in the Epistles. The Archbishop asked, * Are deacons 
then to be forbidden to preach from the Epistles during their 
diaconate ? ' ' Oh ! no, certainly not ; that is not contemplated.' 


' Then,' answered his Grace, ' if they are to be allowed to preach 
from them, it is as well to see whether they know them or not.' 

He had a sort of blunt common-sense that would march 
straight on to a conclusion, brushing aside all theories and 
plausible reasons that might be offered to the contrary. This 
was sometimes rather provoking to people who came to him 
prepared to argue out a question, and found themselves 
suddenly either compelled to see the matter in a strong light 
which had not heretofore presented itself, or to perceive that 
the Archbishop was not easily to be taken by surprise by any of 
the arguments they had provided themselves with. No matter 
how one might try to mystify the subject or put it another way, 
the Archbishop would persistently turn his lantern upon it, 
and would not let any sophistry divert him from the one point 
which he believed conclusive. He always, indeed, would give 
a patient hearing to arguments on the other side, but with a 
pitiless sort of pertinacity he would force back the arguer to 
the main question, till he had left him no escape. He was a 
very impartial chairman at committee meetings and boards, 
securing to every one a patient hearing. He was always very 
quick in seizing the salient point of a discussion, and showed 
the bent of his intellect in reducing a disputed question 
promptly, whenever it was possible to do so, under some general 
principle on which his mind had been made up. Whenever he 
could do this, he seemed to find it a relief from the considera- 
tion of details and minor points of which he soon grew weary ; 
and there was sometimes a difficulty in making him see that the 
particular case did not come under the general principle so cer- 
tainly as he supposed. But when the distinction was brought 
under his notice, no one could be more candid in reconsidering 
his first decision, and allowing full weight to further argument, 
clearly and fairly set before him. 

At public meetings he showed himself possessed of one rare 
and very enviable gift, which is, indeed, of much convenience to 
a chairman. Whenever he was obliged to listen to a speech 
delivered in his presence, of which he did not feel approval, and 
did not wish to express ^approval, he had the faculty of look- 
ing as if he did not hear a word. He fixed his eyes on vacancy* 
and banished all expression of every kind from his face, ao that 
people who peeped forward, curious to see < how the Archbishop 
waa taking it', could gather as little from his countenance as if 


it had been carved out of stone. I remember observing this with 
much amusement at a certain public meeting, in the course of 
which one speaker made an harangue which was pre-eminently in- 
judicious. He appealed to the Archbishop, every now and then, 
as cognisant of circumstances which, with singular indiscretion, 
he was detailing to the meeting, saying, e Your Grace is aware of 
so and so ; your Grace will recollect what I refer to,* and so 
forth. But his Grrace evidently recollected nothing, and looked 
as if he were stone-deaf. I congratulated him, after the 
meeting, on his success, and asked him how he manag*ed it. 
I think it was a half-unconscious art with him ; however, he 
seemed amused, and asked me in reply, if I had ever heard a 
story of the late Lord Melbourne ? Lord Melbourne (he told 

me) was in the House one evening, when stood up to 

speak on the Government side. The speech was a very indis- 
creet one; the speaker dashed into topics about which Ministers 
would rather have had nothing said, and in the course of bis 
remarks, turned towards the bench where Lord M. was sitting, 
saying, * The noble Lord at the head of the Government is 
fully aware of the accuracy of what I state; the noble Lord, 
having been present at the interview of which I speak, will bear 
his testimony.' The only answer from the Treasury bench was 
a loud snore. 

On oratory apart from logic the Archbishop set little value. 
A dull speech, if sensible and to the point, would meet a much 
more indulgent hearing .and criticism from him than one that 
might, perhaps, bring to the platform thunders of applause. 
Of clap-trap he was intolerant. His presence, therefore, as 
chairman was felt an uncomfortable sort of restraint by those 
who scarcely dared to hazard, in his unsympathetic hearing, 
their customary flights of Celtic fervour. In the presence of so 
acute a logician few could be brave enough to utter the 
unsubstantial nothings or use ad capta/ndum arguments. 


From a Friend. 

I have Been asked to add a few reminiscences of my own to 
this Memoir, and I cannot refuse to comply, for it was my 
privilege to know much of that gentler side of the Archbishop's 
character, which was best seen by those who were admitted into 
the inner circle of his varied life. They can testify to his 
patience under heavy domestic sorrow, and to his self-control. 

Ever ready to lay open the stores of his richly-filled memory , 
nothing pleased him more than to be asked a question by any 
one who really desired information ; and his peculiarly happy 
method of impressing all that he taught upon the minds of those 
whom he instructed made it a great pleasure to draw him out in 
this way, to question him, and even to be questioned by him a 
process which invariably followed his giving any reply. Ho 
would spare no pains to illustrate his meaning, nor to convey 
knowledge which was desired. One day he had to go some 
distance on very painful business ; but he did not forget that 
about a mile out of his way was to be found a rare shrub which 
his visitor from London had never seen, and he drove round 
to procure a branch to show her. 

With all his lack of e veneration,' the Archbishop had a deep 
reverence for the Scriptures, and the doubts by which he lived 
to see them assailed were very painful to him even to hear of. 

* Have you ever read any of 's books ? ' he asked me one 

day, mentioning one of the leaders of the f Doubting School* 
I replied that I had not. c Then do not read them,' ho added ; 

< if I were , I would deny the whole Bible at once ; that 

would be much less trouble than picking it to pieces as he is 
doing.' In 1861, I was visiting the Archbishop's son-in-law 
and daughter at Shelford, and we visited the Geological Museum 
at Cambridge with him one day. On the way thither he had 
expressed a strong opinion against the < Origin of Species,' which 
be had just been reading. When we came to the huge fossil of 
the Dinornis, in this Museum, turning to Mr. Wale, lie exclaimed: 
4 1 wonder how long ib took for this fellow to develop from a 
mushroom ! ' 

His interests in the pursuits of his daughters was great The 


music of one of those at home soothed and cheered him, while 
he had the power of listening; and the sketches of the other 
were a source of much amusement and delight The Arch- 
bishop's inexhaustible flow of humour made him a constant peg 
upon which to hang all sorts of had or revived jokes. < The Arch- 
bishop's last 5 was a stock title for the Irish penny-a-liners, and 
he was frequently amused to see himself heralded forth as the 
author of some miserable pun or antiquated witticism. A well- 
known old joke thus appeared one day, and the Archbishop 
showed it to me, saying in a pathetic tone, * I ought to walk 
about with my back chalked "Kubbish shot here," ' Few, however, 
of his sparkling utterances could be preserved, for they were 
usually connected with circumstances of locality, or of individuals, 
which should be reproduced in order to see their full value. 
One I remember that amused us much at the time. A lady 
from China who was dining with the Archbishop told him that 
English flowers reared in that country lose their perfume in two 
or three years. Indeed I ' was the immediate remark, c I had no 
idea that the Chinese were such de-scent-ers.' 

* What are you doing ? ' the Archbishop asked a visitor one 

day* e Writing for ' was the answer. 'Very well,' he 

rejoined, * use as few words as you can, and mind your similes.' 
ttut I must hasten on, lest I should seem to forget the first of 
those two concise rules. 

The morning of the day on which I arrived at Koebuck, on my 
visit in 1863, was the last on which the Archbishop was wheeled 
in to breakfast. I read to him during that meal, as I had so 
often done before, and in spite of his painful debility, he entered 
into the subject of the paper with great interest, interrupting 
me with questions or remarks, as formerly. On the morning on. 
which the reading of his daughter's MS. of c More about Ragged 
Life in Egypt ' was finished, he took his gold pen from his pocket, 

and giving it to her, said : * I shall never use this again, M ; 

take it, and go on.' 

It was touching to see how clearly he recognised the ap- 
proaching footsteps of death ; how calmly he resigned one object 
of interest after another, and patiently waited for the next 
indication of decay. His careful thought for others was shown 
in many ways, as long as he was able to make himself understood. 
* Do not read to tire yourself,' he was constantly spying. ' Is 
the guard on the fire ? ' he asked a few days before his death, 


when speaking had already become very difficult to him, 6 for I 
was afraid you went too near it.' 

It was about that time that a clergyman from a remote part 
of Ireland called at the house. His name was not known to 
the daughters, and, Mr. Dickinson happening to be out, I was 
requested to see him. Apologizing for his intrusion, the gentle- 
man said that he had come up in the hope of being permitted 
to see His Grace again. I hesitated, and then told him tha<-. the 
Archbishop could no longer receive callers, and rarely now 
recognised any fresh face ; but our visitor urged his plea. * The 
Archbishop educated my sons, and I would give anything to 
look at his face but once more.' I could not resist this, and I 
led him into the room. The Archbishop did not open his eyes, 
but to see him was all that the clergyman wanted; and after 
standing for a few minutes at his bedside, with tears running 
clown his cheeks, he left the house, and I found thab the Arch- 
bishop's munificence had not been previously known to his family. 

The Sunday before his death he seemed unconscious, and I 
read Eomans viii. (a chapter for which he had asked more than 
once during his illness) by his side, not being quite sure, however, 
that he could hear or notice it. Instinctively I read vv. 33, 34, 
as he had taught me to do, on a previous visit : ' Who shall lay 
anything to the charge of God's elect ? ' Is it God, that justi- 
fieth. Who is he that condemneth ? * Is it Christ, that died/ 
&c. The eyes of the dying man opened for a moment, c That 
is quite right/ he whispered. 

A few days afterwards we stood round him, and saw him 
gently * fall asleep/ leaving with us the lasting remembrance of 
the upward look, and the bright and heavenly smile which, not 
many moments before, bad illuminated his face. 

The newspapers of the day duly recorded the circumstances 
of the funeral, and told of every shop being shut, one only 
excepted; of the Cathedral being crowded as Lad never been 
before ; and of such a concourse in the streets of Dublin as had 
not been known on any occasion of a similar kind. A little 
incident escaped them, which he would have noticed with great 
interest, in the case of any one else. 

The remains of the Archbishop were removed from Roebuck 
to the Palace (between three and four miles off) on the evening 
of the day on which he died. On the morning of the funeral, 
a week afterwards, his little black dog c Jet ' was missing. He 


was found on the steps of Lhe Palace when the porter opened 
the door, between six and seven o'clock, and at once went to 
the room in which the body lay. He watched the preparations, 
and when the procession set forth, Jet took up his position 
under the hearse. In this way he accompanied the funeral 
to the door of the Cathedral, and when the coffin was carried 
in, he left the place, and returned to Koebuck. 1 

B. A. W. 

To these Notes the Writer adds a feiu Reminiscences 
of her own. 

All who have read any of my father's works will be aware of 
his careful attention to style. He would never allow a care- 
lessly framed sentence to escape him ; and even in ordinary 
familiar conversation the correctness and clearness of his manner 
of expressing himself was a characteristic which could not fail 
to strike ordinary observers. His words in general might be 
taken down and written in a book as they fell from his lips, 
without any need of alteration or omission, so free was his 
discourse from the colloquial slip-slop expressions and the kind 
of short-hand elliptical manner of speaking so common in 
unconstrained familiar converse. 

Macaulay was his favourite modern historian, and in his 
Essays he took never-failing delight. He would repeat by 
heart whole passages from these essays, and from other favourite 
writers, which seemed to him to possess real eloquence, with a 
spixit and fervour which make these passages identified with 
his memory in the minds of all who knew him well. An apt 
and happy comparison always delighted him; and his own 
peculiar excellence in this department seemed only to make his 
appreciation of others more lively. 

He has been described as nearly destitute of poetical taste ; 
but this is not a fair representation of his mind. His taste in 
poetry was indeed somewhat limited, but what he did like he 
enjoyed intensely. For the modern school of poetry he had 

1 This dog is now in the possession of a friend near Dublin. 


little taste, we might almost say little toleration. Of the poetry 
of his own day, he was impatient of Wordsworth, and Byron he 
admired without taking pleasure in him. But for the poetry of 
Walter Scott he had an intense admiration. He would repeat 
long passages of the * Lady of the Lake ' and * Rokeby ' with 
a spirit and enthusiasm hardly to be exceeded. He delighted 
in Scott's ballads, border minstrelsy, &c., in the shorter 
poems of Campbell and Moore, and in Burns universally. His 
reading of some special favourites was a thing to be long re- 
membered; but the contemplative style of poetry had little 
charm for him, and of the didactic school he was positively 
impatient. Crabbe's < Tales of the Hall ' and ' Borough ' were 
never-failing favourites. He did not like constantly reading 
aloud, but would often take a tale of Crabbe or a passage from 
Scott's poems, and read it with a life and expression which gavo 
it quite a new character. f The Parting Hour, 5 and the cele- 
brated description of the Felon's last sleep in the c Borough,' 
were peculiar favourites ; the latter he could not read without 
deep emotion and a faltering voice. 

Shakspeare was a never- failing favourite, and his reading of 
particular plays and passages was long remembered by his 
friends as a rich intellectual treat. 

Mr. Dickinson has noticed his intense desire for sympathy. 
Perhaps to this strongly-marked characteristic may be referred 
also his dislike of others differing from him on matters of taste 
and feeling, as well as in opinions. This feeling may have led 
at times to the charge of intolerance, as it had sometimes prac- 
tically the same effect; yet no one was more largely tolerant in 
principle. I have mentioned this peculiarity as perhaps ac- 
counting for some apparent discrepancies in his character. 

His knowledge of history was more varied and extensive than 
critically accurate. As was the case with all his pursuits, his 
memory for facts was retentive, whenever those facts could bo 
brought to illustrate principles ; otherwise, as mere facts, he 
cared little for them. 

Of chronology and geography, he would say, c As they are 
called the two eyes of history, my history is stone blind.' * This 
must be taken with some reservation. It is true he was not 
generally ready in remembering names and dates; but anything 
which threw light on the history of mankind generally, or on any 
important principle, moral, political, or social, was eagerly seized 


and carefully retained in his memory. He took great interest 
in military affairs ; and entered even into the minute details of 
sucji changes in the art of war as might re-acton national history: 
even the description of warlike weapons and arms had a charm 
for him; and some of the female members of his family long 
remembered the disappointment they felt, when at a breakfast 
at his friend Mr. Senior's, at which he and Lord Macaulay and 
Sir James Stephen were to meet, instead of the c feast of reason 
and flow of soul ' they had looked forward to 5 in the meeting of 
four such remarkable persons, the conversation ran during the 
whole time on the history of improvements in the implements of 
war, which, to the ladies of the party, could have little interest. 

The curious inventions of savages had a peculiar interest for 
him, and the pleasure he took in trying experiments with the 
Australian bomerang, the thro wing-stick, &c. 3 is remembered 
by all his friends. 

All that concerned the history of civilisation interested and 
occupied him ; and especially all that could throw light on his 
favourite axiom, that man could never have civilised himself ; 
from which it followed necessarily that civilisation was first 
taught to man by his Creator. 

But antiquities, as such, archaeological collections, and frag- 
ments of ancient literature, interesting only as ancient, had little 
charm for him. To this must be ascribed the indifference to 
Irish antiquities with which he has been reproached. That it 
did not arise from want of interest in his adopted country his 
whole life is sufficient proof. But many who sent him c pre- 
sentation copies' of works on these and other subjects were 
disappointed at receiving no distinct acknowledgment; could 
they have taken a glance at his library table, and see the mass 
of volumes which were showered upon him week by week from 
various quarters, they would have needed no other reason for 
his silence. Had he acknowledged one, all must have been 
noticed, and the task would have been well-nigh sufficient to 
employ the entire time of a secretary. 

In the arrangements of his own private study there was a 
curious mixture of order and disorder. To outward eyes the 
contents of his library were thrown together in the most hete- 
rogeneous manner possible books placed side by side without 
the least regard to size, binding, or subject. But lie always 
could find his way through the chaos to any book he wanted, 


and disliked interference with his arrangements; and, above all, 
an attempt to put his books to rights. 

His own literary labours were usually solitary. He did not 
like any one, whether in or out of his immediate circle, to invade 
his sanctum. But after writing a memorandum for his Com- 
monplace Book, or a note for a new edition of one of hip works, 
he liked to bring it to his family and read it aloud to them. 

Rewimiscences by the late Edward Senior, Esq., P.L.G. 

In the year 1836, my regiment having been sent to Dublin, 
I saw a good deal of the Archbishop, both at the Palace and at 
Eedesdale. He was still misunderstood by the upper classes; 
they hated his politics, disliked his political economy, and were 
not favourably impressed by the total absence of pomp, mid 
they dreaded his jokes. 

The Archbishop was to be seen to most advantage at Bedes- 
dale, with Blanco White, Arnold and others gardening, tree 
cutting, and romping with his children and dogs. His fault 
perhaps was 'that he too much despised popular opinion, and 
let people find out that he laughed at their views,' 

In 1852 my duties took me to Dublin. The Archbishop 
had become known and trusted and honoured, especially for 
the perfect purity of his disposal of patronage, and the honesty 
of bis convictions. Moreover, he had resigned his seat as a 
member of the Board of Education, though he continued to 
give it a qualified support. This withdrawal was very pleasing 
to a great body of his clergy. 

Time, moreover, had softened the Archbishop, made him less 
abrupt in manner, more dignified, more tolerant of the opinions 
of others, less hopeful, less active in politics : age, in short, had 
told on him, but with a light hand. 

Later, when paralysis had set in and domestic grief had 
bowed him down, I frequently met the Archbishop in Dublin, 
He was still cheerful, still clear-headed, still taking an active 
interest in the questions of the day, and still anxious to influ- 


ence them for the best. His countenance had changed, a sin- 
gularly noble and benevolent expression shone out as the earthly 
frame dissolved. He looked like a picture by one of the great 
old masters. I believe that all parties, Protestants and Roman 
Catholics, regretted his death, and that it was felt as a public 
loss. But he has left his mark on the opinions and habits of 
his clergy, who are themselves of the future generation, and 
the good that he did may, I hope, be said not to have died 
with him. 

It was known by his friends, that the whole of the income 
he derived from the see (with the exception of the expenses 
absolutely necessary to maintain his position) was entirely devoted 
to charitable objects, and the promotion of the welfare of the 
Church in his diocese. No man was ever freer from nepotism : 
his only son was never raised above the dignity of rector of a 
modest living in Dublin, and the provision he left for his family 
is little more than his private means would have admitted of 
his making. 




Remarlts on Public Life as a Test of Character, 

The following remarks are found in his private note-book, 
after some severe strictures on individual misconduct : 

' On looking back at what I have written, and observing how 
large a proportion of those I have mentioned I have been obliged 
to speak of with reprobation or contempt, it occurs to me to ask 
myself, how is this ? Is it that the world is really so much 
worse than most people think ? or that I look at it with a 
jaundiced eye ? On reflection I am satisfied that it is merely 
this, that I have been much concerned in important public 
transactions, and that it is in these that a man can render him- 
self so much more and more easily conspicuous by knavery or 
folly, or misconduct of some kind, than by good conduct " The 
wheel that is weak is apt to creak." As long as matters go on 
smoothly and rightly they attract little or no notice, and furnish, 
as is proverbial, so little matter for history that fifty years of 
peace and prosperity will not occupy so many pages as five of 
wars and troubles. As soon as anything goes wrong, our atten- 
tion is called to it, and there is hardly any one so contemptible 
in ability, or even in situation, that has it not in his power to 
cause something to go wrong. Ordinary men, if they do their 
duty well, attract no notice except among their personal intimates* 
It is only here and there a man, possessing very extraordinary 
powers, and that too combined with peculiar opportunities, that 
can gain any distinction among men by doing good. 

Inventas aut qui vitana excoluere por artes; 
Qui^ue sui memores alios fecere mereiido. 

f But, on the other hand, almost everybody has both capacity 
and opportunities for doing mischief. " Dead flies cause the 


precious ointment to stink." A ploughman who lives a life 
of peaceful arid honest industry is never heard of beyond his 
own hamlet ; but arson or murder -may cause him to be talked 
about over great part of the kingdom. And there is many a 
quiet and highly useful clergyman, labouring modestly in his 
own parish, whom one would never have occasion to mention 
in any record of public affairs ; but two or three mischievous 
fanatics or demagogues, without having superior ability, or even 
labouring harder, may fill many a page of history. 

' It is not therefore to be inferred from what I have written 
either that knaves and fools are so much more abundant than 
men of worth and sense, nor yet, again, that I think worse of 
mankind than others do, but that I have been engaged in a 
multitude of public transactions, in which none but men of 
very superior powers, and not always they, could distinguish 
themselves for good, while, for mischief, almost every one has 
capacity and opportunities. 

* As for those who take what is considered as a more good- 
humoured view of the world, and seldom find fault with any one, 
as far as my observation goes, I should say that most of these 
think far worse of mankind than I do. At first sight this is a 
paradox ; but if any one examine closely, he will find that it is 
so. He will find that the majority of those who are pretty well 
satisfied with men as they find them do in reality disbelieve 
the existence of such a thing as an honest man I mean of 
what really deserves to be called so. They censure none but 
the most atrocious monsters, not from believing that the gene- 
rality of men are upright, exempt from selfishness, baseness and 
mendacity, but from believing that all without exception are as 
base as themselves, unless perhaps it be a few half-crazy en- 
thusiasts ; and they are in a sort of good-humour with most part 
of the world, not from finding men good 5 but from having made 
up their minds to expect them to be bad. " Bad," indeed, they 
clo not call them, because they feel no disgust at any but most 
extraordinary wickedness ; but they have made up their minds 
that all men are what I should call utterly worthless; and 
" having divided (as Miss Edgeworth expresses it) all mankind 
into knaves and fools, when they meet with an honest man they 
don't know what to make of him." Now he 3 who from his own 
consciousness is certain that there is at least one honest man in 
the world, will feel all but certain that there must be more. 


He will speak indeed in stronger terms of censure than the 
other of those who act in a way that he would be ashamed of 
and shocked at in himself, and which to the other seems quite 
natural and allowable ; but, on the other hand, if any one does 
act uprightly, he will give him credit for it, and not attribute 
his conduct (as the other will be sure to do) either to hypocrisy, 
or to unaccountable whim, to a secret motive, or to none at all. 
So that, as I said, he who at the first glance appears to think 
the more favourably of mankind, thinks in reality the less 
favourably, since he abstains from complaining of or blaming 
them, not from thinking them good, but from having no strong 
disapprobation of what is bad, and no hope of anything better. 
* Most important is it, especially for young people, to be fully 
aware of this distinction. Else they naturally divide men into 
those who are disposed to think well of men in general, and 
those disposed to think ill ; and besides other sources of con- 
fusion, will usually form a judgment the very reverse of the 
right, from not thinking at all of the different senses in which 

men are said to think well or to think ill of others. 
******* * 

c In short, one must make the distinction, which sounds very 
subtle, but is in truth great and important, between one who 
believes men generally to be what he thinks bad, and what is 
in reality bad ; between one who approves, or does not greatly 
disapprove, the generality, according to his own standard ; and 

one who thinks them such as we should approve,' 


Public Men. 

Generally speaking, I should say that most public men I 
have known have rather a preference for such persons as have 
no very high description of intellect, or high principle, but 
wfco have understanding enough to perceive readily what is 
wanted of them by men in power, and who can be depended on 
to do it faithfully and unscrupulously, and to defend it with 
some plausibility; avoiding all such absurdities and blunders 
as might get their leaders into scrapes, but wearing winkers like 
a gig-horse to prevent their seeing anything which they have no 


business with. 'None are for me, that look into me with 
inquiring eyes ; henceforth I'll deal with ironwitted fools and 
unrespective boys.' 

One of the errors they are apt to commit in point of policy 
(to say nothing of higher considerations) is to forget how in- 
comparably more important service may be rendered them by a 
man of high intellectual and moral character, if he supports, 
suppose, only two out of three of their measures, than by all the 
third-rate or fourth-rate time-servers they can gather round 
them. A really able man, of unsuspected integrity and public 
spirit, carries more weight when he supports a Minister than a 
whole shipload of such rabble as they usually prefer to him ; 
and when he does not support some measure, that very circum- 
stance has at least the advantage that it proves him not to be 
unduly biassed, and consequently gives double importance to 
the support he does give in other matters. 

Another mistake they are apt to make as to the same point, 
is to suppose too hastily that the man will be as faithful to them 
as a dog, while he has no more notion of fidelity to the public 
and to the principles of rectitude than a dog has ; that one who 
has no troublesome notions of honour and virtue to interfere 
with his being a time-server, will not leave his patrons in the 
lurch when he can advance himself by it. But they are apt, 
when any such thing occurs, to make a great outcry against 
treachery and ingratitude .... and they are apt, too, to take 
for granted that a person of slender ability, not likely to rival 
them as an eminent statesman, or to criticise very powerfully 
their procedure, will not have cunning enough to outwit them 
and play them various tricks. If they were better read in 
Bacon's Essays, these might have shown them (and so might 
daily experience) how much cunning may be possessed by men 
otherwise of mean abilities. 


On Popular Admiration. 

The sort of admiration with which men such as are 

regarded in Ireland has always been a matter of perplexing 
difficulty to me. ( Not that I have not often found a similar 



admiration gained in England by just such qualities as his : 
( versus inopes rerum, nugseque canorse ; ' but then fluent bluster 
and fine-sounding superficial declamation are what the English 
generally are not gifted with. 

The liking of the vulgar, whose tastes and intellect are un- 
cultivated, for all kinds of tinsel is quite natural. But what- 
ever liking savages may have for gaudy beads, they will never 
set a high value on them when very common and cheap ; and 
the great estimation of the English vulgar for such trumpery 
as Prospero put in the way of Caliban and his drunken comrades 
might be understood to proceed from the scarcity among the 
English of fluent orators. But what has always puzzled me is 
that in Ireland, not at all less than in England, we always have 
from time to time certain ranting declaimers followed about and 
applauded by great multitudes, and yet to me, as a stranger, it 
seems as if three out of every four Irishmen could do nearly the 
same. And how a man can gain admiration for a talent so nearly 
universal is the puzzle. I suppose there is some much greater 
difference than I perceive ; and that their appearing to me so 
nearly on a par with each other is just like the mistake of those 
who being unused to negroes fancy they are all alike. . . But 
some kind of talent there must always be in every one who ac- 
complishes an object which many others would accomplish if 
they could, but cannot. 


On the Education Committee m the House* 

It was an unwise thing in me to suffer my name to be on the 
Lords' Committee on the Irish Education Board. I made the 
mistake of supposing that the Lords really regarded it, ass they 
ought to have done as a deliberative, not a judicial question ; 
and that the great object of the Legislature of both Houses was 
to ascertain whether the system was working well for the country, 
and whether any better could be substituted. But they regarded 
it as a judicial question : the Opposition v. the Education Com- 
missioners; with Ministry and their supporters engaged as 
advocates on the side of the latter, as feeling themselves bound 
to support the men and the measures they had brought forward. 
But the Ministers themselves seemed to think they were doing 


something of a favour to the Commissioners in giving them their 
support and grants of public money ; and all supporters as -well 
as opponents of Ministers spoke in a tone as if they thought 
that Parliament had been doing us the favour, in being so good 
as to allow us to burden ourselves with a toilsome office for the 
public good. 

, accordingly, when he spoke on one occasion of the 

unfairness of placing me on the Committee, as if to be a judge 
in my own cause as if I had any personal interest in the 
matter absurd as his remarks intrinsically were, did not depart 
much from the notion afloat in the House. 

Unaware at the time of this kind of feeling in the House, I 
allowed myself to be placed on the Committee, instead of offering 
as I ought to have done to be examined as a witness. 

I remember that not long after this, Lord Anglesey met me 
in the lobby, and was talking about the evidence that had been 
given, and mentioned to me, that he (who had been Lord- 
Lieutenant at the time of my appointment to the see of Dublin) 
had offered himself as a witness, but had bean refused. C I should 
have liked/ said he, * to have had an opportunity of stating what 
I should have thought of the man who would have dared to 
propose conditions to your Grace.' That man knew me. 

On Lord Melbourne as a Statesman. 

After all, Lord Melbourne's plan was to let everything alone, 
good or bad, till forced to make a change. He was the highest 
Conservative I ever knew. For he was not like many so-called, 
who have really persuaded themselves that such and such 
alleged abuses are really good ; he saw in many cases, and, has 
often pointed out to me, the evils of such and suoh institutions ; 
adding, however, that he was very sorry they should ever have 
been meddled with : < I say, Archbishop, all this reforming gives 
a deuced deal of trouble, eh ? eh ? I wish they'd let it all 
alone.' Any change, in whatever department, was to Mm so 
much greater an evil than the continuance of any abuse that he 
would always avoid it if he could. But then he had, which 
most Conservatives have not, shrewdness enough to perceive 

G G 2 


when it was unavoidable, and then he always welcomed it with 
so much gladness that many people were alarmed with a dread 
of his going too far; and thus he offered the most effectual 
check to innovations. For John Bull becomes furious at a very 
obstinate opposition to some change, which he conceives called 
for ; but if it is readily granted, the innate conservatism of the 
nation is called forth very strongly. He is like a restive horse, 
which, if you turn his head away from the ditch he is backing 
towards, and whip and spur him from it, will back the more 
violently ; but if you turn him towards it, and seem rather to 
urge him that way, will shrink from it. Lord Melbourne took 
the latter mode. Yet though he thought with the Tories, and 
acted with the Whigs, I always vindicated him from the charge 
of inconsistency. A man is not a traitor for surrendering a 
town to the enemy when untenable, instead of waiting to have 
it stormed and sacked ; though in so doing he is acting with 
those who wish the enemy to have possession of it, while 
his feelings and wishes are with those who are for holding out 
and dying in the breach. He differed from the Whigs in 
deprecating all changes, good or bad; he differed from the 
(other) Tories in conceding readily what he saw to be inevitable. 
Yet this man will probably go down to posterity as a zealous 
reformer ! A monument to Sir Robert Peel and the Duke as 
the authors of Catholic emancipation and free trade and the 
Maynooth grant, and to Lord Melbourne as the friend to 
parliamentary reform, tithe reform, the Irish Temporalities Act, 
and the abolition of slavery, these should certainly stand side 
by side, and a most laughable pair they would bo. * I sny, Arch- 
bishop, what do you think I'd have done about this slavery 
business, if I'd had my own way ? I'd have done nothing at all ! 
I'd have left it all alone. It's all a pack of nonsense ! Always 
have been slaves in all the most civilised countries; the Greeks 
and Eomans had slaves ; however, they would have their fancy, 
and so we've abolished slavery ; but it's great folly, &c' And 
this was the general tone of his conversation, and a specimen of 
his political views. 



On the Duke of Wellington's Administration. 

Speaking of the Duke's being made Chancellor of Oxford : 
* When Fortune/ says Cicero, e thrusts us into situations for 
which nature has not adapted us, we must do our best to 
perform the part as little indecorously as we can.' But when a 
man thrusts himself into them, a failure, even when it would 
otherwise have been very pardonable, exposes him to just 

The Duke of Wellington exposed himself to derision for not 
having been able to repeat the Latin phrases put before him, 
without making false quantities, on being appointed Chancellor 
of the University of Oxford, though there is many an able 
military and naval commander who could make no better hand 
of it, and who deserves no contempt at all, because he does not 
court nor accept any such office. And if I were to accept the 
command of a troop of cavalry (which, in jest, I asked Lord 
Wellesley to confer on me at that time), I should richly deserve 
scorn for being unhorsed, as I dare say I should be, in the first 
charge. But there was something more inconsistent in the zeal 
with which he entered into the persecution, and refused to wit- 
ness in behalf of Hampden when appealed to against the utterly 
illegal proceedings that were going on. He was just equally 
inflexible to the applications, during the negotiations for the 
general peace of the Vaudois, for some interference to mitigate 
the persecution they were exposed to ; and again, to all the 
claims of the Eoman Catholics for civil rights ; and again", of the 
Jews ; till he found it convenient to yield to popular opinion, 
and bring forward those measures himself. It is all perfectly 
consistent. He is most impartial to all religions. Those who 
are the strongest in each country are, in his view, justified in 
putting down and keeping down all other religionists as long as 
they can; and the inferior party have nothing to do but submit, 
and either profess whatever religion is established, or con- 
tentedly to let themselves be trampled on till they are strong 
enough ; and then let them turn the tables if they can. * Vae 
victis' is his motto. And I never knew any one avow the 
principle more frankly. In the debate on the Jews Belief Bill, 
(when it was thrown out), in replying to me, and among other 


things, to my introduction of the parallel case of the Roman 
Catholic Belief Bill, he denied the parallel, < because,' said he, 
* there was <c a necessity " in that case and not in this.' And, 
indeed, in most of his speeches he used to take every oppor- 
tunity of rather boasting than not of his readiness to grant 
anything to intimidation, and nothing without; although it is 
curious to observe the contrast between his military and his 
political career, and also the high admiration bestowed by a 
large number, at least, on both. What degree of ability 
he showed in each is a matter of opinion ; but his extraordinary 
success in the one, and his uniform failure in the other, is 
a matter of fact To me it seems that the analogous course 
to that which he pursued in politics would, in his campaigns, 
have insured him the like defeats ; in this I may be, perhaps, 
mistaken 5 but at any rate he did succeed in war, and in the 
field of civil government lie most signally failed. I remembor 
that of two different persons, both men of sense (Senior was 
one), to whom I made the remark, each rejoined that there was 
an exception to the list of his failures ; his carrying through the 
difficult measure of the Emancipation. On each occasion I 
expressed my astonishment at this being reckoned an instance 
of success, which I had been reckoning among his moat 
remarkable defeats. Heaven send all my enemies such success ! 
He had utterly disapproved of the measure all along; he did 
not at all cease to disapprove it ; he granted it with a thoroughly 
bad grace ; and gave way because he found, to use his own ex- 
pression, f there was a necessity.' But still it is to be reckoned 
among his great actions, because, forsooth, he did it himself, 
and moreover showed great skill in managing the details 
of the measure! I replied, that if instead of maintain- 
ing himself in the lines of Torres Yedras, he had found him- 
self obliged to abandon them, and had accordingly destroyed 
his magazines to prevent their falling into the enemy's hands, 
spiked his cannon, shot his horses, and embarked his army in 
safety, though he might have received credit for doing the work 
well, it would hardly have been reckoned among his triumphs. 
Now just such was the exploit of carrying, as it was called, the 
great measure of Emancipation. If he had earned matters in 
the same way in war, the French would soon have cleared the 
Peninsula of us. 

And, after all, it was done in such a way as to create no 


gratitude in the parties benefited ; for which, by-the-bye, they 
are often reproached ; but who could suppose them such fools 
as to be grateful to those who granted what they lacked power 
to refuse, and who never even attempted to make a virtue of 
necessity, but always proclaimed that it was *by force and 
against their will.' One might as well be grateful to an ox for 
a beef-steak. But to O'Connell, whom they regarded as the 
butcher that felled the ox, the Irish have always been even 

The tone that the Duke always assumed was that of apolo- 
gising to his own original party for a step which was as dis- 
agreeable to him as to them. And yet after all he was so far 
from pacifying them, that they punished themselves, to be re- 
venged on him, by turning him out for revenge sake. It was 
not his own fault that he did not obtain another such triumph 
by passing the Eeform Bill ; which he offered to do, but could 
not find support. This, which, next to Emancipation, he had 
always most strenuously opposed, was carried in spite of him ; 
and free trade, his other great aversion, is opening its buds, and 
will come into flower probably in his own time ; and this mea- 
sure also he has c carried.' 

He has, indeed, always proved a considerable impediment to 
every measure he disliked ; but he has been always defeated on 
every point, though always making a fight ; and moreover, while 
he always in war foresaw and made timely provision for, a 
retreat, when necessary, in politics he has always maintained 
his position to the last moment, and then surrendered at 


On yielding to Popular Glamour. 

To yield readily whatever is just (whenever it can be done 
with safety to the public and without detriment to the very 
persons sought to be benefited), and firmly to resist unjust 
claims, this, simple as it seems, is the course which, in a country 
like Ireland, is the most difficult to be steadily adhered to. 

The difficulty arises in the case of a people who have been so 
very ill- governed as to have become brutalised and degraded in 
character. A little injustice, a short continuance of a grievance, 


may serve to quicken a person's perception and abhorrence of 
what is wrong, but a long continuance of it debases the cha- 
racter, and produces selfishness, ferocity, craft, and cruelty, com- 
bined. If a man loses, as Homer says, ' half his virtue the 
day he becomes a slave,' he is likely, if he long continue one, to 
lose most of the other half. Never was there a popular and ad- 
mired remark more remote from truth than Sterne's on the negro 
slave : c She had suffered persecution and had learnt mercy. 5 
There cannot be a worse school, at least to remain long in, for 
the learning of mercy. It is found that slaves make the severest 
slave masters; and those who have been the worst treated, as 
slaves, the worst masters ; among others, the boys who have 
been the most cruelly fagged at school are observed to be gene- 
rally the cruellest fag masters. 

Now the result of all this is, that ninety-nine out of a hundred 
are completely under the dominion of one of two errors ; either 
from perceiving the debased, crafty, ferocious spirit, find the 
folly and ignorance of those who have been very long oppressed, 
they thereupon lose all sympathy for them, and consider them 
as deserving a continuance of brutal treatment, because they 
have been brutalised by it ; or else, sympathising with them on 
account of the injustice they have suffered, they are thence led 
to think well of them, and trust them. A man of more goodness 
of heart than strength of head is apt, in such a case, to put 
himself in the place of the sufferers, and consider what an ab- 
horrence of injustice and cruelty he would foci, retaining those 
just and humane sentiments which he actually lias, but which 
they have lost. And thence he will be for setting them quite 
free, and leaving them to right themselves and help themselves 
to what they will, and govern themselves as they please. I hsivo 
always said, on the contrary, that if a persecuted or enslavotl 
people did retain a proper sense of justice,, did remain fit for 
complete self-government, then I should not think persecution 
and oppression near so great evils as I do think them. The moral 
and intellectual degradation they produce are among the chief 
of their attendant evils. But from both the one and the other of 
the above two errors few are found exempt. Generally speaking, 
the Tories fall into the former, and the Whigs into the latter, 
e.g. at the outbreak of the French Revolution one finds the 
Tory writers advocates of the old regime^ and deprecating all 
the innovations and pointing out how unfit for liberty and self* 

TABLE TALK. - 457 

government the French people showed themselves, and the 
Whigs, till fairly frightened out of their wits, exulting in the 
brilliant prospects opening on France from the unrestricted 
licence of a people so long oppressed. These latter were often 
converted, by the horrors of the Bevolution, into the former. 
Sir James Mackintosh seems in a great degree to have gone 
through these two stages. The long-oppressed and now liberated 
people began by destroying their oppressors, and then the whole 
class they belonged to, and then all advocates of moderate 
measures, and lastly, one another. So it was with the negroes 
in Hayti. So it is, and ever will be, safys Thucydides, ' as long 
as human nature remains the same.' And those who cannot 
learn from him cannot learn from experience. For with all 
the examples of history before us, the genuine Tories are for 
bringing back the penal laws or other restrictions in Ireland, 
and the Whigs are for either repealing the Union or letting the 
Irish Koraan Catholics have quite their own way. 

The most difficult of tasks is the cautious and gentle removal 
of an oppressive yoke, and the imparting of freedom and power 
to men, as they are able to bear it. It is more like the feeding 
of the famished than anything else. It is easy to say, ' This 
man's stomach is not in a good state for digestion, therefore 
give him nothing,' or, c The man is hungry, set him down to a 
full table.' In the one case he dies of famine, in the other of 
a surfeit. In like manner, it is a very easy and coarse and 
clumsy procedure to go on treating as children or as brutes 
those who have been long oppressed, and to repress by main 
force all attempts on their part to free or to elevate them- 
selves, and the result is that, at the best, you keep a certain 
number of your fellow-creatures degraded into brutes ; at the 
worst, that a sudden explosion takes place, and you have a sort 
of servile war, or jacquerie. It is equally simple and easy to 
throw the reins on the neck of an unbroken horse. France, 
even in the memory of people now living, has furnished ex- 
amples of both these plans, and their results. But a large por- 
tion of mankind are incapable of learning from experience. 



On the Protestant Church wi Ireland. 

The establishment of a Protestant Church in Ireland, which 
by many thoughtless Liberals and designing demagogues is 
spoken of as a burden to the Irish nation, and which the ultra- 
Protestants speak of as nothing to be at all complained of by 
the mass of the people, should be viewed, though no burden, 
yet as a grievance, as being an insult The real burden to the 
Eoman Catholic population is one which they are not accus- 
tomed to complain of as such : the maintenance of their own 
priests. And, in like manner the Orangemen have been ac- 
customed (as Senior has justly remarked in his Review on 
Ireland, in e The Edinburgh,' two years ago) to defend the insult 
on the ground that it is no injury, and the injury on the 
ground that it is no insult. They say, and truly, that the 
support of the Established clergy is no burden, and again, that 
it is no degradation to the people to maintain, as the Dissenters 
in England do, their own clergy. 

And they have an advantage in maintaining this fallacy, in- 
asmuch as their opponents complain of that as a burden which 
is not the real burden. Misled by this, the Whig ministers 
thought to give satisfaction by lightening the burden when in 
fact there was no burden at all by diminishing the revenues 
of the Church. Whereas, if you were to cut off three-fourths 
of the revenues, and then three-fourths of the remainder, you 
would not have advanced one step towards conciliation, as long 
as the Protestant Church is called the National Church. The 
members of our communion here should be a branch of the 
English Church, just as there is one in India, or in any other 
of our foreign possessions. No one talks of the Church of 
India, or of the * United Church of England, Ireland and 
India.' And there is no jealousy or displeasure excited, as 
there probably would be if the Hindoos and Mussulmans, and 
Parsees, and Roman Catholic Christians, &c. 5 were told that ours 
is the 'National Church' in their country. In advocating Ca- 
tholic Emancipation and the payment of the priests (not, as 
puzzle-headed bigots are accustomed to say, by a Protestant 
government, but out of the revenues of a nation, partly Pro- 
testant and partly Romish, revenues to which both contribute, 


and ia which both have a right to an equitable share), and in 
supporting the system of schools, at which ail should he bona 
fide admissible without doing violence to the conscience of 
parents, who have already, by the law of the land, had conceded 
to hem the right of educating their children in their own faith. 
In all this I and those who thought with me were considered 
as half Papists or Latitudinarians by one party, while by the 
other, the so-called Liberals, were considered as most whim- 
sically inconsistent for our steady opposition to Eoman Catholic 


On the Employment of Time, 

had been speaking of the very great difference in the 

. kind and amount of the talents with which different men are 
intrusted; and added that there was one which all had an 
equal measure of, their time. I took the liberty of remarking 
to him that though this at first sounds even self-evident, it is not 
true when one comes to reflect ; for the twenty-four hours pass 
every day to all men alike, whether they are asleep or awake, 
sick or well. In this sense time is no talent at all ; it is so oaly 
in respect of the quantity of vital energy, of power to act, that 
each person enjoys; and in this there is hardly any kind of 
talent more unequally distributed, the quantity of daily exer- 
tion that men are capable of being very different. 

I also ventured to criticise a passage where he was saying 3 in 
speaking of the recreations of clergymen, that there must "be 
something very bad, morally, in any man who was not made 
quite cheerful and happy by looking at the fields and the sun- 
shine, &c. Knowing, as I did, that good men are not exempt 
from morbid depression of spirits any more than from other 
diseases and trials of various kinds, I deprecated the cruelty of 
loading them with the additional burden, of harsh judgments. 
He took my criticism very fairly, and' did not deny that there 
was something in what I said. 



The task of compiling a complete list of these writings is ren- 
dered extremely difficult by the fragmentary manner in which 
many of them appeared, and his habit of joint composition with 
others. The following is "by no means complete; hut it is 
believed to contain the bulk of his avowed works, and to include 
some to which he only contributed his name and literary as- 
sistance, and others ascribed to him on good authority : with 
the dates of their first publication, so far as these have been 

Historic Doubts relative to Napoleon Bonaparte , . . ,181$) 
Bampton Lectures : Use and Abuse of Party Fooling in Matters of 



Essays on some of the Peculiarities of the Christian Religion , 

Elements of Logic . 

Elements of Rhetoric 

Essays on the Writings of St. Paid 

View of the Scripture Revelations concerning tlio Future State , 1820 

Essays on tlie Errors of Eonianism 

Thoughts on the Sabbath 

Evidence on Tithes , 

Thoughts on Secondary Punishments . . . , 

Beply to G-overnment Plan of National Education , 38,152 

Introductory Lectures on Political Economy i&$$ 

Speech on Jewish Disabilities , ]$&j 

Letter to Earl Grey on Transportation ,..,,. 1834 

Charges and Tracts ^gjjQ 

Introductory Lectures on Christian Evidences , 1838 


Remarks on Shakespeare. By Joseph Whately. With new Preface 1839 

Essays on some of the Dangers to Christian Faith .... 1839 

Speech on Transportation 1840 

The Kingdom of Christ Delineated 1841 

Easy Lessons on Reasoning 1843 

Essay on Self-Denial 1845 

Thoughts on the Evangelical Alliance 1846 

Speech on Irish Poor Laws 1847 

Address on National Schools 

Address on Beneficence 

Preparation for Death : a Lecture 

English Life, Social and Domestic, in the Middle of the Nineteenth 

Century. By Mrs. Whately 1847 

Reverses : or, The Fairfax Family. By Mrs. Whately . 

Religious Worship 1847 

Search after Infallibility 1847 

Instinct: a Lecture 1847 

Four Additional Sermons 1849 

Proverbs and Precepts, for copy lines 1850 

The Light and the Life ; or the History of Him whose Name we bear. 

By Mrs. Whately 1850 

Chance and Choice, or the Education of Circumstances, By two of 

the Archbishop's daughters ....... 1850 

Letter on Religious Meetings 1850 

Latter Day Saints 1851 

Lectures on Scripture Revelations respecting Good and Evil Angels . 1851 

Lectures on the Characters of Our Lord's Apostles .... 1851 

English Synonyms. By Miss Whately 1851 

Cautions for the Times. (Edited) 1851 

Address to Board of Education 1853 

Infant Baptism : with Additions 1854 

Introductory Lessons on Morals 1855 

Bacon's Essays : with Annotations 1856 

Scripture Doctrine concerning the Sacraments 1857 

On the Bible and Prayor Book. (Edited) 1858 

Introductory Lessons on Mind 1858 

Introductory Lessons on the British Constitution .... 1859 
First Preaching of the Gospel, By Mrs. Whately .... 

Life of Christ By Mrs. Whately 

PaJey: a Lecture . 1859 

Lectures on Scripture Parables 1859 

Paley's Evidences : with Annotations 1859 

Paley's Moral Philosophy : with Annotations . 1859 

The Parish Pastor I860 

Lectures on Prayer, By a Country Pastor 1800 


The Jews: a Lecture 1801 

Selected Tales of the Genii. By Mrs, Whately .... 1801 
Historic Certainties, By Bishop Fitzgerald. Edited by the Arch- 
bishop 1801 

Miscellaneous Lectures and Reviews 1801 

Two Sermons 1802 

Habits : a Lecture f 1862 

Election : an Essay , 18(52 

Judgment of Conscience 18G4.. 

Dialogue on Repeal , 



A BSOLUTION, remarks of Arch- 
jOL Hshop Whately on, i. 472, 478 
Alban Hall, Dr. Whately appointed 

Principal of, i. 45* List of the 

Principals for a few years from 

this time, 45 note. Improvements 

effected by him in, 46 
Alexander, Kev. Dr.. his lines < On 

the death of Archbishop Whately/ 

ii. 419 
American calculating boy, referred 

to, i. 5 
Anecdote, Dr. Whately's powers of, 

i. 55 
Angels, good and evil, remarks on, 

ii. 191 
Anglesey, Marquis of, his friendship 

with Archbishop Whately, i, 119 
Animal magnetism, letters from 

Archbishop Whately respecting, 

ii. 64, 90 
Anonymous letters, Archbishop 

Whately's mode of dealing with, 

i. 416 
Antinomian views, remarks on, 

ii. 855 

Apophthegms, ii, 162, 164, 312 
Arnold, Dr., his intimacy with 

Whately, i 50, 51. His death, 

ii. 5, His sermons, 6, 7. Mr. 

Stanley's Life ' of, ii. 17, 20, 34, 

56* AichbishopWhately's letters 

as to epitaphs, biographies, &c,, 

ii. 28 
Arnold, Mr., bis reminiscences of a 

visit to Switzerland with Arch- 
bishop Whately, ii. 105 
Asbestos, question as to the etymo* 

logy of the word, i. 194 
Australia, views of Archbishop 

Whately on transportation to, 


i. 171$ ii. 102. His lines on. 
ii. 109 

TIACON, Lord, his wisdom, ii, 154 

Bacon's Essays, with annotations, 

Archbishop Whately's edition of, 

ii. 329, 337 
Badeley, Kev, Mr,, Curate of Hales- 

worth. his work in the parish, i. 

Bampton Lecture, Dr.Whately's. for 

Baptismal question, letter to Bishop 

Hinds on the ? ii. 165 
Baring, Mr, Bingham, his clauses 

introduced into the Irish Church 

Bill, i. 801 
Barry, Lady, i. 8 
Beattie, Dr., on Comedy, i. 437 
Bible, unbelief in the, i. 875 
Bigotry, remarks on, ii. 253 
Birmingham, mob at, in 1831, i. 114 
Bishop, Rev. Henry, his death, ii. 

Bishops, appointment of, by the 

Ministry, ii. 230 

Blake, Mr., Roman Catholic Com- 
missioner for National Education, 

Blakesware Park, Charles Lamb's 

notice of, i. 3 
Bogland, proposal for reclaiming, ii, 

on$ Mots, Whately'Sj i, 40 

Botany, letter of Archbishop Whately 
on, ii, 289 

Boultbee, Rev, R, N., his remi- 
niscences of Whately, i. 38 

Brabner, Mr., state of Ms Peniten- 
tiary at Glasgow, i. 489 




Burgess, Dr., Bishop of Salisbury, 
proposes that Dr. Whately should 
edit Chillingworth's l Beligion of 
Protestants/ i. 75 

Buxton, Jedediah, referred to, i. 5 

( fWTALLAOTICS,' a name pro- 
\J posed by Dr. Whately for the 
science of Political Economy. 

Cathedral endowments, remarks on, 

Catholic clergy, Roman, remarks on 
a legal provision for the, i. 04-96, 

Catholic emancipation, Roman, agi- 
tation respecting 1 , in 1829, i. 63, 
74. Poem on, 75 

Catholic, Koman, countries con- 
trasted with Protestant, ii. 130 

Catholics, Koman, their false faith, 
i. 475. Passing; of the Eccle- 
siastical Titles Bill, ii. 194. Con- 
duct of the clergy in Ireland 
during the famine of 1847-8 ; 
241, 242. Conversation respecting 
Maynooth, 246. Remarks on the, 
in 1853, 301. The new university 
of the, 365. Their methods of 
proselytizing-, 391 

Carlisle, Mr., letter from Archbishop 
Whately to, oa the <Sabba,tk 
question/ i. 332 

' Cautions for the Times/ publication 
of the, ii. 177, 210. Archbishop 
Whately's answer to Mrs. Hill 
respecting some of them, 222 

Chalmers, Dr., his views as to politi- 
cal economy, i. 84 

Character, remarks on public life as 
a test of, ii, 446 

Charcoal, use of, for fertilising- land, 
ii, 172, 388 

Chartists, remarks on the, in 1840, 
i. 451 

Children, Dr. Whately's views re- 
specting the education of, i, (J2. 
On teaching them the tragical, 

Cholera in Dublin in 1849, ii. 152 
Christian history, a knowledge of, 
essential in a course of liberal edu- 
cation, i. 413 

' Christianity, Easy Lessons on/ by 
Archbishop Whately, i. 409 notes 

( Christianity, Evidences of tho Truili 
of/ publication of tho, i. tt77. Jie- 
marks on tho, 379. Translated into 
French, by Madame Fabro, 440. 
Various other translations of tho 
work, 485 

Christians, names of tho early, i, 269 

Church ; Letter of Arehbinhop 
Whately to a gentleman who had 
sent him a book on Church go- 
vernment, i. 24. ' Church, l-jotitra 
on the, by an Episcopalian/ attri- 
buted to him, i. 52 note. His 
remarks on a review of tho work, 
67, 68. Letter to Earl (h-oy on 
matters connected with tho, 15& 
Letter to Mr. Senior on eccleaiasti- 
cal government, 154, Letter to 3 jort I 
Grey on Church reform, 10B. 
Archbishop Whatoly's plan of 
Church government, 102, 103. TTis 
notes on tho same subj oct, 1 0-i . T I i a 
views on Church matters, iKM, &Ji), 
242. Letters to and from Dr. 
Newman on these suhjcK'.tN, 2&*, 
Views of Archbishop \V r lw,toly re- 
specting Church property, *20 L 
And as to Church reform, 903, 
Pluralities and non-roaidenee, 205, 
20G. Tithes and Cathedral en- 
dowments, 209. llin views tw to 
the application of Church rovonuoH, 
300, #44, Remarks on the divinioiiH 
within the, 41/5. HIM lotto w to 
Dr. Hinds on Church history, 4/18. 
Dr. Whatoly's tuiftwor to Iho qncM- 
tion < What is tho Church ' <174. 
Distinct independent dimrluH, 
ii. ft45, Tho Jowiflh-( 1 hrw<in 
Church previous to the call oi' tho 
Gentiles, SCO 

Church Temporalities Bill, views of 
Archbishop Whntoly on tho, i. M), 

Churches, indopondonco of. oRstmtial* 
i. 100 

Civilisation, Archbishop "Whatoly'a 
locturo on, ii, fir>^ 

Clergyman, Archbishop "Whatoly's 
letter to a young, i, 20t), IJifl 
letter to a, who solicited for a 
pariah, 453 

Clergymen, remarks on tho law ox- 
eluding them from Bitting in the 
House of Commons, i. 01, Arch- 
bishop Whately's views as to the 




i voluntary svstem' of paying 
thorn, 215 

Clerical Societies, suggestions of 
Archbishop Whately as to tlie 
formation of, i. 179 

Coinage, suggestions for a universal, 
ii. 105 

Coleridge, his disparagement of evi- 
dence, ii. 155 

e Commonplace Book,' Whately's, 
i, 14 

Confirmations in 1840, i. 464 

' Constitution, Lessonson theBritish/ 
by Archbishop Whately, publish- 
ed, ii. 262, 310 

Controversial writings, Dr. Whately's 
fragment on, i. 57 

Copleston, Dr., afterwards Bishop of 
Llaudafif, at Oriel College, in 1805, 
i. 1 2. Ilib influence there, 12. His 
college not popular at that period, 
1 3. His friendship with Whately, 
1 4. Appointed Bishop of Llandan, 
(50. Dr. Wbately's letter to him, 
GO. His remarks on the spirit in 
which Dr. Whatoly entered upon 
his archbishopric, 101. His 'He- 
mains' published by Archbishop 
Whately, ii. 311 

Corballis/Mr., his speech, ii. 87 

Cork Exhibition, Archbishop Whate- 
ly's inaugural lecture atthe, ii, 222. 

Corn-law repeal agitation, the, 
i. 402. 

Crabtree, Miss, i. 101 

EATH punishment, views of 
Archbishop Whately respect- 

ing, i. 182 

uH, examinations for, at Ox- 

lord, remarks on, ii. 853 
Democracies, warlike tendencies of 

all, i. 03 
Demosthenes, his jroeech for the 

crown quoted, ii. 22 
Denman, Sir T,, letter of Archbishop 

Whately to, on secondary punish- 

ments, i. 173 
De Vere, Mr., Archbishop Whately's 

memorandum on his pamphlet, 

n 232 m 

Dickinson, Dr. (afterwards Bishop 

of Meath), appointed Domestic 

Chaplain to Archbishop Whately, 

i 100. The Archbishop's estimate 


of his character, 197. His letter 
to Mr. Senior, 292. Becomes 
Bishop of Meath, 4G5. His death, 
ii 5. His last undelivered charge, 
7. 20 

Dickinson, Kev. Hercules, his notes 
of Archbishop Whately's last days 
quoted, ii. 409, 413. His recol- 
lections of Archbishop Whately. 

Dissenters, how to make, i. 73 

Divinity College, scheme of Arch- 
bishop Whately for the establish- 
ment of a, i. 200, 217. Failure of 
his scheme, 434 

Drummond, Mr., his speech on the 
Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, ii. 200 

T^BUEY, Lord, letter to, on litur- 
Ju gical revision, ii. 374 
Ecclesiastical Titles Bill passed, ii. 


Edgworth, Miss, remarks on, ii. 256 
e Edinburgh Review/ the, on the 

Irish Poor-laws, i. 403 
Education, a moral, Archbishop 

Whately's views of the importance 

of, i. 349 
Education Committee in the House, 

on the, ii. 450 

Education, National, suggested arti- 
cle on, ii. 159 
Egypt, Archbishop Whately's lecture 

on, ii. 352 
' E n c y c 1 o p re d i a Metropolitan,' 

Whately s contributions to, i. 41. 
Epicureans, letter from Archbishop 

Whately to Lady Osbonie on the 

opinions of the, ii. 1(50 
Epitaphs, remarks on, ii. 29 
Evflngelioal Alliance, Archbishop 

Whately 's disapproval of the, 

Evidence, disparagement of, among- 

professed believers, ii. 154 
Executions, public, remarks on, 

ii. 139 
Expounding, Archbishop Whately 's 

discourse on, ii. 331 

FBRE, Madame, her translation 
of the * Evidences' into Preach, 
i, 440 






Farm, the Model, letter from Arch- 
bishop Whately to Mrs. Arnold 
respecting, ii, 89 

Fasting, Archbishop Whately's re- 
marks on, ii. 55 

Fitzgerald, Professor, his 'Historic 
Certainties,' ii. 283. His extracts 
from Aristotle, 283. Appointed to 
the see of Cork, 337,340 

France, last revolution in, ii. 100. 

Franchise, the elective. Dr. Whate- 
ly's views as to the, i. 87. 

6 r\ AUDENING, Essay on Modern,' 
\J Thomas Whately's, i. 2 

< Genii, Tales of the/ edited by Mrs. 
Whately, i, 473 

Gladstone, Archbishop Whately's 
opinion of him, i, 92. Remarks 
on his style and conclusions, 471 

Greg, Mr., his < Creeds of Christen- 
dom, 5 ii. 209. Some of his other 
articles in the 'Edinburgh lie- 
view/ 231 

Grey, Earl, his letter to Dr.^ 
Whatelv offering him the see of 
Dublin,! 07 

Guizot, M,, his account of the im- 
pression made upon him by Arch- 
biyhop Whately, i. 454 

Gurney, Miss Anna, Archbishop 
Whately's acquaintance with, 
ii. 170 

HABITS, conversation on, ii, 

Halesworth, living of, presented to 
Mr. Whately, i, 44. fcftate of tho 
people there at this time, 44 

Halsey, Mr., i. 3 

Hampden controversy, views of Arch- 
bishop W 7 h at ely on the, i.353, 389 

Hampden, Dr,, l)r, Hindu's sermon on 
the consecration of, ii. 130 

Havershani, John first Lord, hifl con- 
nection with tlie Whaicly family, 
i. 2 

Hawkins, Rev. Dr,, his ' Christian's 
Manual,' i. 01. Letter of Arch- 
bishop Whately to, on Chim-h 
matters, 229 

Hill, Mrs., of Cork, Archbishop 
Whately's acquaintance with, 
ii. 170, 181. Plans au article on 
American slavery, 224 


Hinds, Rev. Dr. (Bishop of Norwich), 
his early friendship with "Wlmtely, 
i. 18. His reminiscences of tho, 
Archbishop's early lite, 20. His 
1 Three Temples of the One True 
God,' 110. Ilia sermons, 113. Ac- 
companies Dr. Whately to Dublin, 
114. His reminiscences of Arch- 
bishop Wlmtely, 148. L'emtftiH 
hiti domestic chaplaincy imtl re- 
turns to England, IDtf. Xppointed 
to the living of CnstloLnocK, ii. 20. 
Archbishop Whately's opinion of 
him, 88. His sermon on tho con- 
secration of Dr, Ilam})don, ];)(). 
Appointed to tho see of Norwich, 
157. Archbishop Whatoly'n letter 
to him on his address to his clergy, 
175. His domestic bereavement, 

' Historic Doubts respecting 1 Najto- ^ 
leon Buonaparte,' notice of, 3. JIT*" 
note. The Jirst drmi^lit of (lie, 
"8. Translated into Prench and 
Gorman, 442 

Homoeopathy, remarks on, ii. IOrt 
Howard Society, lotto of ihn Arch- 
bishop of Dublin to the, on death 
pmiisninent, i. IHiJ 
Hughes, John, and the pike, ii, JU5 
Hull, LVv. ]\Ir,, letter of Aicll>ihhop 
Whately to, on Church matters, 
i. 204 

IGNATIUS, Father, his interview 
with Archbinhop Whutely. ii. 

Index, value of an, ii. JUS 
* Infallibility, Search after,' Arch- 
binhop WliatolV'fl paniphlot on the, 

11. 1^0. Dr. O'dnini/klPM jmwxv^tv 

ii. Ii3i). Dr. 
nwd the reply, M5J 

Ireland, Itoiglif-'h cnpiil devoied lo 
the maiiiteiumee of Irinlnnen hi t i, 
9& Irisli kboimrt'H niul Inli 
Lrprpfors, SM, 05. Slulo of thu 
country in W,\ 1,111 And aft ho 
Protestant (ilnireh there, 1J(5, 
8tato of, in 3HJ12, 120, KKJ. 
liavngoH of ilio ('holura in, m 
18;3S, LID, NHtnliliHliiW'Ht of the 
National Kducution ftyntrnj in,1^8. 
Antngonism of the Innh clorgy 
to tho Archbinhop of Dublin's 
fl; 141, The Archbishop's 



on tho Irish education 
question, 188, Commission of in- 
311117 into the condition of tlie poor 
in Ireland, 108. Treatment of the 
Oommissi oners by the Govern- 
ment, 109. Comparison jof the 
English and Irish poor-laws, 100. 
Letter from Archbishop Whately 
on national education in Ireland, 
301. Irish attain in 1830, 350. 
Resistance to tithes, 351. Arch- 
bishop Whately's proposals for 
benefiting 1 the country, ^78. His 
epistolary string- of proverbs on 
the state of, 085. His views re- 
specting the Government Poor- 
law for Ireland, S02. Sir George 
Kichollfcj's inspection, 304. Pio- 
posnl to buy up Irish tithes, 400. 
JOnglish ideas of Irfek wants, 403. 
Letters to Mr. Senior on Irisli 
education, 450, 427. His letters 
on the education scheme, 488. 
His views of Irisli affairs in 1842, 
ii. 1. And on National Education, 
22. His remarks on the prospects 
of the Irish Education Board, 40. 
His remarks on the Irish Poor 
Laws, 76, Remarks on the state 
of Ireland in 1840, 107. The 
famine of 1847-8, 111 et seq. Op- 
position of Archbishop Whately 
to out-of-door relief in Ireland, 
318. Parsing of the Poor Belief 
Extension Act, 118. State of 
tho country in 1848, 132. 
Archbishop Whately's remarks on 
Irish landlords, 135. Remarks on 
the Irish Poor-Law, 180. Oppo- 
sition to the Rato-in-Aid Bill, 147. 
State of the country in 1851, 207. 
Archbishop Whatoly's interest in 
Protestant missions to Ireland, 230. 
PiiHoyisin in Ireland, 235. Re- 
marks on the Abolition of the Lord- 
Lieutenancy, 237. And of the 
Irish Office, 238. Conversions to 
ProtostantiBm in Ireland, 240. 
The Education Board, 245. With- 
drawal off Archbishop "Whately 
from the National Education 
Board, 264. Effects of conversion 
and emigration, 300. Archbishop 
"Whately's hope of the residence 
of the sovereign in Dublin, 304. 
Dr. de Ricci'R opinion of Ireland 

400, Remarks ou the Protestant 
Church in, 458 

Irish Church, views of Archbishop 
Whately respecting the, i. o4# 

Irish language, Archbishop Wliate- 
ly's conversations with his clergy 
on the importance of studying the, 
ii. 40 

Italy, Archbishop Whately's impres- 
sions of, i. 4:*2. The idolatrous 
temples of, 482 

TARDINE, Dr,, Whately's criti- 

tl cisms on the l Outlines of Philo- 
sophical Education ' of, i. 48 

Jew Bill, Archbishop Whately's re- 
marks on the, ii. 140, His speech 
on the, 188. Remarks on the Bill 
of 1853, 180 

Jewel, Bishop, his view of the right 
and duty of putting down heresy 
by civil penalties, i. 03 

Judgments, national, letter to Dr. 
Pusey on, i, 132 

Justice,* the highest virtue, ii, 121 

TREBLE, Mr,, his intimacy with 

JA. Whately, i. 61 

Kyle, Rev, R., letter to, on, the sub- 
ject of the Evangelical Alliance, 
ii, 06 

LAIIN", valley of the, Archbishop 
Whately's description of the, 
i. 487 
Lamb, Charles, his notice of Blakes- 

vvare Park, i. 3 

Leopold I., King of the Belgians, 
remark of Archbishop Whately to, 
i. 4ttO 

Letters to : 
, i. C5, 76, 77, 300, 490 j ii. 8, 


Anglesey, Marquis of, i. 124 
Arnold, 'Rev. Dr., i. 408 
Arnold, Mrs., ii. 9, 17, 27, 35, 70, 
80, Ort, 110, 121, 123, 156, 171, 
207, 200, 286, 301, 311, 385 
Badoley, llev. J,, i. 70, 179 
Blomiield, Bev. Dr. (Bishop of 

London), i. 223 
C., Mtes, ii. 253 
Carlisle, Mr., i 331 

H ii 2 




Clergyman, a, i. 453 ; ii. 125, 377 
Copleston/Rev. Dr. (Bishop of 
tlandaff), i.111, 112, 115, 127, 
150, 189, 210, 849, 447, 479, 
482 ; ii. 80, 81, 85 
Crabtree, Miss, i. 101, 179, 440, 
480: il 61, 182, 183, 221, 201, 
342, 344, 379, 382, 383 
Danbeny, Dr., ii. 289, 303, 305 
])e Grey, Earl, ii. 22 
Denraan, Sir J., i. 173 
Dieldnson, Rev. Dr., i. 429, 431, 

452, 461 
Duncan, Mr,, i. 48; ii, 108, 283, 


Duncannon, Lord (?), i. 309 
Ebury, Lord, ii. 374 
Friend, a, ii, 74, 174 
Gentleman, a, ii, 24, 28 
Grey, Earl, i. 152, 156, 168, 225 
Gnrney, Miss, ii. 286 
Hampden, Rev. Dr., ii. 6, 53 
Hawkins, Kev. Dr., i. 229 ; ii. 31 
Hill, Mrs., ii. 161, 172, 181, 211, 
222, 225, 226, 284, 294, 297,312, 
315, 310, 321, 326, 329, 034,335, 
337, 843, 349, 352, 353 
Hinds, Rev. Dr., i. 444, 445, 458, 
471; ii, 102, 143, 147, 157, 165, 
168, 184, 209, 249, 259, 281, 
351, 383 

Hull, Rev, Mr., i. 204 
Kyle, Rev. R,, ii. 04 
Lady, a, i. 385 
Lord-Lieutenant, ii. 268, 272 ; 274, 


Melbourne, Lord (?), i. 301, 304 
Moore, Mr., ii. 57 
Newman, Rev. J. H., i. 233, 237 
Osborne, Lady, ii. 45, 54, 82, 130, 

142, 160, 189, 191, 218 
Palmer, Mr. W,, sonr,, ii. 37 
Pusey, Rev. Dr., i, 132 
Russell, Ven. Archdeacon, n. 13 
Salisbury Bishop of, ii, 16 
Senior, tf . W, I 35, 47, 84, 93, 
150, 163,186, 242, 291, 292, 301, 
319 360 364, 301, 394, 396, 397, 
398 399 400, 403, 41 3, 415, 420, 
433, 436, 437, 448, 452, 468, 477, 
484,485,488; ii. 1, 76, 78, 79, 
152, 159, 100, 190, 193,231, 255, 
256, 260,261, 262, 263, 281,288, 
201,200, 300, 304, 309,317, 810, 
822, 328, 337, 344, 348, 373 


Shepherd, Lady Mary, i. 110 
Stanley, Rev. i)r. (Bishop of Nor- 

wich), i. 377, 378, 415, 419, 464; 

ii. 6, 15, 87, US 
Stanley, lion. Mr, (afterwards 

Lord Stanley, now Karl of 

Derby), i, Kii, 200 
Stanley, Rev. A. I*, (now Dean of 

WeNtminstPr), ii. 21, 4 
Tyler, Rov. J, E,, i. iMH, 3n, 372, 


Vice-Chancollor of Oxford, ii. 51) 
Wall, Rov, O.,ii.21l f 217, :Sltt 
Wolleelo.y, Marquis of, i. i2 ( .W 
Wilberloree, Rev. Dr. (Bishop of 

Oxford), ii. 178 
White, Rev. J, Blanco, i. 250, 252, 

255,201, 204, 207, 208,27U,SJSl, 


Young writer of promise, a, ii. SSfiB 
Liturgical revision, loiter to Lord 
Ebury and to a clergyman on, 
ii. 374 

Llandali; state of the diocoso of, in 


Logic, Dr. Whately's criticisms on Dr. 
JardinoV locturoM on, i. -4S. Pub- 
lication of IUH own work on, >lt>. 
Condition of (ho ntudy of, at 
Oxford at this time, <li). Anecdote 
of hia 'Logic,' 01. Issue of tlio 
fifth edition of Dr. Whatcly'B 
book, tt52 

London University, leltor front 1li 
Avchbinhop of Dublin to lh\ 
Arnold on th, i. 408 
ords, IIoufltMif, Arclibishop Whntrt- 
ly's Bu^ofltioua UH to Icccpiu^ a 
constitutional check on this i, iM-<J 


Mr., MM book. 


Madiai, ot<w on the ptuwcution of 

the, ii. 257 
Mallhna, Mr., CIUIFIPH of tho obloqny 

and miflnpwhcjmion which tnet 

him and his VIOWH, i, ii()l 
Mankind, question of whether all 

are of omi fippciftH, ii. 171 
Maroon, the, and his wivoa, ii, 3,'J4 
Marriage laws, remarks on the* 

ii. 184 
Martineau, Miss, remarks on her 

1 Political Economy/ LI 80 
Mary, the Virgin, evidence in the 



New Testament against worship 
of, ii. 143 

Mass, sacrifice of the, unnecessary, 
ii. 143 

Mathematical puzzle, letter of Arch- 
bishop Whately on a, ii. 51 

Maurice, Professor, remarks on his 
writings, ii. 301, 302 

Maxims, falsehood of commonly re- 
ceived, ii, 308 

Mayaooth, conversation respecting, 
ii, 24G 

Mayo, Dr., his recollections of 
AYliately's early life, i. 53 

Melbourne, Lord, his character as a 
statesman, ii. 451 

Mitch oil, John, his trial and con- 
viction, ii. 131 

'Morals, Lessons on/ published, 
ii. &>0 

Moravians, their missions among* the 
heathen, ii. 347, 

Mormouism, remarks on the spread 
of, in England, ii. 211 

Murray, Rev, Dr. (Roman Catholic 
Arellrtsliop of Dublin), his sanc- 
tion of Archbishop Whately 's 
works, ii. 264-206 

FWMAN, Dr., his intimacy with 
Whately, i. 51 5 cause of their 
rupture, i. 64 

Newman, F., remarks on, ii. 153, 154 
Newfoundland, not thoroughly ex- 
plored, ii. 349^ 
Newtownbnrry riots, i. 117 
Norwich Union Insurance Office, 

i. 481 

Nunneries, Archbishop "Whately' s 
part in the registration and inspec- 
tion of, ii. 307 

OATHS, Archbishop Whately's 
petition to the Queen on the, 
administered by the Chancellor 
of the Order of St Patrick, i. 405. 

Obedience, canonical remarks on, 
ii. 94, 05 

O'Connell, Mr., in 1838, i. 414. His 
' cursers,' 418, His letter to the 
English people, exhorting them to 
turn Roman Catholics, 436. Re- 
marks as to his obtaining office, 
ii. 84 


, Dr., his answer to the 
< Soarck after In fallibility,' ii. 142 

Oriel College in 1805, i. 13. And iu 
1815, 20 note 

Originality, Archbishop Whately's 
remarks on the desire of, i. 340 

Oxford, agitation in, in 1820, re- 
specting the Catholic question, 
i. 63. Puseyites at, in 1838, 418. 
Report of the Commissioners to 
inquire into the state of the Uni- 
versity of, remarks on the, ii. 219 

'PADDY'S Meditations in the 
JL Pool-house,' ii. 207 

Palmer, Mr. W., remarks of Arch- 
bishop Whately on his narrative, 
ii. 36 

Papal aggression, public excitement 
arising out of the, ii. 177. Corre- 
spondence with the Archbishop of 
Canterbury respecting tho, 177 

Parliament, remarks of Archbishop 
Whatoly on Jus attendance in. 
i. 437, 448, 452 

Parliamentary Reform, Dr. Whately's 
letter to Mr. Senior on, i. 87. Agi- 
tation respecting the Bill of 1832, 

Parsons, Mr. J., origin of his inti- 
macy with Mr. Whately, i. 7 

Partisanship, remarks on, ii. 335 

Party, diseases of, i. 45:3. Remarks 
on, ii. 217 

Peel, Mr. (afterwards Sir Robert), 
his support of Catholic emanci- 
pation, i. 03. Agitation in Oxford 
in consequence, 03, 04. Loses his 
re-election in 1829, 74. 

Persecution, Whately's remarks on 
tho spirit of, in and out of our 
Church, i. G3 

Perseverance, doctrine of, ii. 350 

Philip, Mr., Whately at his school 
at Bristol, i. 7 

Phillpotts, Dr., Bishop of Exeter, 
his speech on the elevation of Dr. 
Whately to the see of Dublin, 
i. 103. Letter respecting his pro- 
ceedings in the Gorham contro- 
versy, ii. 212 
Phrenology, remarks on, ii. 327 

Plainer, W., Esq., i* 8 
Plumer, Miss Jane, married to Dr. 
Joseph Whately, i. 8 





Political economy, views of Dr. 

Whately on, i."47. Dr. Whately 

appointed Professor of, at Oxford, 

05. His proposal to call it the 

science of * Catallactics,' 05. His 

views as to the science, 65-67. 

Dr. Chalmers's views, 84, Dr. 

Whately's proposal for forming a 

Political Economy Society, 93, 94. 

The Professorship of Political 

Economy in Dublin University 

founded by him, 142. The first 

three professors, 143. Miss Marti- 

aeau's tales on Political Economy, 

180. Publication of Archbishop 

Whately's 'Lessons on Mouoy 

Matters/ 377. His 'Political 

Economy ' translated into French 

at Liege, 442 

Poor-laws in Ireland, views of 
Archbishop Whately as to, i. 392. 
Article in the ' Edinburgh lie- 
view 7 on, 403. Prejudice against 
Poor-law Commissioners, i. 404 

Pope. Miss Elizabeth, her marriage 
to Mr. Wliately, i. 42. Her cha- 
racter, 43 

Popular admiration, remarks on, 
ii. 449 

Popular clamour, on yielding to, 
ii. 455 

Ttopvda, meaning of the word in 
Acts xv. 20, 29, and xxi. 25, i. 212 

Potter, Bishop, of Philadelphia, 
ii. 348 

Powell, Professor Baden, his mar- 
riage with the sister of Archbishop 
Whately, i. 417. His < Tradition 
Unveiled/ 422 

Prayer, memorandum on a proposed 
Bill for legalising forms of, ii, 103 

Preachers, faults of, i. 72 

Prejudice, remarks on, ii. 253 

Priests, converted, ignorance of. 
i. 362, 363 

Probabilities, Archbishop Whately's 
remarks on, ii, 51 

Profit, distinction between rent and, 
i. 39'9 

Protestantism, question why is it 
more easily uprooted than Roman- 
ism answered, ii, 82. Protestant- 
ism more favourable than Roman 
Catholicism to civilisation, 130, 
Conversions to Protestantism in 
Ireland, 240 

Proverbs, a string of, in tho shape of 
a letter to a lady, i. .MS5 

Public life aa a tost of character, 
ii. 446. Public men, 418 

Punishments, secondary, remarks of 
Dr, Whatoly on, i. loO, LOo, 171, 
173. His paper on, in 181 tt, ii. ,",87 

Pusey, Dr., Archbishop Wliulcily'H 
letter to, on National Judgments, 
i. 132. Their interview at 1 high ton, 

Puseyism in Ireland, ii &'W. Thn 
general thoory of Pusoyism, 2-JO, 
And at Oxforu, in 18:$8, 418 

RATE-IN-AID Bill, llio, oppoHod 
by Archbishop Whatoly, ii. M7 
Redesdale, Archbishop Whately'n 

house at, i. Hi). Ilis employ- 

ments there, 120 
Religion, letter to a clergyman on, 

i. apO 
Religious difficulties, letter nf Arch- 

bishop Wliati'ly to a friend on 

certain, i, 20(J. lli further ro- 

inArks on, ii. J43 
Ileli^ioiw ondowmnuta, convovrtatioa 

rcapoc'tin^, ii. 407 
Kent and profit, distinction between, 

i. 300 
Keparteo, Dr. Whatoly 'a aneedodvt 

of, i. 5o 
^Koflorvt/ loltor of Aiv.hhwhop 

Whatoly on tho (lottrinn of, ii. ;tl 
Resolutions of pnblie. iutH k tini'N, i. t)(j 
lloviowurs. Wmitoly'a nnuiirks on, 

Revival movonitmt, Arohlnnliop 

Whatoly'B romarlw on tho, ii. D7i) 
Ro^ors's ''Koasoii andFuitli/ ii. ir>;i, 

Ricci, Dr. do, his opinion of Ireland* 

ii. 40(5 
( liomnniflm, Terrors of,' pu}>lieatit>n 

of tli o, i. 7/5 
Ruasull, Ven. Archdeacon, IUM oppo- 

sition to Arc.hbi.Hhop Wlmt4y' 

plan of^a Divinity College, ii, lii* 

1 Bettor from tho At'ckbiHunp to him, 

Ryeraon, Dr., ii, '548 

SABBATARIAN qucwtion, Dr 
Whately's viuwn rewpoctinff, i, !0fy 
104, M$ t Frujifinont on tho Hub- 
lath and tlui Lord's l)<iy, iJi.'i 




Saints, in vocation of, remarks of Arch- 
bishop Whately on the, i. 372, 
ii. 192 

Saints, Communion of, ii. 357 

Sand, George, remarks on tlie works 
of, ii. 125 

* Saturday Magazine/ the, i. 180 

School-house lectures, Dr. Whately's 
letter on, i. 70 

Schools versus Colleges, Dr. Whate- 
ly's remarks on, i. 78-80. Dis- 
eases of schools, 453 

' Scripture Extracts,' success of the. 
i, 409 

Self-distrust, remarks on, ii. 3o2 

Roll-reformation, hints on, i. 370 

Soil-righteousness, L 209 

So 1km, Miss, her establishment, 
ii. 218 

Senior, Edward, his recollections of 
Archbishop Whately, ii, 444 

Senior, Nassau William, commence- 
ment of his intimacy with Arch- 
bishop Whately, i. 10, 17. His 
' Lectures on Political Economy/ 
47. His hard work and tastes and 
acquirements, ii. 93. His visit to 
the Archbishop in 1852, 235. 
Extracts from his ( Journal,' 238. 
His * Sorrento 1 Journal, 317, 319. 
Ilia visit to the Archbishop in 
1868, 357. Extracts from his 
Journal, 357, 388 

' Shakspeare, He marks on some 
Characters in/ Thomas Whalely's, 
i. 3 

Siovelung 1 , the Syndic, forms an 
acquaintance with Archbishop 
Wkatoly, i. 430 

Siamondi, M., forms a friendship 
with Archbishop Whately, i. 432. 
In Wales, 401 

Sisterhoods at Plymouth and Devon- 
port, remarks on the, ii, 218 

Slavery, Dr. Whately's plan for the 
gradual abolition of. i, 84. Further 
explanation of his' views on the 
subject, 183. Mrs, Hill's plan of 
an article on American slavery, 
ii. 224. Archbishop Whately's 
remarks on, 264. Extracts from 
a letter from Archbishop Whately 
on, 324, 328 

Social Inquiry Society of Dublin, 
ii. 127 

Society for the Protection of the 


Hights of Conscience, conversation 
on the, ii. 371 

Spencer, Hon. and Rev. G., his in- 
terview with Archbishop Whately, 
ii. 198 

Spiritualism, opinions of Archbishop 
Whately respecting, ii. (54 

Stag'o-coach travelling, incidents of, 
i. 23, 35 

Stanley, Hon. Mr. (now Earl of 
Derby), his part in the Irish 
National Education system, i, 138 
nuto. Letter of Archbishop 
Whately to him about a clergy- 
man's salary, 1G4. Letter from 
Archbishop Whately to him on 
the Irish Church, 343 

Stanley, Hev. A. P. (now Dean of 
Westminster), his ' Life- of 
Arnold/ ii. 17, 21, 34, 5G 

Stanley, Dr., Bishop of Norwich, 
his death, ii. 152 

Statistical Society of Dublin, i. 143. 
Foundation of "the, ii. 127 

Statistical Dictionary, proposal of 
Archbishop Whately for a, i. 214 

Suffrage, universal, evils of, i. 88 

Sunday, remarks on the question 
of opening places of public recrea- 
tion on, ii. 340 

Surgeons of Dublin, their ordi- 
nance, ii, 405 

Switzerland, Archbishop Whately's 
impressions of, i. 431 

fpABLE anecdote, a, i. 30 

JL < Table Talk,' Archbishop 
Whately's, quoted, ii. 440 

Taylor, Mr. and Mrs. Henry, i. 487 

Taylor, Dr., his death, ii. 152 

Ten by, ii. 324 

Tests, Archbishop Whately's speech 
iu Parliament on the subject of, 
ii. 280. His letter to Mr. Senior 
respecting, 288 

Thackeray, W. M., remark** on the 
writings of, ii. 250, 203, 300. His 
remarks on ( Uncle Tom's Cabin,' 
ii. 304 

Time, on, the employment of, ii. 

Tithes, question of, in Ireland, iu 
1 831 , 1. 1 17. Parliamentary mea- 
sure respecting tithes in 18*35 and 
183(3, 118, Archbishop Whately'a 




letter to the Lord-Liexitenant on 
the question of tithes, 124. Letter 
of Archbishop Whately to Mr. 
Senior on tithes, 186. 'Views of 
the Archbishop as to tithes, 291, 
319, 324. Proposal to buy up 
Irish tithes, 400 

Tocqueville, M. de, his remarks on 
the respective merits of the mini- 
sters of the Roman Catholic and 
Protestant churches, ii. 317 
"Tracts, the Hopeful/ ii. 291 
'Tractarianism/ remarks of Arch- 
bishop Whately on, i. 389. His 
hints to Transcendentalists for 
working infidel designs through 
tractarianism, 455. Remarks on 
< Tract No. 90,' 484. The Arch- 
bishop's opinions of the Tract- 
ites, 490. Archbishop Wkately's 
letters to Lady Osborne about 
the Tractites, ii. 45. Remarks on 
their rapid spread, 57. Archbishop 
Whately's suggestions to Mrs. 
Hill for a work respecting them, 
173. Number of people who 
yielded to the seductions of Tract- 
ism, 189. The Archbishop's answer 
to Mrs. Hill's objections, 222 

Trades Unions, their destruction of 
trade in Dublin, ii. 405 

Tradition, remarks of Archbishop 
Whately on, i. 422, 444 

Tragedy, Burke on, i. 43C 

Transportation, views of Archbishop 
Whately on, i. 150, 103, 171, 173. 
Sir W. Molesworth's Committee 
of Inquiry, in 1837, 388. State 
of the Government Penitentiary 
at Glasgow, 439. Remarks on a 
proposed new penal colony in 
Western Australia, ii. 102. Re- 
marks on, ii. 203, 394 

Travelling, remarks of Archbishop 
Whately on, i. 433 

'Treadmill,' the beggar's poem of 
the, i. 150 

Tuition, Dr. Whately's powers and 
tastes for, i. 31. flis remarks on 
private tuition, 80-83. 

Tunbridge Wells, partiality of Arch- 
bishop Whately for, i. 290 

Tutors, first and second class men as, 
ii. 34 ' 

' Twaddlers,' Archbishop Whately's 
remarks on the, i, 442 


'TTNOLE Tom's Cabin/ criticism 
U of a review of, ii. 322 

University examinations. Dr. Wlwto- 
ly's views respecting, i. 77. Arch- 
bishop Whately'a views on Uni- 
versity reform, 225 

1 THERNON, Charles/ i. 35-37 

' Vernon, Charles/ Mr. Senior's novel 
of, i. 152 

Victoria, Qnoon, Archbishop Whnio- 
ly's petition to, on the administra- 
tion of oaths by the Ohunct'llor of 
the Order of &t. Patrick, i. <!0f>. 
Hjs high opinion of her Majusiy'a 
reading, 4(51. Ilia view of tho 
mode of treating attacka on tho 
life of, ii. 10, Her visit to Ire- 
land in 1849, 152 

WAKE, Archbishop, his 'Troa- 
ti^es on Predestination/ cditc'd 

by Whately, i. 41 
WiiTklenflos, sympathy of Archbishop 

Whniely with UK'S ii. W 
Wale, 0. B., Esq., Inn mama go with 

tho third daughter of Archbishop 

Whatoly, ii. 134 
Wale, Mrs. Ooorffo. hor death, 

ii. 8HO 

Wallace, Mr., i. 280 
WalHown riots, i. 1J7 
WalHli, I)r M Inn msidunco in Con- 
stantinople, i. 352 
Ward, Itov. Mr,, prooooding-a taken 

against him at Oxford, ii. 7H 
Wellington, Duko ot; cliawiotor of 

his administration, ii. '15;j 
West, Kev. Dr,, bocomew domnHtic 

chaplain to ArclxbiHliop Whatoly, 

i. 405 

Whatoly family, noiitu 4 fl of tlio, i, 1, 
Whatoly, llov."l)r. JtHojIi, fiitiiorof 

tho Archbishop, i. 1. llw wii'o 

and family, & 
Whatoly, Iticliurd, Ar<*libiflhop of 


His paronlnge and birth, i, 1-.3 

Ilia early jpaHsion for iignres 

and to'caHtlo-building, i.4,5 

Ilia flchool-dayB, i, (J, 7 

Doflth of liifl fethor, i. 8 

ITis thoughtful and meditative 

turn of tuind, i, 8 




"Whately, Archbishop, his common- 
place book, i. 9, 14 

Ills early absence of mind, i. 9 

His deficiency in the quality of 

curiosity, i. 9 

His favourite authors, i, 10 

Activity and fertility of his 

intellect, i. 10 

His shyness, i. 11 

Enters' Oriel College, i, 12 

Influence of Dr, Copleston, 

i. 38 

Whately's constitutional ten- 

dency to indolence, i. 13 

Takes'his degrees, i. 16 

Commencement of his intimacy 

with Nassau William Senior, 
i. 10, 17 

Ilia habits of intimacy with his 

pupils, i. 17 

Reminiscences of his early days, 

i, 17 et seq. 

His familiarity with the wri- 

tings of Aristotle, i. 19 

Ordained deacon, and preaches 

his first sermon, i, 20 

Bishop Hinds'e recollections of 

him, i. 20 

His dialogue in a stage-coach 

with a Roman Catholic farmer, 
i. 23 

Evenings with him in Oriel 

Common Room, i. 26 

His principal college friends, 

i. 27 

Visits the Continent, and passes 

the winter in Portugal with 
his sister, i. 28 

His tastes in the tine arts, i. 29 

His return to college duties, 

i. aO 

His knowledge of languages, 


His faculty of tuition, i, 30 

Hia power of discriminating and 

analysing character, i. 82 

His energy and love of remedy- 

ing abuses, i. 34 

His remarks on Mr. Senior's 

book on Jamaica, i, 80 

The Rev. R, N. Bcniltbee's re- 

miniscences of Whately, i. 38 

Commencement of his active 

litorary career, i. 41 

His contribution s to the ' Ency- 

clopedia Metropolitana/ i. 41 


Whately, Archbishop, his theological 
essays, i. 41 

His ''Historic Doubts,' i. 41 


His .marriage with Miss Eliza- 

beth Pope, i. 42 

Settles at Oxford and becomes 

Bampton Lecturer, i. 43 

His lectures on ' The Use and 

Abuse of Party Feeling in 
Religion,' i. 43 

Removes to Ilalesworth, i. 43 

His parochial work there, i. 45 

Takes his degree of Doctor of 

Divinity, and appointed Prin- 
cipal of Alban Hall, i. 45, 4(> 

His improvements there, i. 46 
* His views on political economy 

1. *x( 

His criticisms on Dr. Jardine's 

lectures on logic, i. 48 

Publication of his work on 

' Logic,' i. 40 
His work on ' Rhetoric/ i. 49 

His intimacy with Dr. Arnold, 

Mr, Keble. and Dr. Newman, 
i. 50, 51 

The ' Letters on the Church, 

by an Episcopalian/ attributed 
to Whately, i. 62 notes 

His conversational qualities. 

i. 53 

His wit, i. 54 

His powers of anecdote and re- 

partee, i. 55 

His fragment on Controversial 

Writings, i. 57 

His letter to Dr. Copleston, 

now Bishop of Lkndaff, i. 60 

His views as to the education 

of children, i, C2 

His remarks on the spirit of 

persecution in and out of our 
Church, i. 03 

Supports Sir Robert Peel on 

the Catholic question, which 
leads to a breach with his early 
friends, i. 63, 04, 74 

His rupture with Dr* Newman. 

i. 64 

Appointed Professor of Politi- 

cal Economy, i. 05 

His remarks on this science, 

i. 67 

Ilia observations on criticism, 

i, 68, 09 




Whately, Archbishop, his letter to 
Mr. Badeley on school-house 
lectures, i. 70 

Declines to edit an edition of 

Chillmgworth's 'Religion of 
Protestants,' i. 75 

Publishes the ' Errors of Ro- 

manism,' i. 75 

His letter respecting the na- 

tional distress of 1830, i. 75 

His views regarding University 

examinations, i, 77 

And on private tutors at the 

Universities, i, 80-83 

His proposal for the gradual 

abolition of slavery, i, 84 

His remarks on Parliamentary 

Reform, i, 87 

His proposal for forming a Po- 

litical Economy Society, i. 93, 

His remarks on the state of 

Ireland, i, 94-98 

Nominated Archbishop of Dub- 

lin, i. 97 

Reasons for his elevation, i. 99 

Appears at a leve"e without the 

Order of St t< Patrick, i, 00 

Change in his mode of lifo, i. 


Dr. Copleston's remarks on 

Whately's elevation, i. 101 

Objections made by his oppo- 

nents, i. 102-104 

Dr. Whately's views on the 

Sabbatarian question, i. 103 

His position among Church 

parties, i. 105 

Spirit in which he entered on 

his new work, i. 106 

Recasts the article ' Person ' 

in the { Logic,' i. 110 

Starts for Dublin, i. 113 

Consecrated in St. Patrick's 

Cathedral, i. 114 

Attacked by a mob at Birming- 

ham, i. 114 

His narrow escape at Ilolyhead, 

i. 115 

Hospitality of the Irish on his 

arrival in Dublin, i. 119 

His friendship with the Mar- 

quis of Anglesey, i, 119 

Removes from Dublin to Redes- 

dale, i. 110 

His employments there, i, 120 


Whately, Archbishop, his ofo,sorva- 
tions of nature, i, i"2Q 

His gonoml topics of uornvrsa- 

lion, i. 12 L 

His lovo of animals, i, liM 

His fuvourite amiisomealH and 

books, i, lJ, 12U 

His lettor to 11 us Lord -Lieu- 

tenant on the Titho <iustinii, 
i. 124 

His first charge to his clor^y, 

and consequent exposure to 
uiib lie obloquy, loO 

His letter to I)r. Pusoy on Na- 

tional Judgments, i.'l.'fci 

His remarks on tho orthodox 

and the Scriptural, i, UJ5-U>7 

Renewed hostility to tho Aruli- 

bishop and his woasuroH, i. 140 

Founds tho ProlbHsowhip of 

Political Economy in Iho 
University of Dublin, i. 1 12 

His liibourd in Jiiy diocoso. i. 


His weekly levtfos, i. 1-15 

His confirmations and ordina- 

tions, i. 145 

Anecdote of liis confirmation 

tours and of one of his early 
leveus, i, 147, 148 

His advice to the young; clergy 

at liia lnvtfos, i. f-17 

Ilia monthly iliimora, i. 147 

His controversial powers, i. MS 

Ilia efforts to suppress moudi- 

oancy, i. MO 

His letter to Mr* Senior ou 

transportation, i. 150 

His lettor to Lord (Ivoy ou 

Church matters, i. 152 

His letter to Lord (<roy about 

his clergy, i, 150 

His letterH to JNHsw (babtroo* 

lr>], 102 

Ilia ixunarlcH on Hwomlary 

yuuiHhnn'iitft, i. 10^, 171, 17'J 

His lotter to Mr, Htunloy about 

a clev^ynuiu'H salary, {. 1<U 

And to "Lord Grey on (Jhurch 

Reform, i. I(J8 

Ilia friondaliip with Jilauco 

White, i, 178 

Ilia HU(fir*sHtionH as to the forma- 

tion ot clerical BooiatioH, i. 170 

His viowfl ropocting capital 

puuihmont, i. 1H2 



WE A. 

Whately, Archbishop, further ex- 
planation of his opinions as to 
the gradual abolition of sla- 
very, i. 183 

Hid letter to Mr. Senior on tlie 

subject of tithes, i. 180 

Takes his scat in Parliament 

for the first time, i. 187 

Ilia speeches on Irish education 

and Jewish emancipation. 
i. 188 

His views as to the Church 

Temporalities Bill, i. 189 

His notes on the same subject. 

i. 104 

Loses Dr, Hinds as domestic 

chaplain, i. 193 

His iirst acquaintance with Dr. 

Dickinson, whom he appoints 
his chaplain, i. 100 

Associated with Archbishop 

Murray in a Commission of 
Inquh'y as to the Irish poor, 
i. 108 

His independent conduct on the 

occasion, i. 109 

His scheme of a Divinity Col- 

lege, i, 200, 217 

His letter on Church matters. 

i. 204, 220 

His letter to a friend on certain 

religious difficulties, i. 20G 

His letter to a young clergy- 

man, i. 209 

His proposal for a statistical 

dictionary, i. 214 

His views on the ' voluntary 

system ' of paying a clergy- 
man, i. 215 

Gorman translation of liis 

f Essays on the Peculiarities 
of the Christian lleligion/ 
i. 218 

Ilia indifference to public ob- 

loquy, i. 218-225 

His tender regard for men's 

feelings, i, 281 

His correspondence with Dr, 

Newman as to Church mat- 
ters, i. 233 

His notes on the Church Tem- 

poralities Bill, i. 241 

His opinions on the new mi- 

nistry in 1834, i. 243 

II w aversion to party changes, 



Whately, Archbishop, his sugges- 
tions as to a constitutional 
check on the House of Lords, 
i. 240 

His letters to the ftev. J. 

Blanco White on his Uni- 
tarian views, i. 250 et say. 

Visits Tunbridg'o Wells, i. 200 

His views of tithes and Church 

property, i. 201, 319 

His opinions as to Church 

Reform, i. 203 

Hid letter on national educa- 

tion in Ireland, i. 301 

On Church and State questions, 

j. SOS 

His views as to the application 

of Church revenues, i. 300. 

Ilia conversation with a clergy- 

man, i, 312 

His letter to Mr. Carlisle on 

the 'Sabbath' question, i. 

His remarks on the desire of 

originality, i 340 

Appointed a member of the 

Commission to inquire into 
the state of Ireland, i. 341 

His views as to the state of 

the Irish Church, i. 343 

His views as to retiring from 

Dublin for an English Arch- 
bishopric, i. 348 

His remarks on the education 

of his son, i. 340 

His opinions as to the Hampclen 

controversy, i. 353 

His remarks on the conclusions 

arrived at by visitors to Ire- 
land, i. 300 

His opinions of the ignorance 

of converted prieats, i. 302. 

His remarks on tho tactics of 

the anti- episcopal party, 
i, 306 

Ilia letter to a clergyman on 

religion, i. 300 

His remarks on the invocation 

of saints, i. 372 

And on unbelief in our sacred 

books, i. 374 

His letters to the Bishop of 

Norwich on Irish Church 
questions, i, 377 



Whately, Archbishop, Publication 
of his 'Lessons on Money 
Matters/ and "The Eviden- 
ces of the Truth of Chris- 
tianity, 1 i. 377 

His contributions to the ' Sa- 

turday Magazine,' i. 377 

His tract on ' Confirmation/ 

i, 378 

His proposals for benefiting 

Ireland, i. 378 

Plis remarks on the c Evidences 

of Christianity,' i. 379 

His generous concern for the 

welfare of Blanco White, 
i. 384 

His letter, in the shape of a 

string of proverbs, to a lady 
on the state of Ireland, i. 385 

Commencement of his special 

efforts for the abolition of 
transportation, i. 388 

His remarks on ' Tracfcarianism; 

i. 389 

His lively interest in plans of 

colonisation, i. 391, 413 

His view of the Government 

Poor-law for Ireland, i. 392 

His proposal to buy up Irish 

tithes, i. 400 

His remarks on English ideas 

of Irish wants, i. 403 

His petition to the Queen on 

the administration of the 
oaths by the Chancellor of 
the Order of St. Patrick, i. 

His opinions as to the newly- 

founded London University. 
i. 408 

Success of the * Scripture Ex- 

tracts,' i. 409 

His tract ' Easy Lessons on 

Christianity/ i. 409 

His remarks on the divisions 

within the Church, i. 415 

Plis treatment of anonymous 

letters, i. 410 

Eevisits Oxford, i, 417 

Marriage of his wife's sister with 

Professor Baden Powell, i. 417 

His account of his clerical la- 

bours, i. 419 

His letters to Baden Powell, 

on his ' Tradition Unveiled; 

"Whately, Archbishop, his seruploa 
as to Irish education, relief. 
&c., i. J27 

Starts with his family on n 

Continental tour, i, 4i20 

Forms a friendship with tho 

Syndic Sieveking, i. 1#0 

His impressions of Switzerland. 

i. 431 

Makes an acquaintance with 

Sisniondi at (tonoa, i. 4ft2 

His views oil travelling, i, J.'W 

Failure of his Bcliciiio for a 

Divinity College, i. 4'U 

Returns to Dublin, i, 4)K> 

His suggestions for a pri'/o 

essay, i. 437 

His remarks on his attonclanco 

in Parliament i. 437. 44H, 

His letter on the fabrication 

concerning Dr. Arnold, i. 4 10 

His letter to M. Fnwv, on 

Madame- Fabro's translation 
of the < Evidi-ncefl,' i, 4 10 

Translations of liin work on 

' Political Economy 7 and tho 
^Historic DoublH,'*i, 442 

His remarks on the ( twad- 

dlers; i, 442 

His Icttor to Dr. Hinds on tra- 

dition, i. 444 

His remarks on tho Chartists 

in 18-40; i. 451 

His loiter to a elor^yman who 

solicited for a parish, i. 4f)tt 

His introduction to M. (3uixol. 

i. 454 

Ilis hints to Tranflrciiclcntftlipirt 

for working infuinl designs 
through TractarianiMin, i, 15fi 

Hia visit to Tenby in l84(), 

i, 461 

Renew* his inlorconrHo with M. 

do Hiflumndi, i. 4 til 

Ilia letter to Lady Owborne on 

her praying for him, i. <\(\$ 

Iliw l(ttp to the Hinlmp of 

Norwich en thn rlovation of 
Dr. I)i(ikiiwon to the Biio of 
Moatb, i. 407 

Tho secret of his BUCCOBS ; i. 471 

Ilia remarks on abHolution. 

i. 472 

Hifl fondness for fairy tales, 

i. 472 J ' 




"Whately, Archbishop, hia advice to 
one troubled with religious 
difficulties, i, 473 

His description of the merits 

of two auonymous persons, 
i. 477 

Accident to his wife, i. 481 

Ilia estimate of his own cha- 

racter, i. 482, 483 

His remarks on ' Tract No. 90.' 

i. 484 

His superintendence of vari- 

ous translations of his e Evi- 
dences,' i. 485 

His interview with Dr. Pusey 

at Brighton, i. 485 

Death of his friend Blanco 

White, i. 480 

Visits Germany, i. 486 

Returns to England, i. 486. 

His notes of gossip from Ger- 

many, i. 487 

His letters on the Irish educa- 

tion scheme, i. 488 

His remarks on the Tractites, 

i. 400 

His views on Irish affairs in 

1842, ii. 1 

Deaths of his friends Dr. Arnold 

and Biahop Dickinson, ii, G. 

His characters of them, ii. 8. 

His letter to Archdeacon Rus- 

sell, ii. 13 

His views of the mode of 

treating the attacks on the 
life of the sovereign, ii. 15 

His remarks on Dr. Arnold's 

sermons, ii. 18 

And on a memoir of Dr. 

Arnold, ii. 21 

Hid letter to Earl cle Grey on 

national education, ii. 22 

Visits Dr. Arnold's family at 

Fox How, ii. 20, 130 

Anecdote of him when there. 

ii. 27 

His letters respecting memo- 

rials, epitaphs, and biogra- 
phies of Dr. Arnold, ii. 27 

His letter to the Bishop of 

Norwich on the discretion of 
Bishops in licenses or ordi- 
nation, ii. 30 

His letter to Provost Hawkins 

as to the doctrine of 're- 
serve,' ii. 31 


Whately, Archbishop, his remarks 
on the life of Blanco White, 
ii. 32, 123 

His notes on Mr. W. Palmer's 

narrative, ii. 36 

His letters to Mr, Palmer, sen,, 

on the same subject, ii. 37, 

His views respecting the Irish 

Education Board, ii. 40 

His letters to Lady Osborne re- 

specting the Tractites, ii. 45 

His triennial visitations, ii. 40 

His conversations with his 

clergy on the importance of 
spealdng the Irish language, 
ii. 49 

His letter on an arithmetical 

puzzle, ii. 51 

His acknowledgment of a ser- 

mon received from Dr. Hamp- 
den, ii, 53 

Illness of his son at college, ii. 

His letter on fasting, ii. 54 

His remarks on Stanley's ' Life 

of Arnold/ ii. 66 

His observations on the rapid 
spread of Oxford principles, 
ii, 57. 

Ilia remarks on animal magnet- 

ism, ii. 64, 90 

His remarks respecting a pro- 

posed meeting of the Bishops 
of the province of Canterbury, 
ii, 74 

His opinions on the Irish poor- 

laws, ii. 7(3 

His views respecting the pro- 

ceedings taken at Oxford 
against the Rev, Mr, "Ward, 
ii. 78 

His tribute to Bishop Cople- 

ston, ii, 80 

His answers to Lady Osborne's 

queries as to Protestantism, 
n, 83 

His anecdote of the relieving 

officer at Stillorgan, ii 83 

His remarks as to O'Connell 

obtaining office, ii 84 

His letter to Bishop^ Oopleston 

on theological subjects, ii. 85 

His letter to Mrs, Arnold re- 

specting the 'Model Farm/ ii. 



Wkately, Archbishop, liis opinion of 
Mr. Gladstone, ii. 92 

His remarks on tastes and in- 

clinations, ii, 93 

His disapproval of the Evan- 

gelical Alliance, ii. 94 

His remarks on a proposed new 

penal colony in Western Aus- 
tralia, ii. 102 

His memorandum on a proposed 

Bill for legalising forms of 
prayer, ii, 102 

Again visits the Continent, ii. 


His remarks on the state of Ire- 

land in 1846, ii, 107 

His lines on Australia, ii. 109 

His munificence in the Irish 

distress of 1847, ii. 112 

His measures for relief of the 

distress, ii. 113 

His objection to the practice 

of giving alms in the street, 
ii. 114 
- His private charities, ii. 114 

His simple tastes aiid inexpen- 

sive life, ii. 115 

His opposition to out-of-door 

relict in Ireland, ii. 118 

His remarks on the Poor Relief 

Extension Act, ii. 110 

His letter to a clergyman re- 

specting the works of George 
Sand, ii. 125 

< His interest in the Statistical 
Society of Dublin, ii. 127 

Humour of his translation to 

the see of York, ii. 128 

His pamphlet tlie * Search after 

Infallibility/ ii. 120 

His remarks on Protestantism 

contrasted with llouion Ca- 
tholicism, ii. 130 

His observations on Dr, Hinds' 

sermon on the consecration of 
Bishop Hauipdon, ii. UK) 

His remarks on Irish affairs in 

1848, ii. 132 

Marriage of hi& third daughter 

to Mr. C, B. Walo, ii, 134 

His opinions on Irish landlords, 

ii. ]#5 

His paper on public executions, 

Ills ivmnrks on the Romish 

doctrines, ii. 143 

Whately, Archbishop, liis Irtlor io 
Dr. Hinds on roliyioim cliili- 
culties, ii. 14;} 

Opposes tho Hato-in- Aid ] Jill. 


His remarks on tho Jew Bill, 

ii. 140 

His remarks on F. Nowimm, 

ii. 168, 154- 

His observations on tho dirt- 

paragemeiitofeviilenon among 
professed believers, ii. 154 

Illness of Ids son, ii, 15J) 

Suggests an artiVlo on National 

Education, ii. 100 

His remarks on the opinions of 

the Epicureans, ii. 1(50 

His letters to Mrs. Hill, ii. 1(>1 

His remarks on tho IkptiHiual 

question, ii. 105 

His observations on Mr. Senior's 

review of Mr. Cornownll 
Lewis's 'Authority in Mut- 
ters of Opinion,' ii. K>7 

Goes with niti family to C homer, 

ii 170 

Forms nn ncqtmintnnoo "with 

Miss Anna Uurney, ii. 170 

And with Mrs, Hill, of Cork, 

ii. 170 

- His pjawrimenta with pluniH. 
ii. 171 

His sujjftofllionw to Mrs. Hill lor 

publishing a work on llio 
Tructurimu), ir. 17JJ 

Ilia rcnmrkn on nusa])])ivhen- 

flions, ii. 174 

His lottor to nSwhop Hinds on 

liifi tuldrt>ss to Iiis (ilorffv. 
ii. 175 

Publi,shefl *OautionH for flu) 

Timtss,'ii. 177 

Ilin corroM)ojuliH(M^ with tho 

l&whop oi O.vJord an io tlio 
l*a])al iip'ijfW'HHioii, ii. 17H 

JliH * LoHHons on Momln,* ii, 


] vabom* btsstowdby biiu upon 

hin works, Ii, 181," IMS 

UIH roinarliH on thu nuirntj^o 

lawn, ii, 184 

Hiw Idler to Mr. Senior on <Jw 

iHtuFrowli I{ovolnti(ui,ii. liK) 

Hm rt'innrlw cm fjond mid evil 

s jtutl tlitj iavofatiou of 
, ii. 101 




Whately, Archbishop, his siijrgres- 
tions for a universal coinage, 
ii. 105 

His interview with Father Ig- 

natius, ii. 198 

His letter to Mrs. Arnold on the 

state of Ireland, ii. 207 

And on the ' Creeds of Chris- 

tendom/ ii 209^ 

His attendance in Parliament 

in 1851, ii, 210 

Harassed by family anxieties, 

ii. 210 

His remarks on mathematics. 

ii. 211 

' And on the Mormonites, 
ii. 211, 212 

Hie letter to the Archbishop of 

Canterbury in reference to 
the Bishop of Exeter's pro- 
ceedings in the Gorham con- 
troversy, ii. 212 

Ilia family circles, ii, 216 

His remarks on the sister- 

hoods at Plymouth and 
Devonport, ii. 218 

His opinions on the Oxford 

University Commission He* 
port, ii. 219 
His controversial works, ii. 


His interest in Protestant mis- 
sions to Ii eland, ii. 230 

His memorandum on Mr. De 

Yere's pamphlet, ii. 232 

Visit from Mr. Senior, ii. 235 

Acts as one of the Lords Jus- 

tices, ii. 249 

His remarks on bigotry and 

prejudice, ii. 253 
His letter to a young man of 

promise, ii. 255 
11 i 'Easy Lessons on the 

British Constitution^ 1 ii. 2S5 

His remarks on Miss Edg- 

worth and Mr. Thackeray, 

Ilia notes on the persecution of 

the Madiai, ii, 257 

His letter to Mr, Senior on 

transportation, ii, 202 

Publishes Iris ' Lessons on the 

British Constitution/ ii. 2CJ2, 

Withdraws from the National 

Education Board, ii. *G4 


"Whately, Archbishop, his letters to 
the Lord-Lieutenant on the 
subject, ii. 2G8, 272, 274, 

His condolence with Dr. Hinds 

in a domestic bereavement, 
ii. 281 

-Urges Mrs. Hill to continue 
her anti-slavery labours, 
ii. 284 

His delight in his grand- 

children, ii. 285 

His remarks on the Jewish 

Emancipation Bill in 1853, 
ii. 286 

His speech on Jewish Eman- 

cipation, ii. 28C 

His letter about botany to Dr. 

Daubeny, ii. 289 

Publishes the ' Hopeful Tracts/ 

ii. 291 

His remarks on his sensitive- 

ness, ii. 294 

-*- His inner life, ii. 297 
* His remarks on the Maynootli 

^rant, ii. 301 

Bis remarks on Prof. Maurice's 

book, ii. 301 

His opinions of homoeopathy, 

ii. 303 * J 

His part in the registration 

and inspection of nunneries, 
ii. 807 

Publishes the remains of Bishop 

Co^leston, ii. 311 

Publishes a rolume of sermons, 

ii. 312 

His remarks on Mr, Senior's 

' Sorrento ' Journal, ii. 317 

His criticism of a review of 

< Uncle Tom's Cabin,' ii. 322 

His letters on slavery, ii. 324, 

328 ; 

Publishes the ' Lessons on 

Morals,' ii. 324 

And Bacon's Espayn, with 

Annotation^ ii, 32i), 337 

His discourse on expounding:, 

ii. 331 - *' 

Attacked by paralysis, ii 


His remarks on partisanship* 

ii. 335 ^ *' 

Death of his brother-in-law, 

the Rev, Henry Bishop, 



Whately, Archbishop, presides in 
the statistical department at 
the meeting of 'the British 
Association in 1857, ti, 340 " ' 

His interest m Dr. Liviug- 

ptone's plans, ii, 34G 

Meets with an accident, ii. 346 

Dangerous illness of his eldest 

grandchild, ii. 351 * 

Ilia thoughts of rehigmition, 

ii. 351 

His lectures on Epypt and on 

Civilisation, ii. 35"J 

His remarks on examinations 

for degrees at Oxford, ii. 353 

Ilia remarks on Antinomian 

viewtf, ii. S55 

His -views as to the Jewish- 

Christian Church, ii, 356 

Visit from Mr. Senior in 1858. 

ii. 357 ^ . 

Conversations with him, ii, 357 

d aeq,, 388 et saq. 

His remarks on grants of books 

to schools not under the Edu- 
cation Board, ii. 373 

His letter to Lord Ebmy on 

liturgical rovibion, ii. 374 

His remarks on the revival 

movement, ii, 370 

Death of his youngest daughter, 

ii. 380 
~ And of Mra Wlwtely, ii. 381 

His health in^lSCD, ii. 884 ^ 

His last viBit to Tunbridge 

Wells, ii, 385 

Suffers from neuralgic gout, 


Visited by Mr, Senior, ii, 388 

And by Ik de Ricci, ii. 400 

His gradual decline, ii. 400 

His last charge, ii. 409 

Progress of his disease, ii. 413 

His last moments and death, 

ii. 419 

Lines on his death, ii. 419 

Recollections of the Rev. 

Hercules Dickinson, ii. 423 

Reminiscences of a friend. 

ii. 438 

Of the writer, 51. 441 

And of the late Edward Senior, 

ii 444 

Quotations from his * Table 

Talk,' ii. 446 

Whatoly, Archbishop, list of hw 
works, ii. 400 

Whatoly, Jowuph Thompami, u tt 

Wlmtely, Thomas hus political posi- 
tion in the l<ust cniturv, i. 2. 
Lottors of Ilutchhttion awl Olhor 
addivwed to him, 1 } . Ilirt * Ks,say 
on Modern (iiirdtMiwp;/ 1*. And 
his ' Ohariwltnv in Shak,sparo/ ft 

Whaicly^ Thonuus, iH'plinw of tho 
abovo, i. 3 

Whatoly, William, tho < ptunt'nl 
proachor 1 of Banbury, i^ L ilirt 
doatli, 8 

Whately, William, his duol with 
Mr, /olm Toiuplo, i. ^ 

Whatoly, William, nephew of tlw 
above, i, 3 

Whatolv, Mrs.,' grandmother of the 
Archbishop, i. 5J 

Whatoly, Mrs., litr tain * Unvoms/ 
i. 47!2. Her edition of ' 'I'al^s of 
tho Genii,' 475, 4 To. Meots with 
an accidciH, -LSI 

WluUolv, RMMH J\I. L,, Iur liagfi'od 
liifo in T'Vvpt,' ii. 411 

White, lfnv.\|. HhnuM^i. 17H, HIH 
rtHi(loii<' with AwhluHhop AVI in in- 
ly, 17s, AppoinitMl Itittir to tho 
Arulrtiinhop's family, 17S, Mni- 
hnuH'.H Hociiiiun vu'WM, tin<l iMtihM 
from tho An-hhishupV* iiuully, ^-iH, 
IVivsimuul by this Archbishop, 
' 240. Lot,tws*io Jiiin on liin H<- 
coasion from tlw Ohurr!h, i?ri() ft 
sty. Tho Ar(*h}tiHhoj>V p'nnvoun 
con com for Mr. Whites wnltitn*. 
884. Ilin cicnth, 4Ha Pnhlinttion 
of the' Li (V of, ii. 3, i^'l 

Widklow, Lord, hi U(rpHtii nt< 
fjrants of Lookri, ii, ft7ft 

Willis, Sherlock, his roininis(M'n<*ortt>r 
Whatoly^ early dayn, i. 17. Ac- 
companies Dr. W r ]m.t( i ly to Uh- 
lin, 114. His tU'tiilcnt at Holy- 
head, 115 

Wit, 3)r, WhatdyX 5. 54 

Work, hard, ronrnvks on, ii, i>M 

Workhouses, purtwcutioiitf <i* I'rtv 
testout otttivorta in, ii, SMH), :Hte5 

ZEAT/ANT), Now, prcmowd plan of 
the coloninntiou of, i. iii)l, 4la 
Translations of Archlwmop Whatu- 
ly'a worjka into Maori, ii, 302 


,.136 736,